Skip to main content Accessibility help

Europeanisation beyond the European Union: tobacco advertisement restrictions in Swiss cantons

  • Philipp Trein (a1)


This article forges a link between support for European integration and adoption of tobacco advertisement restrictions in Swiss cantons. Leaning on the policy diffusion literature, this article argues that the more voters support deeper European integration, the more likely cantonal governments are to restrict tobacco advertising. Policymakers use voters’ support for more European integration as a signal that they support regulatory policies that are strongly associated with the European Union (EU) in the political and media debate, such as tobacco advertisement bans. This effect ought to be especially strong in the absence of adverse economic interests, such as the presence of the tobacco industry. To buttress these claims, the present article uses statistical analysis, specifically event-history analysis. Apart from the insights about Swiss tobacco control policy, this article contributes to our understanding of indirect EU influence on cantonal policymaking and policy diffusion.



Hide All
Albaek, E., Green-Pedersen, C. and Nielsen, L. B. (2007) Making Tobacco Consumption a Political Issue in the United States and Denmark: The Dynamics of Issue Expansion in Comparative Perspective. Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis: Research and Practice 9(1): 120.
Asare, B., Cairney, P. and Studlar, D. T. (2009) Federalism and Multilevel Governance in Tobacco Policy: The European Union, the United Kingdom, and Devolved UK Institutions. Journal of Public Policy 29(1): 79102.
Beck, N., Katz, J. N. and Tucker, R. (1998) Taking Time Seriously: Time-Series-Cross-Section Analysis With a Binary Dependent Variable. American Journal of Political Science 42(4): 12601288.
Benson, D. and Jordan, A. (2011) What Have We Learned from Policy Transfer Research? Dolowitz and Marsh Revisited. Political Studies Review 9(3): 366378.
Berry, F. S. and Berry, W. D. (1990) State Lottery Adoptions as Policy Innovations: An Event History Analysis. The American Political Science Review 84(2): 395415.
Blecher, E. (2008) The Impact of Tobacco Advertising Bans on Consumption in Developing Countries. Journal of Health Economics 27(4): 930942.
Bochsler, D. and Sciarini, P. (2006) Konkordate und Regierungskonferenzen. Standbeine des horizontalen Föderalismus. Leges 1: 2341.
Bolleyer, N. (2006) Federal Dynamics in Canada, the United States, and Switzerland: How Substates’ Internal Organization Affects Intergovernmental Relations. Publius: The Journal of Federalism 36(4): 471502.
Bolleyer, N. (2009) Intergovernmental Cooperation – Rational Choices in Federal Systems and Beyond. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bornhäuser, A., McCarthy, J. and Glantz, S. A. (2006) German Tobacco Industry’s Successful Efforts to Maintain Scientific and Political Respectability to Prevent Regulation of Secondhand Smoke. Tobacco Control 15(2): e1.
Brandt, A. M. (2004) Difference and Diffusion: Cross-Cultural Perspectives on the Rise of Anti-Tobacco Policies. In Feldman E. A. and Bayer R. (ed.), Unfiltered: Conflicts Over Tobacco Policy and Public Health. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 255276.
Braun, D. and Gilardi, F. (2006) Taking “Galton’s Problem” Seriously: Towards a Theory of Policy Diffusion. Journal of Theoretical Politics 18(3): 298322.
Braun, D. and Trein, P. (2014) Federal Dynamics in Times of Economic and Financial Crisis. European Journal of Political Research 53(4): 803821.
Buckley, J. and Westerland, C. (2004) Duration Dependence, Functional Form, and Corrected Standard Errors: Improving EHA Models of State Policy Diffusion. State Politics & Policy Quarterly 4(1): 94113.
Cairney, P. (2007) Using Devolution to Set the Agenda? Venue Shift and the Smoking Ban in Scotland. British Journal of Politics & International Relations 9(1): 7389.
Cairney, P., Studlar, D. T. and Mamudu, H. M. (2012) Global Tobacco Control: Power, Policy, Governance and Transfer. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Camobreco, J. F. and Barnello, M. A. (2008) Democratic Responsiveness and Policy Shock: The Case of State Abortion Policy. State Politics & Policy Quarterly 8(1): 4865.
Campbell, A., Converse, P. E., Miller, W. E. and Stokes, D. E. (1960) The American Voter. Chicago, IL and London: The University of Chicago Press.
