Skip to main content Accessibility help

Ediacaran biota on Bonavista Peninsula, Newfoundland, Canada

  • H. J. Hofmann (a1), S. J. O'Brien (a2) and A. F. King (a3)


Newly found fossils in the Conception and St. John's groups of the Bonavista Peninsula considerably extend the known geographic distribution of the Ediacaran fossils in Newfoundland. They occur in deepwater sediments and are preserved as epireliefs, forming census populations underneath volcanic ash layers throughout a more than 1 km thick turbiditic sequence. the exposed fossiliferous units comprise the Mistaken Point, Trepassey, Fermeuse, and Renews Head formations. the remains are tectonically deformed, with long axes of elliptical discs aligned parallel to cleavage strike; shortening of originally circular bedding surface features is on the order of 30-50% (averaging ~35%).

The assemblage includes Aspidella, Blackbrookia, Bradgatia, Charnia, Charniodiscus, Fractofusus, Hiemalora, and Ivesheadia. These occur throughout the succession, with Aspidella being the most common genus, followed by Charnia and Charniodiscus. Four new taxa are described, with candelabra-like fossils with a Hiemalora-like base referred to Primocandelabrum hiemaloranum n. gen. and sp., bush-like fossils to Parviscopa bonavistensis n. gen. and sp., ladder-like fossils to Hadryniscala avalonica n. gen. and sp., and string-like fossils with basal disc to Hadrynichorde catalinensis n. gen. and sp. the remains also include dubiofossils. The stratigraphic ranges of some taxa on the Bonavista Peninsula are longer than previously reported from the Avalon Peninsula, with Fractofusus spindles present in the Trepassey Formation, Bradgatia, Charnia, Charniodiscus, and Ivesheadia reaching as high as the Fermeuse Formation, and Aspidella extending into the middle of the Renews Head Formation. the spindles in the Trepassey Formation are comparable to those found mainly in the stratigraphically older Briscal Formation on the Avalon Peninsula.



Hide All
Aceñolaza, F. G. and Durand, F. 1973. Trazas fósiles del basamento cristalino del noroeste Argentino. Boletin Asociación Geológica de Córdoba, 2(1-2):4455.
Anderson, M. M. 1978. Ediacaran fauna, p. 146149. In Lapedes, D. N. (ed.), Yearbook of Science and Technology. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.
Anderson, M. M. and Conway Morris, S. 1982. A review, with descriptions of four unusual forms, of the soft-bodied fauna of the Conception and St. John's groups (Late Precambrian), Avalon Peninsula, Newfoundland. Third North American Paleontological Convention, Proceedings, 1:18.
Anderson, M. M. and Misra, S. B. 1968. Fossils found in the Precambrian Conception Group in southeastern Newfoundland. Nature, 220:680681.
Benus, A. P. 1988. Sedimentological context of a deep-water Ediacaran Fauna (Mistaken Point, Avalon Zone, eastern Newfoundland), p. 89. In Landing, E., Narbonne, G. M., and Myrow, P. (eds.), Trace Fossils, Small Shelly Fossils and the Precambrian-Cambrian Boundary. New York State Museum and Geological Survey Bulletin, 463.
Billings, E. 1872. On some fossils from the Primordial rocks of Newfoundland. Canadian Naturalist and Geologist, 6:465479.
Bowring, S. A., Myrow, P., Landing, E., Ramenzani, J., and Grotzinger, J. 2003. Geochronological constraints on terminal Neoproterozoic events and the rise of metazoans. Geophysical Research Abstracts, 5:13219.
Boynton, H. E. 1978. Fossils from the Pre-Cambrian of Charnwood Forest, Leicestershire. Mercian Geologist, 6(4):291296.
Boynton, H. E. 2001. A very large Bradgatia fossil. Mercian Geologist, 15: 130131.
Boynton, H. E. and Ford, T. D. 1995. Ediacaran fossils from the Precambrian (Charnian Supergroup) of Charnwood Forest, Leicestershire, England. Mercian Geologist, 13(4): 165182.
Boynton, H. E. and Ford, T. D. 1996. Ediacaran fossils from the Precambrian (Charnian Supergroup) of Charnwood Forest, Leicestershire, England—revision of nomenclature. Mercian Geologist, 14(1):3.
Brasier, M. and Antcliffe, J. 2004. Decoding the Ediacaran enigma. Science, 305:11151117.
