Hostname: page-component-8448b6f56d-jr42d Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-04-20T11:53:33.844Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

The smooth, spire-bearing brachiopods after the terminal Ordovician extinction through lower Llandovery in the central Oslo region, Norway

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  16 August 2021

B. Gudveig Baarli*
Affiliation:
Department of Geosciences, Wachenheim Science Center, Williams College, 18 Hoxsey Street, Williamstown, MA01267USA

Abstract

Strata of the Solvik Formation in the central Oslo region (upper Hirnantian to upper Aeronian) are rich in atrypides that elucidate the evolution of this group. A few athyridide brachiopods are also present. Eleven taxa of smooth spire-bearers are described taxonomically using fossils and peels. Among these occur one new genus, Eisaella, and five new species: Eisaella uniplicata, Thulatrypa huangi, T. vikenensis, ?Becscia pentagona, and Shelvothyris bivittata. Atrypides make up 30% (24 genera) of the total brachiopod genera in the Solvik Formation, more than one third of the known global atrypide fauna during that interval. Most are members of the family Lissatrypidae, illustrating the evolution of this group from upper Hirnantian and lower Silurian strata. These show close affinity to each other attesting to ongoing radiation. The new genus Eisaella is a likely ancestor of Lissatrypa, while Meifodia displays a gradual evolution through the formation. Atrypides were most diverse at the base and top of the Solvik Formation due to heterogony in environments and water depth, but were less diverse in the comparatively constant environmental setting of the late Rhuddanian time. The basal assemblages with few atrypides from shallow facies may be compared to the shallow Cathay Fauna of China. Most of the abundant Norwegian atrypide fauna is found in deeper water with few comparable faunas known globally. The Oslo region may have served as a center for the evolution and spread of atrypides immediately following the end-Ordovician glacial drawdown in sea level.

UUID: http://zoobank.org/508dba95-5501-403d-9a4d-deeb324847c9

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of The Paleontological Society

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Aldridge, R., Jeppsson, L., and Dorning, K., 1993, Early Silurian oceanic episodes and events: Journal of the Geological Society, v. 150, p. 501513.10.1144/gsjgs.150.3.0501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alvarez, F., and Rong, J.-Y., 2002, Athyridida, in Kaesler, R.L., ed., Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, pt. H, Brachiopoda (revised) : Lawrence, Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, v. 4, p. H1475H1614.Google Scholar
Alvarez, F., Rong, J.Y, and Boucot, A.J., 1998, The classification of athyridid brachiopods: Journal of Paleontology, v. 72, p. 827855.10.1017/S0022336000027189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baarli, B.G., 1986, A biometric re-evaluation of the Silurian brachiopod lineage Stricklandia lens/S. laevis: Palaeontology, v. 29, p. 187205.Google Scholar
Baarli, B.G., 1987, Benthic faunal associations in the lower Silurian Solvik Formation of the Oslo-Asker districts, Norway: Lethaia, v. 20, p. 7590.10.1111/j.1502-3931.1987.tb00763.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baarli, B.G., 2014, The early Rhuddanian survival interval in the Lower Silurian of the Oslo Region: a third pulse of the end-Ordovician extinction: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 395, p. 2941.10.1016/j.palaeo.2013.12.018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baarli, B.G. 2021a, Survival and recovery atrypid fauna following the terminal Ordovician extinction, the Atrypinae: central Oslo region, Norway: Historical Biology, v. 33, p. 403440.10.1080/08912963.2019.1620228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baarli, B.G., 2021b, Plectatrypinae and other ribbed atrypides succeeding the end Ordovician extinction event, central Oslo region, Norway: Journal of Paleontology, v. 95, p. 75105.10.1017/jpa.2020.69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baarli, B.G., and Harper, D.A., 1986, Relict Ordovician brachiopod faunas in the lower Silurian of Asker, Oslo region, Norway: Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift, v. 66, p. 8797.Google Scholar
