Hostname: page-component-cd4964975-8tfrx Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-03-29T17:32:15.553Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Lower Cambrian (Branchian) trilobites and biostratigraphy of the Hanford Brook Formation, southern New Brunswick

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 May 2016

Stephen R. Westrop
Oklahoma Museum of Natural History and School of Geology and Geophysics, University of Oklahoma, Norman 73072,
Ed Landing
Center for Stratigraphy and Paleontology, New York State Museum. The State Education Department, Albany 12230


The Hanford Brook Formation, one of the classic Cambrian units of Avalonian North America, contains at least eight species of endemic trilobites, including Berabichia milleri Westrop n. sp., that are assigned to seven genera. The vertical succession of faunas is far more complex than has been recognized previously, with each member containing a lithofacies-specific assemblage. These are, in ascending order: a bradoriid-linguloid Association without trilobites in the nearshore St. Martin's Member, a Protolenus Association in dysaerobic siltstones and sandstones of the Somerset Street Member, and a Kingaspidoides-Berabichia Association in hummocky cross-stratified sandstones of the Long Island Member that overlie a parasequence boundary at Hanford Brook. Due to the breakdown of biogeographic barriers in the late Early Cambrian, two new species-based zones, the Protolenus elegans and Kingaspidoides cf. obliquoculatus zones, share trilobite genera with the Tissafinian Stage of Morocco. This generic similarity has been the basis for correlation of this upper Lower Cambrian interval on the Avalon continent with the West Gondwanan lowest Middle Cambrian. However, the clear facies control on the occurrence of genera in the Hanford Brook Formation and the presence of an abrupt faunal break and unconformity at the base of the Tissafinian in Morocco makes this correlation questionable. The Hanford Brook Formation may represent a late Early Cambrian interval unknown in Gondwana. Sequence-stratigraphic criteria even raise the possibility that the Protolenus Association is the biofacies equivalent of Callavia broeggeri Zone faunas of the Brigus Formation of Newfoundland, Nova Scotia and Massachusetts.

Research Article
Copyright © The Paleontological Society

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Ahlberg, P., and Bergström, J. 1978. Lower Cambrian ptychopariid trilobites from Scandinavia. Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning, 49:540.Google Scholar
Alcock, F. J. 1938. Geology of the St. John region, New Brunswick. Geological Survey of Canada Memoir 216, 65 p.Google Scholar
Bassett, M. G., Owens, R. M., and Rushton, A. W. A. 1976. Lower Cambrian fossils from the Hell's Mouth Grits, St. Tudwal's Peninsula, North Wales. Journal of the Geological Society of London, 132:623644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bengtson, S., Conway Morris, S., Cooper, B. J., Jell, P. A., and Runnegar, B. N. 1990. Early Cambrian fossils from South Australia. Association of Australasian Paleontologists, Memoir 9, 364 p.Google Scholar
Brasier, M. D. 1980. The Lower Cambrian transgression and glauconite-phosphate facies in western Europe. Journal of the Geological Society of London, 137:695703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brasier, M. D. 1989. Towards a biostratigraphy of the earliest skeletal biotas, p. 117195. In Cowie, J. W. and Brasier, M. D. (eds.), The Precambrian-Cambrian boundary. Oxford Monographs on Geology and Geophysics, 12.Google Scholar
Chang, W. T., and Jell, P. A. 1987. Cambrian Trilobites of North China. Science Press, Beijing, 459 p.Google Scholar
Cobbold, E. S. 1910. On some small trilobites from the Cambrian rocks of Comley (Shropshire). Quarterly Journal of Geological Society of London, 46:1951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cobbold, E. S. 1931. Additional fossils from the Cambrian rocks of Comley, Shropshire. Quarterly Journal of Geological Society of London, 87:459512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cowie, J. W., Rushton, A. W. A., and Stubblefield, C. J. 1972. A co rrelation of the Cambrian rocks in the British Isles. Geological Society of London, Special Report 2, 42 p.Google Scholar