Clapham, M. E. and Narbonne, G. M. 2002. Ediacaran epifaunal tiering. Geology, 30:627630.
Clapham, M. E., Narbonne, G. M., and Gehling, J. G. 2003. Paleoecology of the oldest known animal communities: Ediacaran assemblages at Mistaken Point, Newfoundland. Paleobiology, 29:527544.
Clapham, M. E., Narbonne, G. M., Gehling, J. G., Greentree, C., and Anderson, M. M. 2004. Thectardis avalonensis: A new Ediacaran fossil from the Mistaken Point biota, Newfoundland. Journal of Paleontology, 78:10311036.
Condon, D., Zhu, M., Bowring, S., Wang, W., Yang, A., and Jin, Y. 2005. U-Pb ages from the Neoproterozoic Doushantuo Formation, China. Science, 308:9598.
Conway Morris, S. 1989. Southeastern Newfoundland and adjacent areas, p. 739. In Cowie, J. W. and Brasier, M. D. (eds.), The Precambian-Cambrian Boundary. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
Conway Morris, S. 1990. Late Precambrian—Early Cambrian diversification, p. 3036. In Briggs, D. E. G. and Crowther, P. R. (eds.), Palaeobiology—A Synthesis. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.
Cowie, J. W. and Bassett, M. G. (compilers). 1989. Global stratigraphic chart. Episodes, 12(2). supplement.
Duby, J. E. 1830. Aug. Pyrami de Candolle Botanicon gallicum seu Synopsis plantarum in Flora gallica descriptarum. Editio secunda. Ex herbariis et schedis Candollianis propriisque digestum. Pars secunda plantas cellulares continens. V. Desray, Paris, [I-VI +] 545-1068 + i-lviii p.
De, C. 2003. Possible organisms similar to Ediacaran forms from the Bhander Group, Vindhyan Supergroup, Late Neoproterozoic of India. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 21(4):387395.
Dzik, J. 2003. Anatomical information content in the Ediacaran fossils and their possible zoological affinities. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 43(1): 114126.
Farmer, J., Vidal, G., Moczydlowska, M., Strauss, H., Ahlberg, P., and Siedlecka, A. 1992. Ediacaran fossils from the Innerelv Member (late Proterozoic) of the Tanafjorden area, northeastern Finnmark. Geological Magazine, 129(2): 181195.
Fedonkin, M. A. 1980. New Precambrian Coelenterata in the north of the Russian Platform. Paleontological Journal (English version), 14(2): 110.
Fedonkin, M. A. 1981. Belomorskaya biota Venda (dokembriyskaya besskeletnaya fauna severa Russkoy platformy). Academy of Sciences of the U.S.S.R. Transactions, 342:1100.
Fedonkin, M. A. 1982. A new generic name for some Precambrian coelenterates. Paleontological Journal, 16(2): 127.
Fedonkin, M. A. 1983. Besskeletnaya fauna Podol'skogo Pridnestrov'ya, p. 128139. In Velikanov, V. A., Aseyeva, Y. A., and Fedonkin, M. A. (eds.), Vend Ukrainy. Naukova dumka, Kiev.
Fedonkin, M. A. 1984. Promorfologiya vendskikh Radialia. Promorphology of Vendian Radialia, p. 3058, 125. In Ivanovskiy, A. B. and Ivanov, I. B. (eds.), Stratigraphy and Paleontology of the Earliest Phanerozoic. Nauka, Moscow. (In Russian.)
Fedonkin, M. A. 1985. Sistematicheskoye opisaniye vendskikh Metazoa, p. 70106. In Sokolov, B. S. and Ivanovskiy, A. B. (eds.), Vendskaya sistema 1, istoriko-geologicheskoe i paleontologicheskoe obosnovanie paleontologiya. Volume 1. Nauka, Moscow.
Fedonkin, M. A. 1990. Systematic description of Vendian Metazoa, p. 71120. In Sokolov, B. S. and Iwanovski, A. B. (eds.), The Vendian System. Volume 1. Paleontology. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Fedonkin, M. A. 1992. Vendian faunas and the early evolution of Metazoa, p. 87129. In Lipps, J. H. and Signor, P. W. (eds.), Origin and Early Evolution of the Metazoa. Plenum Press, New York.
Fedonkin, M. A. 1994. Vendian body fossils and trace fossils, p. 370388. In Bengtson, S. (ed.), Early Life on Earth (Nobel Symposium No. 84). Columbia University Press, New York.
Ford, T. D. 1958. Pre-Cambrian fossils from Charnwood Forest. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 3, Pt. 3(8):211217.
Ford, T. D. 1999. The Precambrian fossils of Charnwood Forest. Geology Today, 15:230234.
Gehling, J. G., Narbonne, G. M., and Anderson, M. M. 2000. The first named Ediacaran body fossil, Aspidella terranovica. Palaeontology, 43: 427456.
Gehling, J. G. and Narbonne, G. M. 2007. Spindle-shaped Ediacara fossils from the Mistaken Point assemblage, Avalon Zone, Newfoundland. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 44:367387.
Germs, G. J. B. 1973. A reinterpretation of Rangea schneiderhoehni and the discovery of a related new fossil from the Nama Group, South West Africa. Lethaia, 6:110.
Glaessner, M. F. 1959. Precambrian Coelenterata from Australia. Nature, 183:14721473.
Glaessner, M. F. 1961. Pre-Cambrian animals. Scientific American, 204:7278.
Glaessner, M. F. 1962. Precambrian fossils. Biological Reviews, 37:467494, pl. 461.
Glaessner, M. F. 1979. Biogeography and biostratigraphy: Precambrian, p. 79118. In Robison, R. A. and Teichert, C. (eds.), Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Pt. A, Introduction, fossilization (taphonomy), biogeography and biostratigraphy. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, Lawrence, Kansas, 569 p.
Glaessner, M. F. 1984. The Dawn of Animal Life—A Biohistorical Study. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 244 p.
Glaessner, M. F. and Daily, B. 1959. The geology and Late Precambrian fauna of the Ediacara fossil reserve. Records of the South Australian Museum, 13:369407.
Glaessner, M. F. and Wade, M. 1966. The Late Precambrian fossils from Ediacara, South Australia. Palaeontology, 9:599628.
Grazhdankin, D. V. 2004. Patterns of distribution in the Ediacaran biotas: facies versus biogeography and evolution. Paleobiology, 30:203221.
Gureev, Y. A. 1988. Besskeletnaya fauna venda, p. 6581. In Ryabenko, V. A., Aseeva, E. A., Furtes, V. V., and et al. (eds.), Biostratigrafiya i paleogeograficheskie reconstruktzii dokembriya Ukrainy. Naukova dumka, Kiev.
Gürich, G. 1930. Die bislang ältesten Spuren von Organismen in Südafrika. 15th International Geological Congress, South Africa, 1929, Comptes Rendus:670680.
Hall, J. 1847. Paleontology of New York. State of New York, Albany, 1, 338 p.
Hatschek, Â. 1888. Lehrbuch der Zoologie. Eine morphologische Übersicht des Thierreiches zur Einhrung in das Stadium dieser Wissenschaft. Fischer, Jena, iv + 304 p.
Hayes, A. O. 1948. Geology of the area between Bonavista and Trinity bays, eastern Newfoundland. Geological Survey of Newfoundland, Bulletin 32(Pt. 1):137.
Hofmann, H. J. 1971. Precambrian fossils, pseudofossils, and problematica in Canada. Geological Survey of Canada, Bulletin, 189:1146.
Hofmann, H. J. and Mountjoy, E. W. 1998. New macrofossil occurrence in Neoproterozoic Miette Group (Windermere Supergroup), Western Canada. Inaugural Sprigg Symposium, University of Adelaide, Geological Society of Australia, Abstracts, Volume 51:5.
Hofmann, H. J., Hill, J., and King, A. F. 1979. Late Precambrian microfossils, southeastern Newfoundland, p. 8398. In Current Research, Pt. B, Geological Survey of Canada, Paper 79-1B.
Hofmann, H. J., Narbonne, G. M., and Aitken, J. D. 1990. Ediacaran remains from intertillite beds in northwestern Canada. Geology, 18:11991202.
Ichaso, A. A., Dalrymple, R. W., and Narbonne, G. M. 2007. Paleoenvironmental and basin analysis of the late Neoproterozoic (Ediacaran) upper Conception and St. John's groups, west Conception Bay, Newfoundland. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 44:2541.
Jenkins, R. J. F. 1985. The enigmatic Ediacaran (late Precambrian) genus Rangea and related forms. Paleobiology, 11:336355.
