Hostname: page-component-6b989bf9dc-vmcqm Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-04-14T07:28:16.724Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Free market economy, ‘developmental state’ and party-state hegemony in Ethiopia: the case of the ‘model farmers’

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 November 2012

René Lefort*
Affiliation:
44 rue Louis Rolland, 92120 Montrouge, France

Abstract

Ethiopia's development strategy rests on the promotion of a market economy, driven by ‘new entrepreneurs’, both urban and rural, while, to bring it to ‘maturity’ and to compensate for its present ‘failures’, the resolute intervention of a ‘developmental state’ is essential. Simultaneously, the ruling party aims to sustain its political hegemony by enrolling massively among those at the top of the social pyramid, to which most of these ‘new entrepreneurs’ belong, so as to build its new constituency on them. In the rural areas (83% of the population), the merger of these two objectives leads to the mobilisation of the upper group of smallholder farmers, recruited both as ‘model farmers’ to become the engine for the growth, notably with the support of a massive public Agricultural Extension Programme, and also as members of the ruling party. However, the subordination of the regime's economic objectives to its political agenda undermines the implementation of its development strategy at the field level. This raises questions about the efficiency of the programme and the room left for entrepreneurship, even though this is a mainstay of the market economy that the regime sees as ‘vital’ for Ethiopia's ‘survival’ (Meles 2006).

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2012

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

REFERENCES

Aalen, L. & Tronvoll, K. 2009. ‘The end of democracy? Curtailing political and civil rights in Ethiopia’, Review of African Political Economy 36, 120: 193207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Abeje Berhanu & Ezana Amdework. 2010. ‘Peasant entrepreneurship and rural poverty reduction: the case of model farmers in Bure Woreda, West Gojjam Zone’, research report, Addis Ababa: Forum for Social Studies.Google Scholar
Agricultural Bureau, n.d. ‘Selection criteria for A, B, C level farmers, and criteria used in selection of awardees’, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia: Agricultural Bureau.Google Scholar
Berhe, A. 2009. A Political History of the Tigray People's Liberation Front (1975–1991). Los Angeles, CA: Tsehai Publishers.Google Scholar
Bevan, P. 2010. ‘The MDG-ing of Ethiopia's rural communities 2003–10: some meso, micro and macro consequences’, draft paper prepared for the Symposium on promoting social inclusion in South Asia: policies, pitfalls and analysis of welfare/insecurity regimes. Oxford: Mokoro.Google Scholar
Capacity Building Office (CBO). 2007. ‘Question of good governance: training manual prepared for peasants of rural kebeles’, internal document. Bahir Dar: Capacity Building Office.Google Scholar
Census 2007. Summary and Statistical Report of the 2007 Population and Housing Census. Addis Ababa: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Population Census Commission, 2008, available online at: www.csa.gov.et/pdf/Cen2007_firstdraft.pdf.Google Scholar
Central Statistical Authority (CSA). 2010. ‘Agriculture-2010’, available at: www.csa.gov.et.Google Scholar
Clapham, C. 2009. ‘Post-war Ethiopia: the trajectories of crisis’, Review of African Political Economy, 36, 120: 181–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davis, K. et al. 2010. ‘In-depth assessment of the Public Agricultural Extension System of Ethiopia and recommendations for improvement’, Discussion Paper 01041, Washington, DC: IFPRI.Google Scholar
Desalegn Rahmato. 2009. The Peasant and the State: studies in agrarian change in Ethiopia 1950s–2000s. Addis Ababa: Addis Ababa University Press.Google Scholar
Desalegn Rahmato. 2011. ‘Land to investors: large-scale land transfers in Ethiopia’, research report, Addis Ababa: Forum for Social Studies.Google Scholar
Ege, S. 1997. ‘The promised land: the Amhara land redistribution of 1997’, Working Papers on Ethiopian Development 12. Dragvoll: Norwegian University of Science and Technology.Google Scholar
Ethiopian Peoples’ Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). 2002. ‘The EPRDF's rural development vision: an overview’, Addis Ababa: Special issue no. 3 of Renewal (Tehadso).Google Scholar
EPRDF. 2006a. ‘Development, democracy and revolutionary democracy’, internal document, widely regarded as written by Meles Zenawi. Addis Ababa: EPRDF.Google Scholar
EPRDF. 2006b. EPRDF Programme, available at: www.eprdf.org.et/EPRDFE/faces/document/document.jsp. Addis Ababa: EPRDF.Google Scholar
EPRDF. 2007. ‘Strategy of revolutionary democracy, tactics and the question of leadership’, internal document, widely regarded as written by Meles Zenawi. Addis Ababa: EPRDF.Google Scholar
International Monetary Fund (IMF). 2011. The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia: joint staff advisory note on the Growth and Transformation Plan 2010/11–2014/15. Washington, DC: Report no. 11/303-ET (IMF).Google Scholar
Kassa, B. 2002. ‘Constraints to agricultural extension work in Ethiopia: the insiders’ view’, South African Journal of Agricultural Extension 31: 6379.Google Scholar
Kassa, B. & Degnet, A.. 2004. ‘Challenges facing agricultural extension agents: a case study form south-western Ethiopia’, African Development Review 16, 1: 139–68.Google Scholar
Lefort, R. 2005. ‘A short survey of the relationship between powers – mengist – and peasants – gebäre – in a peasant community of Northern Shoa’, Nord-Süd Aktuell 2: 211–21.Google Scholar
Lefort, R. 2007. ‘Powers – mengist – and peasants in rural Ethiopia: the May 2005 elections’, Journal of Modern African Studies 45, 2: 253–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lefort, R. 2010. ‘Power – mengist – and peasants in rural Ethiopia: the post 2005 interlude’, Journal of Modern African Studies 48, 3: 435–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meles Zenawi. 2006. ‘African development: dead ends and new beginnings’, internal document. Addis Ababa: EPRDF.Google Scholar
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development (MoFED). 2006. Ethiopia: building on progress: a plan for accelerated and sustained development to end poverty (PASDEP) (2005/06–2009/10). Addis Ababa: MoFED.Google Scholar
MoFED. 2010. Growth and Transformation Plan 2010/11–2014/15 (GTP). Addis Ababa: MoFED.Google Scholar
Negarit Gazeta. 1975. ‘Public Ownership of Rural Lands Proclamation’, Addis Ababa: Negarit Gazeta 34: 26, 29.4.1975.Google Scholar
Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, United Nations (OCHA). 2011. Horn of Africa Crisis. Situation Report no. 13, 8.9.2011. New York: OCHAGoogle Scholar
Pausewang, S. 2002. ‘No environmental protection without local democracy? Why peasants distrust their agricultural advisers’, in Zewde, Bahru & Pausewang, S., eds. Ethiopia: the challenge of democracy from below. Uppsala: Norkiska Afrikainstitutet, 87103.Google Scholar
Planel, S. 2012. ‘Impacts of agricultural extension policy on poverty and food insecurity: a critical approach’, abstract of a forthcoming communication at the 18th International Conference of Ethiopian Studies, Dire Dawa, 29 October–2 November 2012.Google Scholar
Segers, K. et al. 2009. ‘Be like bees – the politics of mobilising farmers for development in Tigray, Ethiopia’, African Affairs 108, 430: 91109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spielman, D. J. et al. 2008. Mobilizing Rural Institutions for Sustainable Livelihoods and Equitable Development: a case study of local governance and smallholder cooperatives in Ethiopia. Washington, DC: IFPRI.Google Scholar
Young, J. 1997. Peasant Revolution in Ethiopia: the Tigray People's Liberation Front 1975–1991. Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar