African Union (AU). 2002. Constitutive Act of the AU. Durban: AU.
African Union (AU). 2007. African Charter on Democracy, Elections and Governance. Addis Ababa: AU.
Agbese P.O. 2004. ‘Soldiers as Rulers: Military Performance’, in Kieh G.K. & Agbese P.O., eds, The Military and Politics in Africa: from engagement to democratic and constitutional control. Aldershot: Ashgate, 57–90.
Agbobli A.K. 1992. Sylvanus Olympio: un destin tragique. Dakar: LivreSud, NEA.
Charlton R. 1983. ‘Predicting African Military Coups’, Futures 15, 4: 281–92.
Checkel J.T. 2012. Norm Entrepreneurship: Theoretical and Methodological Challenges. Memo prepared for a workshop on “The Evolution of International Norms and ‘Norm Entrepreneurship’: The Council of Europe in Comparative Perspective”. Oxford: Wolfson College, University of Oxford.
Clark J.F. 2007. ‘The decline of the African military coup’, Journal of Democracy 18, 3: 141–55.
Collier P. 2008. ‘Let Us Now Praise Coups’, The Washington Post, 22 June.
Collier P. 2009. War, Guns, and Votes: democracy in dangerous places. New York, NY: HarperCollins.
Decalo S. 1976. Coups and Army Rule in Africa. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Engel U. 2010. ‘Unconstitutional Changes of Government – New AU Policies in Defence of Democracy’. Leipzig: Working Paper Series of the Graduate Centre for the Humanities and Social Sciences, 9.
Fearon J. 1991. ‘Counterfactuals and hypothesis testing in political science’, World Politics 43, 2: 169–95.
Finer S.E. 1988. The Man on Horseback: the role of the military in politics. Boulder, CO: Westview.
Finnemore M. & Sikkink K.. 1998. ‘International norm dynamics and political change’, International Organization 52, 4: 887–917.
First R. 1970. The Barrel of a Gun: political power in Africa and the coup d'etat. London: Penguin Press.
Houngnikpo M.C. 2010. Guarding the Guardians: civil-military relations and democratic governance in Africa. Farnham: Ashgate.
Human Rights Watch (HRW). 2009. Bloody Monday: the September 28 massacre and rapes by security forces in Guinea. New York, NY: HRW.
Ikome F.N. 2007. Good coups and bad coups: the limits of the African Union's injunction on unconstitutional changes of power in Africa. Pretoria: Institute for Global Dialogue.
Janowitz M. 1977. Military Institutions and Coercion in the Developing Countries. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Johnson T.H., Slater R.O. & McGowan P. 1984. ‘Explaining African Military Coups d'Etat, 1960–1982’, American Political Science Review 78, 3: 622–40.
Kieh G.K. & Agbese P.O., eds. 2004. The Military and Politics in Africa: from engagement to democratic and constitutional control. Aldershot: Ashgate.
McGowan P.J. 2003. ‘African military coups d'état, 1956–2001: frequency, trends and distribution’, Journal of Modern African Studies 41, 3: 339–70.
McGowan P. & Johnson T.H.. 1984. ‘African military coups d'etat and underdevelopment: a quantitative historical analysis’, Journal of Modern African Studies 22, 4: 633–66.
Miller A.C. 2011. ‘Debunking the Myth of the “Good” Coup d'Etat in Africa’, African Studies Quarterly 12, 2: 45–70.
N'Diaye B. 2009. ‘To ‘midwife’ – and abort – a democracy: Mauritania's transition from military rule, 2005–2008’, Journal of Modern African Studies 47, 1: 129–52.
N'Solé Biteghé M. 1990. Echec aux militaires au Gabon en 1964. Dakar : Editions Chaka.
Onwudiwe E. 2004. ‘Military coups in Africa: a framework for research’, in Kieh G.K. & Agbese P.O., eds. The Military and Politics in Africa: from engagement to democratic and constitutional control. Aldershot: Ashgate, 17–36.
Onwumechili C. 1998. African Democratization and Military Coups. Westport, CT. Praeger.
Organization of African Unity (OAU). 2000. Declaration on the Framework for an OAU Response to Unconstitutional Changes of Government. Lomé: OAU.
Posner D.N. & Young D.J.. 2007. ‘The institutionalization of political power in Africa’, Journal of Democracy 18, 3: 126–40.
Powell J.M. & Thyne C.L.. 2011. ‘Global instances of coups from 1950 to 2010: a new dataset’, Journal of Peace Research 48, 2: 249–59.
Siollun M. 2009. Oil, Politics and Violence: Nigeria's military coup culture (1966–1976). New York, NY: Algora Publishing.
Souaré I.K. 2006. Civil Wars and Coups d'État in West Africa: an attempt to understand the roots and prescribe possible solutions. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
Souaré I.K. 2009 a. ‘Explaining the December 2008 Military Coup d'État in Guinea’, Conflict Trends 1: 27–33.
Souaré I.K. 2009 b. The AU and the Challenge of Unconstitutional Changes of Government in Africa. Occasional Paper, 197. Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies.
Souaré I.K. 2009 c. ‘Mauritania: auto-legitimation of another coup-maker in Africa?’, ISS Today, 14 August, at <www.issafrica.org>, accessed: 20.11.2012.
Sturman K. & Hayatou A.. 2010. ‘The Peace and Security Council of the African Union: from design to reality’, in Engel U. & Porto J., eds. Africa's New Peace and Security Architecture: promoting norms, institutionalizing solutions. Farnham: Ashgate, 57–77.
Thomson W.R. 1973. Grievances of Military Coups-Makers. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
United Nations. 2009. Report of the International Commission of Inquiry Mandated to Establish the Facts and Circumstances of the Events of 28 September 2009 in Guinea. New York: UN - S/2009/693.
Whitehouse B. 2012. ‘The force of action: legitimizing the coup in Bamako, Mali’, Africa Spectrum 47, 2–3: 93–110.
Wiking S. 1983. Military Coups in Sub-Saharan Africa: how to justify illegal assumptions of power. Uppsala: Scandinavian Institute of African Studies.
Williams P.D. 2007. ‘From non-intervention to non-indifference: the origins and development of the African Union's Security Culture’, African Affairs 106, 423: 253–79.
Williams P.D. 2009. ‘The Peace and Security Council of the African Union: evaluating an embryonic international institution’, Journal of Modern African Studies 47, 4: 603–26.
Witt A. 2012. ‘Jointly Working for Democracy? The African Union and unconstitutional changes of government.’ Paper prepared for the DVPW Congress, 24–28 September, Tubingen.