Jenkins, R. J. F. 1992. Functional and ecological aspects of Ediacaran assemblages, p. 131176. In Lipps, J. H. and Signor, P. W. (eds.), Origin and Early Evolution of the Metazoa. Plenum Press, New York.
Jenkins, R. J. F. 1996. Aspects of the geological setting and palaeobiology of the Ediacara assemblage, p. 3345. In Davies, M., Twidale, C. R., and Tyler, M. J. (eds.), Natural History of the Flinders Ranges. Volume 7. Royal Society of South Australia, Richmond, South Australia.
King, A. F. 1980. The birth of the Caledonides: Late Precambrian rocks of the Avalon Peninsula, Newfoundland and their correlatives in the Appalachian-Caledonian orogen, p. 38. In Wones, D. R. (ed.), The Caledonides in the U.S.A. Department of Geological Sciences, Virginia Polytechnical Institute and State University, Memoir 2, Blacksburg, VA.
King, A. F. 1988. Geology of the Avalon Peninsula, Newfoundland (parts of 1K, 1L, 1M, 1N, and 2 C). Newfoundland Department of Mines and Energy, Mineral Development Division, Map 88-01.
King, A. F. 1990. Geology of the St. John's area. Newfoundland Department of Mines and Energy—Geological Survey Branch, Report 90-2:188.
Laflamme, M., Narbonne, G. M., and Anderson, M. M. 2004. Morphometric analysis of the Ediacaran frond Charniodiscus from the Mistaken Point Formation, Newfoundland. Journal of Paleontology, 78:827837.
Laflamme, M., Narbonne, G. M., Greentree, C., and Anderson, M. M. 2007. Morphology and taphonomy of an Ediacaran frond: Charnia from the Avalon Peninsula of Newfoundland, p. 237257. In Vickers-Rich, P. and Komarower, P. (eds.), The Rise and Fall of the Ediacaran Biota. Geological Society, Special Publications, 286, London.
Lamouroux, J. V. F. 1813. Essai sur les genres de la famille des thalassiophytes non articulées, Paris. Annales du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, 20:2147, 115-139, 269-293, Plates 117-113.
Landing, E., Narbonne, G. M., Myrow, P., Benus, A., and Anderson, M. M. 1988. Faunas and depositional environments of the upper Precambrian through lower Cambrian, southeastern Newfoundland, p. 1852. In Landing, E., Narbonne, G. M., and Myrow, P. (eds.), Trace Fossils, Small Shelly Fossils and the Precambrian-Cambrian Boundary. Volume 463. New York State Museum and Geological Survey Bulletin.
Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundam classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, 10th ed.Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae, 824 p.
Lister, A. 1894. A monograph of the Mycetozoa being a descriptive catalogue of the species in the Herbarium of the British Museum. British Museum (Natural History), London, 224 p.
Logan, W. E. 1860. On the track of an animal lately found in the Potsdam Formation. Canadian Naturalist and Geologist, 5(4):279285.
Martin, M. W., Grazhdankin, D. V., Bowring, S. A., Evans, D. A. D., Fedonkin, M. A., and Kirschvink, J. L. 2000. Age of Neoproterozoic bilaterian body and trace fossils, White Sea, Russia: Implications for metazoan evolution. Science, 288:841845.
McIlroy, D., Crimes, T. P., and Pauley, J. C. 2005. Fossils and matgrounds from the Neoproterozoic Longmyndian Supergroup, Shropshire, U.K. Geological Magazine, 142:441455.
McMenamin, M. A. S. 1998. The Garden of Ediacara. Columbia University Press, New York, 295 p.
Misra, S. B. 1969. Late Precambrian (?) fossils from southeastern Newfoundland. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 80:21332140.
Murray, A., and Howley, J. P. 1881. Geological Survey of Newfoundland Reports 1864-1881. Edward Stanford, London, 536 p.
Narbonne, G. M. 1994. New Ediacaran fossils from the Mackenzie Mountains, northwestern Canada. Journal of Paleontology, 68:411416.
Narbonne, G. M. 1998. The Ediacara biota: A terminal Neoproterozoic experiment in the evolution of life. GSA Today, 8:16.
Narbonne, G. M. 2004. Modular construction of early Ediacaran complex life forms. Science, 305:11411144.
Narbonne, G. M. 2005. The Ediacara biota: Neoproterozoic origin of animals and their ecosystems. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 33: 421442.
Narbonne, G. M. and Gehling, J. G. 2003. Life after snowball: The oldest complex Ediacaran fossils. Geology, 31:2730.