Bassett, M.G., Popov, L.E., and Sokiran, E.V., 1999, Patterns of diversification in Ordovician cyrtomatodont rhynchonellate brachiopods: Acta-Universitatis Carolinae Geologica, v. 43, p. 329332.Google Scholar
Bockelie, J.F., Baarli, B.G., and Johnson, M.E., 2017, Hirnantian (latest Ordovician) glaciations and their consequences for the Oslo region, Norway, with a revised lithostratigraphy for the Langøyene Formation in the inner Oslofjorden area: Norwegian Journal of Geology, v. 97, p. 119143.Google Scholar
Boucot, A., Johnson, J, Staton, R., 1964, On some atrypoid, retzioid, and athyridoid Brachiopoda: Journal of Paleontology, v. 38, p. 805822.Google Scholar
Boucot, A.J., Johnson, J.G., and Shagam, R., 1972, Braquiópodos silúricos de los Andes merideños de Venezuela: Boletin de Geologia Publicacion Especial, v. 5, p. 585659.Google Scholar
Calner, M., Bockelie, J.F., Rasmussen, C.M.Ø, Calner, H., Lehnert, O., and Joachimski, M.M., 2021, Carbon isotope chemostratigraphy and sea-level history of the Hirnantian Stage (latest Ordovician) in the Oslo-Asker region, Norway: Geological Magazine p. 132. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0016756821000546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cocks, L.R.M., 2008, The middle Llandovery brachiopod fauna of the Newlands Formation, Girvan, Scotland: Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, v. 6, p. 61100.10.1017/S147720190700226XCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cocks, L.R.M., 2019, Llandovery brachiopods from England and Wales: Monographs of the Palaeontographical Society, v. 172, no. 652, 262 p.10.1080/02693445.2018.1537165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cooper, G.A., 1942, New genera of North American brachiopods: Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, v. 32, p. 228235.Google Scholar
Cooper, G.A., 1956, Chazyan and related brachiopods: Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, v. 127, p. 11245.Google Scholar
Copper, P., 1995, Five new genera of Late Ordovician–early Silurian brachiopods from Anticosti Island, eastern Canada: Journal of Paleontology, v. 69, p. 846862.10.1017/S0022336000035526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Copper, P., 1996, New and revised genera of Wenlock–Ludlow atrypids (Silurian Brachiopoda) from Gotland, Sweden, and the United Kingdom: Journal of Paleontology, v. 70, p. 913923.10.1017/S0022336000038609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Copper, P. 2002. Atrypida, in Williams, A., Brunton, C.H.C., and Carlson, S.J., eds., Brachiopoda, Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology: Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, Lawrence (revised), H4, p. 13761474.Google Scholar
Copper, P., 2004, Silurian (Late Llandovery–Ludlow) Atrypid Brachiopods from Gotland, Sweden and the Welsh Borderland, United Kingdom: Ottawa, NRC Research Press, 215 p.10.1139/9780660190112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Copper, P., and Gourvennec, R., 2018, Evolution of the spire-bearing brachiopods (Ordovician–Jurassic), in Copper, P., and Jin, J., eds., Brachiopods (eBook): Chapter 15, 8 p. https://doi.org/10.1201/9781315138602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Copper, P., and Jin, J., 2014, The revised lower Silurian (Rhuddanian) Becscie Formation, Anticosti