Davidek, K. L., Landing, E., Bowring, S. A., Westrop, S. R., Rushton, A. W. A., Fortey, R. A., and Adrain, J. M. 1998. New uppermost Cambrian U-Pb date from Avalonian Wales and the age of the Cambrian-Ordovician boundary. Geological Magazine, 135:305309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dean, W. T., and Özgül, N. 1994. Cambrian rocks and faunas, Hüdai area, Taurus Mountains, southwestern Turkey. Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Sciences de la Terre, 64:520.Google Scholar
Egorova, L. I., Shabanov, Yu. Ya., Rozanov, A. Yu., Stavitsky, V. E., Tchernysheva, N. E., and Shishkin, B. B. 1976. Elanka and Kuonamka facies stratotypes of the lower boundary of the Middle Cambrian in Siberia. Nedra, Moscow. 168 p. (In Russian)Google Scholar
Fletcher, T. P. 1972. Geology and Lower to Middle Cambrian trilobite faunas of southeast Avalon, Newfoundland. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Cambridge University, U.K.Google Scholar
Geyer, G. 1990a. Revised Lower to lower Middle Cambrian biostratigraphy of Morocco. Newsletters in Stratigraphy, 22:5370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Geyer, G. 1990b. Die marokkanischen Ellipsocephalidae (Trilobita: Redlichiida). Beringeria, 3:3363.Google Scholar
Geyer, G. and Landing, E. 1995. The Cambrian of the Moroccan Atlas region. Beringeria Special Issue 2:746.Google Scholar
Geyer, G. and Palmer, A. R. 1995. Neltneriidae and Holmiidae (Trilobita) from Morocco and the problem of Early Cambrian intercontinental correlation. Journal of Paleontology, 69:459474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hayes, A. O., and Howell, B. F. 1937. Geology of Saint John, New Brunswick. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 5, 146 p.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Henningsmoen, G. 1959. Family Ellipsocephalidae, p. O207O209. In Moore, R. C. (ed.), Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part O, Arthropoda 1. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, Lawrence.Google Scholar
Hupé, P. 1953. Contribution à l'étude du Cambrien inférieur et du Précambrien III de l'Anti-Atlas marocain. Service géologique du Maroc (Rabat), Notes et Mémoires, 103:1402.Google Scholar
Hutchison, R. D. 1962. Cambrian stratigraphy and trilobite faunas in southeast Newfoundland. Geological Survey of Canada, Bulletin 88, 156 p.Google Scholar
Isachsen, C., Bowring, S. M., Landing, E., and Samson, S. 1994. New constraint on the division of Cambrian time. Geology, 22:496498.2.3.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Khomentovsky, V. V., and Repina, L. N., 1965. The Lower Cambrian of the stratotype section of Siberia. Nauka, Moscow, 200 p. (In Russian)Google Scholar
Lake, P., 1932. A monograph of the British Cambrian trilobites, part VII. Monographs of the Palaeontographical Society, p. 149172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lake, P. 1934. A monograph of the British Cambrian trilobites, part VIII. Monographs of the Paleontographical Society, p. 173196.Google Scholar
Landing, E. 1988. Lower Cambrian of eastern Massachusetts: stratigraphy and small shelly fossils. Journal of Paleontology, 62:661695.Google Scholar
Landing, E. 1991. Upper Precambrian through Lower Cambrian of Cape Breton Island: faunas, paleoenvironments, and stratigraphic revision. Journal of Paleontology, 65:570595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Landing, E. 1992. Lower Cambrian of eastern Newfoundland: epeirogeny and Lazarus faunas, lithofacies-biofacies linkages, and the myth of a global chronostratigraphy, p. 283309. In Lipps, J. H. and Signor, P. W. (eds.), Origin and Early Evolution of the Metazoa. Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Landing, E. 1994. Precambrian–Cambrian boundary ratified and a new perspective on Cambrian time. Geology, 22:179182.2.3.