Narbonne, G. M., Dalrymple, R. W., and Gehling, J. G. (compilers). 2001. Neoproterozoic fossils and environments of the Avalon Peninsula, Newfoundland. Geological Association of Canada—Mineralogical Association of Canada, Joint Annual Meeting, Field Trip B5, 100 p.
Narbonne, G. M., Dalrymple, R. W., Laflamme, M., Gehling, J. G., and Boyce, W. D. 2005. Life after snowball: Mistaken Point Biota and the Cambrian of the Avalon, Field Trip Guidebook. North American Paleontological Convention 2005, Halifax, Nova Scotia. 100 p.
Nedin, C. and Jenkins, R. J. F. 1998. First occurrence of the Ediacaran fossil Charnia from the southern hemisphere. Alcheringa, 22(3-4):315316.
Newberry, J. S., Torrey, J., and Gray, A. 1857. No. 2. General catalogue of the plants collected on the expedition; 1. Exogenous plants. United States, War Department, Washington, 6590 p.
Nicholson, H. A. 1873. Contributions to the study of the errant annelides of the older Paleozoic rocks. Royal Society of London, Proceedings, 21:288290(also Geol. Mag., 210:309-310).
O'Brien, S. J. and King, A. F. 2002. Neoproterozoic stratigraphy of the Bonavista Peninsula: Preliminary results, regional correlations and implications for sediment-hosted stratiform copper exploration in the Newfoundland Avalon Zone. Newfoundland Department of Mines and Energy—Geological Survey, Report 02-1:229244.
O'Brien, S. J. and King, A. F. 2004a. Ediacaran fossils from the Bonavista Peninsula (Avalon Zone), Newfoundland: Preliminary descriptions and implications for regional correlation. Newfoundland Department of Mines and Energy—Geological Survey, Report 04-01:203212.
O'Brien, S. J. and King, A. F. 2004b. Late Neoproterozoic to earliest Paleozoic stratigraphy of the Avalon Zone in the Bonavista Peninsula, Newfoundland: An update. Newfoundland Department of Mines and Energy—Geological Survey, Report 04-01:213224.
O'Brien, S. J., and King, A. F. 2005. Late Neoproterozoic (Ediacaran) stratigraphy of Avalon Zone sedimentary rocks, Bonavista Peninsula, Newfoundland. Current Research, Newfoundland and Labrador Department of Natural Resources, Geological Report 05-1:101113.
O'Brien, S. J., King, A. F., and Hofmann, H. J. 2006. Lithostratigraphic and biostratigraphic studies on the eastern Bonavista Peninsula: An update. Current Research, Newfoundland and Labrador Department of Natural Resources, Geological Report 06-1:257263.
O'Brien, S. J., O'Brien, B. H., Dunning, G. R., and Tucker, R. D. 1996. Late Neoproterozoic evolution of Avalonian and associated peri-Gondwanan rocks of the Newfoundland Appalachians, p. 928. In Thompson, M. D. and Nance, R. D. (eds.), Avalonian and Related Terranes of the Circum-North Atlantic. Geological Society of America Special Paper, 304.
Peron, F. and Lesueur, C.-A. 1810. Tableau des caractères génériques et spécifiques de toutes les espèces de méduses connues jusqu'à ce jour. Annales du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 14:325366.
Peterson, K. J., Waggoner, B., and Hagadorn, J. W. 2003. A fungal analog for Newfoundland Ediacaran fossils? Integrative and Comparative Biology, 43:127136.
Petrunkevitch, A. 1925. Descriptions of new or inadequately known American spiders. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 18:313322.
Pflug, H. D. 1972. Zur Fauna der Nama-Schichten in Südwest-Afrika. III Erniettomorpha, Bau und Systematik. Palaeontographica, Abteilung A, 139(4-6): 134170.
Retallack, G. J. 1994. Were the Ediacaran fossils lichens? Paleobiology, 20:523544.
Runnegar, B. 1995. Vendobionta or Metazoa? Developments in understanding the Ediacara “fauna”. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Palaläontologie, Abhandlungen, 195(1-3):303318.
Runnegar, B. N. and Fedonkin, M. A. 1992. Proterozoic metazoan body fossils, p. 369388. In Schopf, J. W. and Klein, C. (eds.), The Proterozoic Biosphere—A Multidisciplinary Study. Cambridge University Press, New York.