Island, eastern Canada records the tropical marine faunal recovery from the end-Ordovician Mass Extinction: Newsletters on Stratigraphy, v. 47, p. 6183.10.1127/0078-0421/2014/0040CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Copper, P., and Jin, J., 2017, Early athyride brachiopod evolution through the Ordovician–Silurian mass extinction and recovery, Anticosti Island, eastern Canada: Journal of Paleontology, v. 91, p. 11231147.10.1017/jpa.2017.74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davidson, T., 1867, A monograph of the British fossil Brachiopoda, the Silurian Brachiopoda: Palaeontographical Society Monographs, v. 7, p. 89168.10.1080/02693445.1867.12113223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davidson, T., 1881, On genera and species of spiral-bearing Brachiopoda, from specimens developed by the Rev. Norman Glass: with notes on the results obtained by Mr. George Maw from extensive washings of the Wenlock and Ludlow shales of Shropshire: Geological Magazine, v. 8, p. 112.10.1017/S0016756800112993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Doyle, E.N., Harper, D.A.T., and Parkes, M.A., 1990, The Tonalee fauna: a deep-water shelly assemblage from the Llandovery rocks of the west of Ireland: Irish Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 10, p. 129143.Google Scholar
Hall, J., and Clarke, J.M., 1893, An introduction to the study of the genera of Paleozoic Brachiopoda: New York State Survey, Albany, Charles van Benthuysen & Sons, p. 318394.Google Scholar
Hallam, A., and Wignall, P. B., 1997, Mass Extinctions and Their Aftermath: Oxford, Oxford University Press, 328 p.Google Scholar
Hammer, Ø., Harper, D.A.T., and Ryan, P.D., 2001, PAST: paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis: Palaeontologia Electronica, v. 4, p. 19. https://palaeo-electronica.org/2001_1/past/past.pdf.Google Scholar
Harper, D.A.T., and Williams, S.H., 2002, A relict Ordovician brachiopod fauna from the Parakidograptus acuminatus Biozone (lower Silurian) of the English Lake District: Lethaia, v. 35, p. 7178.10.1080/002411602317345885CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Havlíček, V., 1968, New brachiopods in the Lower Caradoc of Bohemia: Věstník Ústředního ústavu geologickéo, v. 43, p. 123125.Google Scholar
Havlíček, V., and Mergl, M., 1982, Deep water shelly fauna in the latest Kralodvorian (Upper Ordovician, Bohemia): Věstník Ústředního ústavu geologického, v. 57, p. 3746.Google Scholar
Heim, N.A., and Peters, S.E., 2011, Regional environmental breadth predicts geographic range and longevity in fossil marine genera: PLOS One, 6:e18946. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018946.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Howe, M., 1982, The lower Silurian graptolites of the Oslo region, in Worsley, D., ed., Proceedings IUGS Subcommission on Silurian Stratigraphy Field Meeting, Oslo Region: Paleontological Contributions from the University of Oslo, v. 278, p. 2131.Google Scholar
Huang, B., Baarli, B.G., Zhan, R.B., and Rong, J.Y., 2016, A new early Silurian brachiopod genus, Thulatrypa, from Norway and South China, and its palaeobiogeographical significance: Alcheringa: An Australasian Journal of Palaeontology, v. 40, p. 8397.10.1080/03115518.2016.1092066CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huang, B., Jin, J., and Rong, J.Y., 2018, Post-extinction diversification patterns of brachiopods in the early–middle Llandovery, Silurian: Palaeogeography, palaeoclimatology, palaeoecology, v. 493, p. 1119.10.1016/j.palaeo.2017.12.025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huang, B., Harper, D.A., Zhou, H.H., Zhan, R.B., Wang, Y., Tang, P., Ma, J.Y., Wang, G.X., Chen, D., Zhang, Y.C., and Luan, X.C., 2019, A new Cathaysiorthis (Brachiopoda) fauna from the lower Llandovery of eastern Qinling, China: Papers in Palaeontology, v. 