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Landing, E. 1995. Upper Placentian-Branchian Series of mainland Nova Scotia (middle-upper Lower Cambrian): faunas, paleoenvironments and stratigraphic revision. Journal of Paleontology, 69:475495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Landing, E. 1996a. Avalon: insular continent by the latest Precambrian, p. 2963. In Nance, R. D. and Thompson, M. D. (eds.), Avalonian and Related Peri-Gondwanan Terranes of the Circum-North Atlantic. Geological Society of America Special Paper 304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Landing, E. 1996b. Reconstructing the Avalon continent: marginal to inner platform transition in the Cambrian of southern New Brunswick. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 33:11851192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Landing, E. 1998. Avalon and Gondwana—the antepodean dance of two Early Paleozoic continents. Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs, 30(7):A-150.Google Scholar
Landing, E., and Westrop, S. R. 1996. Upper Lower Cambrian depositional sequence in Avalonian New Brunswick. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 33:404417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Landing, E., and Westrop, S. R. 1998a. Cambrian faunal sequence and depositional history of Avalonian Newfoundland and New Brunswick: Field workshop. New York State Museum Bulletin 492:575.Google Scholar
Landing, E., and Westrop, S. R. 1998b. Revisions in stratigraphic nomenclature of the Cambrian of Avalonian North America and comparisons with Avalonian Britain. New York State Museum Bulletin 492:7687.Google Scholar
Landing, E., Nowlan, G. S., and Fletcher, T. P. 1980. A microfauna associated with Early Cambrian trilobites of the Callavia Zone. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 17:400418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Landing, E., Bowring, S. A., Fortey, R. A., and Davidek, K. 1997. U-Pb zircon date from Avalonian Cape Breton Island and geochronologic calibration of the Early Ordovician. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 34:724730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Landing, E., Bowring, S. A., Davidek, K., Westrop, S. R., Geyer, G., and Heldmaier, W. 1998. New U-Pb zircon dates from Avalon and Gondwana and the duration of the Early Cambrian. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 35:329338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Matthew, G. F. 1886. Illustrations of the fauna of the St. John Group, No. 3. Descriptions of new genera and species (including a description of a new species of Solenopleura by J. F Whiteaves). Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, 3:2984.Google Scholar
Matthew, G. F. 1887. Illustrations of the fauna of the St. John Group, No. 4. On the small-eyed trilobites of Division I, with a few remarks on the species of higher divisions of the group. Canadian Record of Science, 2:357363.Google Scholar
Matthew, G. F. 1892a. Protolenus—a new genus of Cambrian trilobites. Bulletin of the Natural History Society of New Brunswick, 10:3437.Google Scholar
Matthew, G. F. 1892b. Development of the fauna of Band b in the Acadian Division (Div 1) of the Saint John Group. Canadian Record of Science, 5:247258.Google Scholar
Matthew, G. F. 1895. TheProtolenus Fauna. Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences, 14:101153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miller, S. A. 1897. Second appendix to North American Geology and Paleontology. Cincinnati, Ohio, p. 719793.Google Scholar
Myrow, P. M., and Landing, E. 1992. Mixed siliciclastic-carbonate deposition in an early Cambrian oxygen-stratified basin. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 62:455473.Google Scholar
Okuneva, O. G., and Repina, L. N. 1973. Biostratigraphy and fauna of the Cambrian of Primorye. Nauka, Moscow. 284 p. (In Russian)Google Scholar
Öpik, A. A. 1975. Cymbric Vale fauna of New South Wales and Early Cambrian biostratigraphy. Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics, Bulletin 159, 78 p.Google Scholar
Orlowski, S. 1964. Middle Cambrian and its fauna in the eastern part of the Holy Cross Mountains. Studia Geologica Polonica, 16:7094.Google Scholar