Sarkar, S., Banerjee, S., and Bose, P. K. 1996. Trace fossils in the Mesoproterozoic Koldaha Shale, Central India, and their implications. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Monatshefte, 1996(7):425438.
Seilacher, A. 1989. Vendozoa: Organismic construction in the Proterozoic biosphere. Lethaia, 22:229239.
Seilacher, A. 1992. Vendobionta and Psammocorallia: Lost constructions of Precambrian evolution. Geological Society of London Journal, 149:607613.
Seilacher, A. and Hemleben, C. 1966. Beiträge zur Sedimentation und Fossilführung des Hunsrückschiefers, Teil 14, Spurenfauna und Bildungstiefe des Hunsrückschiefers. Hessisches Landesamt für Bodenforschung, 94:4053.
Seilacher, A., Grazhdankin, D. V., and Leguota, A. 2003. Ediacaran biota: The dawn of animal life in the shadow of giant protists. Paleontological Research, 7:4354.
Serezhnikova, E. A. 2005. Novaya interpretatziya iskopaemykh otpechatkov Hiemalora iz Vendskikh otlozheniy Olenekskogo podnyatiya (severo-vostok Sibirskoy platformy. [New explanation of Hiemalora fossil prints from Vendian of Olenek Uplift (northeastern Siberian Platform)]. Byulletin Moskovskogo obchestva Ispytateley Prirody, Otdel Geologiya, 80(3):2632.
Sokolov, B. S. 1997. Ocherki stanovleniya venda [Essays on the Advent of the Vendian System]. KMK Scientific Press, Moscow, 156 p.
Sprigg, R. C. 1947. Early Cambrian (?) jellyfishes from the Flinders Range, South Australia. Royal Society of South Australia, Transactions, 71:212224.
Sprigg, R. C. 1949. Early Cambrian ‘jellyfishes’ of Ediacara, South Australia, and Mount John, Kimberley District, Western Australia. Royal Society of South Australia, Transactions, 73:7299.
Stackhouse, J. 1797. Nereis britannica; continens species omnes fucorum in insulis britannicis crescentium: descriptione latine et anglico, necnon iconibus ad vivum depictis… S. Hazard; J. White, Bathoniae [Bath] & Londini [London], Fasc. 2. pp. ixxxiv, 31-70, pls IX-XIII.
Steiner, M. and Reitner, J. 2001. Evidence of organic structures in Ediacara-type fossils and associated microbial mats. Geology, 29:11191122.
Stockwell, C. H. 1964. Fourth report on structural provinces, orogenies, and time-classification of rocks of the Canadian Precambrian Shield, p. 121. In Age determinations and geological studies, Pt. II, Geological Studies. Geological Survey of Canada, Paper, 64–17 (Pt. II).
Thorell, T. 1869. On European spiders, Pt. I, Review of the European genera of spiders, preceded by some observations on zoological nomenclature. Nova Acta Regiae Societatis Scientiarum Upsaliensis, (3) 7:1108.
Vodanyuk, S. A. 1989. Ostatki besskeletnykh metazoa iz khatyspytskoy svity Olenekskogo podnyatiya—aktual'nye voprosy stratigrafii, p. 6174. In Khomentovskiy, V. V. and Sovetov, Y. K. (eds.), Pozdniy dokembriy i ranniy paleozoy Sibiri. Institut geologii i geofiziki Sibirskogo otdelenia Akademii Nauk SSSR, Novosibirsk.
Waggoner, B. 1999. Biogeographic analyses of the Ediacara biota: A conflict with paleotectonic reconstructions. Paleobiology, 25:440458.
Waggoner, B. 2003. The Ediacaran biotas in space and time. Journal of Integrative and Comparative Biology, 43:104113.
Williams, H. and King, A. F. 1979. Trepassey map-area, Newfoundland. Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, 24 p.
Wood, D. A., Dalrymple, R. W., Narbonne, G. M., Gehling, J. G., and Clapham, M. E. 2003. Paleoenvironmental analysis of the late Neoproterozoic Mistaken Point and Trepassey formations, southeastern Newfoundland. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 40:13751391.
Zhuravlev, A. Y. 1993. Were Ediacaran Vendobionta multicellulars? Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen, 190:299314.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Ediacaran biota on Bonavista Peninsula, Newfoundland, Canada

  • H. J. Hofmann (a1), S. J. O'Brien (a2) and A. F. King (a3)


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.