5, p. 537557.10.1002/spp2.1253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnson, M.E., and Baarli, B.G., 2018, Storm tracks predict land-to-sea sediment transfer: erosional patterns from the Upper Ordovician (Hirnantian) in the Oslo region, Norway : The Journal of Geology, v. 126, p. 325342.10.1086/697038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaljo, D., Martma, T., Neuman, B.E., and Rønning, K., 2004, Carbon isotope dating of several uppermost Ordovician and lower Silurian sections in the Oslo Region, Norway, in Hints, O., and Ainsaar, L., WOGOGOB-2004 8th Meeting on the Working Group on the Ordovician Geology of Baltoscandia May 13–18, 2004: Tallinn and Tartu, Estonia, Tartu University Press, p. 151.Google Scholar
Kiær, J., 1902, Etage 5 i Asker (Stage 5 in Asker near Kristiania): Norges Geologisk Undersøkelser Skrifter, v. 34, p. 1112.Google Scholar
Kozlowski, R., 1929, Les brachiopodes gothlandien de la Podolie polonaise: Palaeontologica Polonica, v. 1, p. 1254.Google Scholar
Kulkov, N.P., 1967, Brachiopods and Stratigraphy of the Silurian of the Altai Mountains: Moskva, Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Sibirskoe Otdeleniya Institut Geologii Geofizikii, Nauka, p. 1151. [in Russian]Google Scholar
Lopushinskaya, T., 1965, On new brachiopods from Silurian deposits of Siberian Platform: Trudy Sibirskovo Nauchno-issledovatelskovo Instituta Geologi, Geofiziki i Mineralnovo Sibirya, v. 34, p. 2334. [in Russian]Google Scholar
Marr, J.E., and Nicholson, H.A., 1888, The Stockdale Shales: Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, v. 44, p. 654732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McEwan, E.D., 1939, Convexity of articulate brachiopods as an aid in identification: Journal of Paleontology, v. 13, p. 617620.Google Scholar
M'Coy, F., 1851, On some new Cambro-Silurian fossils: Annals of the Magazine of Natural History, v. 8, p. 387409.10.1080/03745486109494991CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Modzalevskaya, T.L., 1985, Brachiopods of the Silurian and Early Devonian of the European part of the USSR, Athyridida: Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Paleontologicheskii Institut, 128 p. [in Russian]Google Scholar
Modzalevskaya, T.L., 2018, Upper Ordovician–Silurian brachiopods, in Nekhorosheva, L.V., and Sobolevskaya, R.F., eds., The Ordovician, Silurian, and Devonian Stratigraphy and Fauna of Kotelny Island (New Siberian Islands): St. Petersburg, “VNIIOkeangeologia,” p. 6173. [in Russian]Google Scholar
Nikiforova, O., and Andreeva, O., 1961, Stratigraphy of the Ordovician and Silurian of the Siberian platform and its paleontological basis (Brachiopods): Biostratigrafiya Sibirskov Platformy, Leningrad, v. 1, p. 1412. [in Russian]Google Scholar
Patzkowsky, M.E., and Holland, S.M., 1997, Patterns of turnover in Middle and Upper Ordovician brachiopods of the eastern United States: a test of coordinated stasis: Paleobiology, v. 23, p. 420443.10.1017/S0094837300019825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Poulsen, C., 1943, The Silurian faunas of North Greenland II. The fauna of the Offley Island Formation Part II Brachiopoda: Meddelelser om Grønland, v. 72, p. 160.Google Scholar
Rong, J., Xu, H.K., and Yang, X.C., 1974, Silurian brachiopods, in Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, ed., The handbook of Stratigraphy and Paleontology in Southwest China: Beijing, Science Press, p. 195208. [in Chinese]Google Scholar
Rong, J., and Yang, X., 1981, Middle and late Early Silurian brachiopod faunas in southwest China: Memoirs Nanjing Institute of Geology Palaeontology, v. 13, p. 163220. [in Chinese]Google Scholar