Orlowski, S. 1985a. Lower Cambrian and its trilobites in the Holy Cross Mountains. Acta Geologica Polonica, 35:231250.Google Scholar
Orlowski, S. 1985b. New data on the Middle Cambrian trilobites and stratigraphy in the Holy Cross Mountains. Acta Geologica Polonica, 35:251262.Google Scholar
Palmer, A. R., and Gatehouse, C. G. 1972. Early and Middle Cambrian trilobites from Antarctica. U.S. Geological Survey, Professional Paper 456-D, 37 p.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Palmer, A. R., and Rowell, A. J. 1995. Early Cambrian trilobites from the Shackleton Limestone of the Central Transantarctic Mountains. Paleontological Society Memoir 45, 28 p.Google Scholar
Pillola, G. L. 1991. Trilobites du Cambrien inférieur du SW de la Sardaigne, Italic Palaeontographica Italica, 78, 173 p.Google Scholar
Pokrovskaya, N. V. 1959. Trilobite fauna and stratigraphy of Cambrian deposits from Tuva. Nauka, Moscow. 199 p. (In Russian)Google Scholar
Rasetti, F. 1972. Cambrian trilobite faunas of Sardinia. Atti Delia Accademia Nazionale Dei Lincei, Memoir, Series 8, 100 p.Google Scholar
Repina, L. N., and Romanenko, E. V. 1978. Trilobites and stratigraphy of the Lower Cambrian of Altai. Siberian Branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Transactions, 382:3304. (In Russian)Google Scholar
Rushton, A. W. A., 1966. The Cambrian trilobites from the Purley Shales of Warwickshire. Monographs of the Palaeontographical Society, 55 p.Google Scholar
Schlotheim, E. F. 1823. Nachträge zur Petrefactenkunde. Zweite Abteilung, Gotha, 114 p.Google Scholar
Sdzuy, K. 1961. Das Kambrium Spaniens. Teil II: Trilobiten, 1. Akademie der Wisseschaften und der Literatur in Mainz, Abhandlungen der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse, 7:499594.Google Scholar
Shaw, A. B. 1950. A revision of several Early Cambrian trilobites from eastern Massachusetts. Journal of Paleontology, 24:577590.Google Scholar
Shu, G. D., Geyer, G., and Zhang, X. L. 1995. Redlichiacean trilobites with preserved soft-parts from the Lower Cambrian Chengjiang fauna (South China). Beringeria, Special Issue 2:203241.Google Scholar
Siveter, D. J., and Williams, M. 1997. Cambrian bradoriid and phosphatocopid arthropods of North America. Special Papers in Palaeontology 57, 69 p.Google Scholar
Šnajdr, M. 1958. Trilobiti Českého stredního kambria. Rozpravy Ústredního ústava geologického, 24, 280 p. (In Czech, with English summary)Google Scholar
Tanoli, S. K., and Pickerill, R. K. 1988. Lithostratigraphy of the Cambrian-Lower Ordovician Saint John Group, southern New Brunswick. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 25:669690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thomas, A. T., Owens, R. M., and Rushton, A. W. A. 1984. Trilobites in British stratigraphy. Geological Society of London, Special Report, 16, 78 p.Google Scholar
Vogdes, A. W. 1893. A classed and annotated bibliography of the Palaeozoic Crustacea 1698–1892 to which is added a catalogue of North American species. Occasional Papers of the California Academy of Sciences, 4:1412.Google Scholar
Vogdes, A. W. 1925. Palaeozoic Crustacea, part II—a list of the genera and subgenera of the Trilobita. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History, 4:87115.Google Scholar
Walcott, C. D. 1890. The fauna of the Lower Cambrian orOlenellus Zone. Tenth Annual Report of the U.S. Geological Survey, 1:509774.Google Scholar
Yin, G. Z., and Lee, S. 1978. Trilobita. Handbook of the paleontology of Southwest China, Guizhou Province, Vol. 1 (Cambrian-Devonian), 385595. Geological Publishing House, Beijing. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
Zenker, J. C. 1833. Palaeozoic Crustacea, part II—a list of the genera and subgenera of the Trilobita. Jena, 67 p. (in German)Google Scholar
Zhang, W. T., Lu, Y. H., Zhu, Z. L., Qian, Y. Y., Lin, H. L., Zhou, Z. Y., Zhang, S. G., and Yuan, J. L. 1980. Cambrian trilobite faunas of southwestern China. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, Series B, 16:1497. (In Chinese with English summary)Google Scholar