Rong, J., Harper, D.A.T., Huang, B., Rongyu, L., Xiaole, Z., and Di, C., 2020, The latest Ordovician Hirnantian brachiopod faunas: new global insights: Earth-Science Reviews, v. 208, 103280. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2020.103280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rybnikova, M.V., 1967, Brachiopod descriptions, in Gailite, L.K., Rybnikova, M.V., and Ulst, R.Zh. [collective authors]: Stratigrafiya, fauna, i usloviya obrazovaniya siluriyskikh porod Srednei Pribaltiki: Riga, Zinatnye, p. 169-221. [in Russian]Google Scholar
Schuchert, C., 1894, A revised classification of the spire-bearing Brachiopoda: American Geologist, v. 13, p. 102107.Google Scholar
Schuchert, C., and Cooper, G.A., 1931, Synopsis of the brachiopod genera of the suborder Orthoidea and Pentameroidea, with notes on the Telotremata: American Journal of Science, v. 22, p. 241251.10.2475/ajs.s5-22.129.241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schuchert, C., and Levene, C.M., 1929, Brachiopoda: Fossilium Catalogus, 1, Animalia, Pars 42: Berlin, Junk, p. 1140.Google Scholar
Sedgwick, A., and M'Coy, F., 1851–1855. A Synopsis of the Classification of the British Palaeozoic Rocks, with a systematic description of the British Palaeozoic fossils in the Geological Museum of the University of Cambridge: Cambridge, University Press, 661 p.Google Scholar
Sheehan, M., 1977, Late Ordovician and earliest Silurian meristellid brachiopods in Scandinavia: Journal of Paleontology, v. 51, p. 2343.Google Scholar
Sowerby, J. de C., 1839, Organic remains, in Murchison, R.I., The Silurian System: London, John Murray, p. 579765.Google Scholar
Štorch, P., and Schoenlaub, H.-P., 2012, Ordovician-Silurian boundary graptolites of the Southern Alps, Austria: Bulletin of Geosciences, v. 87, p. 755768.10.3140/bull.geosci.1350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Temple, J.T., 1970, The lower Llandovery brachiopods and trilobites from Ffridd Mathrafal, near Meifod, Montgomeryshire: Monograph of Palaeontographical Society, v. 124, 76 p.Google Scholar
Temple, J.T., 1987, Early Llandovery brachiopods of Wales: Monograph of the Palaeontographical Society, v. 139, 137 p.Google Scholar
Thomsen, E., and Baarli, B.G., 1982, Brachiopods of the lower Llandovery Sælabonn and Solvik formations of the Ringerike, Asker and Oslo districts, in Worsley, D., ed., Proceedings Field Meeting, Oslo Region: Palaeontological Contributions the University of Oslo, Oslo, v. 278, p. 6378.Google Scholar
Twenhofel, W.H., 1914, The Anticosti Island faunas: Museum Bulletin, Canada Geological Survey, v. 3, p. 135.Google Scholar
Twenhofel, W.H., 1928, Geology of Anticosti Island: Geological Survey of Canada Memoirs, v. 154, p. 1351.Google Scholar
Vaux, F., Trewick, S.A., and Morgan-Richards, M., 2016, Lineages, splits and divergence challenge whether the terms anagenesis and cladogenesis are necessary: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, v. 117, p. 165176.10.1111/bij.12665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Verneuil, E. d., 1845, Palaeontology, brachiopods, molluscs: Géologie de la Russie d'Europe et des Montagnes de l'Oural, v. 2, pt, 3, p. 17395.Google Scholar
Venyukov, P.N., 1899, Die Fauna der silurischen Ablagerungen des Gouvernements Podolien: Materialy Geologiya Rossiya, v. 19, p. 21266.Google Scholar
Waagen, W.H., 1883, Salt Range fossils: Paleontologia Indica, v. 3, p. 391546.Google Scholar
Williams, A., 1951, Llandovery brachiopods from Wales with special reference to the Llandovery District: Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, v. 107, p. 85136.10.1144/GSL.JGS.1951.107.01-04.05CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wright, A.D., 1968, The brachiopod Dicoelosia biloba (Linnaeus) and related species: Arkiv for Zoology. 20, p. 261319.Google Scholar
Zhang, Y.D., Chen, X., Yu, G.H., Goldman, D., and Liu, X., 2007, Ordovician and Silurian rocks of northwest Zhejiang and northeast Jiangxi Provinces, E China: Hefei, University of Science and Technology of China Press, 189 p.Google Scholar