Carter, D. B. and Signorino, C. S. (2010) Back to the Future: Modeling Time Dependence in Binary Data. Political Analysis 18(3): 271292.
Cornuz, J., Burnand, B., Kawachi, I., Gutzwiller, F. and Paccaud, F. (1996) Why Did Swiss Citizens Refuse to Ban Tobacco Advertising? Tobacco Control 5(2): 149153.
Cranmer, M., Petit, R. and Sager, F. (2011) Die argumentative Logik der Tabakmandate des Alten Bern: Eine historische Policy‐Analyse. Swiss Political Science Review 17(4): 432446.
de Francesco, F. (2012) Diffusion of Regulatory Impact Analysis Among OECD and EU Member States. Comparative Political Studies 45(10): 12771305.
Dobbin, F., Simmons, B. A. and Garrett, G. (2007) The Global Diffusion of Public Policies: Social Construction, Coercion, Competition, or Learning. Annual Review of Sociology 33: 449472.
Dolowitz, D. P. and Marsh, D. (1996) Who Learns What from Whom: A Review of the Policy Transfer Literature. Political Studies 44(2): 343357.
Dolowitz, D. P. and Marsh, D. (2012) The Future of Policy Transfer Research. Political Studies Review 10(3): 339345.
Duch, R. and Stevenson, R. (2008) The Economic Vote. How Political and Economic Institutions Condition Election Results. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
Duina, F. and Kurzer, P. (2004) Smoke in Your Eyes: The Struggle Over Tobacco Control in the European Union. Journal of European Public Policy 11(1): 5777.
Falkner, G., Treib, O. and Holzleithner, E. (2008) Compliance in the Enlarged European Union: Living Rights or Dead Letters?. Aldershot: Ashgate.
Fontana, M.-C. (2011) Europeanization and Domestic Policy Concertation: How Actors Use Europe to Modify Domestic Patterns of Policy-Making. Journal of European Public Policy 18(5): 654671.
Freitag, M. and Vatter, A. (2008) Decentralization and Fiscal Discipline in Sub-National Governments: Evidence from the Swiss Federal System. Publius: The Journal of Federalism 38(2): 272294.
Füglister, K. (2012) Where Does Learning Take Place? The Role of Intergovernmental Cooperation in Policy Diffusion. European Journal of Political Research 51(3): 316349.
Gilardi, F. (2010) Who Learns from What in Policy Diffusion Processes? American Journal of Political Science 54(3): 650666.
Gilardi, F. (2013) Transnational Diffusion: Norms, Ideas, and Policies. In Carlsnaes W., Risse T. and Simmons B. (eds.), Handbook of International Relations. Thousand Oaks, CT: Sage, 453477.
Gilardi, F. and Füglister, K. (2008) Empirical Modeling of Policy Diffusion in Federal States: The Dyadic Approach. Swiss Political Science Review 14(3): 413450.
Gilardi, F., Füglister, K. and Luyet, S. (2009) Learning From Others: The Diffusion of Hospital Financing Reforms in OECD Countries. Comparative Political Studies 42(4): 549573.
Gilardi, F. and Wasserfallen, F. (2016) How Socialization Attenuates Tax Competition. British Journal of Political Science 46(1): 4565.
Graham, E. R., Shipan, C. R. and Volden, C. (2013) The Diffusion of Policy Diffusion Research in Political Science. British Journal of Political Science 43(3): 673701.
Gray, V., Lowery, D. and Godwin, E. K. (2007) Public Preferences and Organized Interests in Health Policy: State Pharmacy Assistance Programs as Innovations. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law 32(1): 89129.
Grüner, T., Strünck, C. and Gilmore, A. B. (2008) Puffing Away? Explaining the Politics of Tobacco Control in Germany. German Politics 17(2): 140164.
Hämmerli, M. and Rutz, S. (2014) Der Avenir-Suisse-Freiheitsindex: Aargau bleibt an der Spitze, Avenir Suisse (accessed 29 June 2016).
Hetling, A. and McDermott, M. L. (2008) Judging a Book by its Cover: Did Perceptions of the 1996 US Welfare Reforms Affect Public Support for Spending on the Poor? Journal of Social Policy 37(3): 471487.
Hill, K. Q., Leighley, J. E. and Hinton-Andersson, A. (1995) Lower-Class Mobilization and Policy Linkage in the US States. American Journal of Political Science 39(1): 7586.
Hooker, C. and Chapman, S. (2006) Structural Elements in Achieving Legislative Tobacco Control in NSW, 1955-95: Political Reflections and Implications. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 30(1): 1015.
Jacoby, W. G. (1994) Public Attitudes Toward Government Spending. American Journal of Political Science 38(2): 336361.
Johnson, M., Brace, P. and Arceneaux, K. (2005) Public Opinion and Dynamic Representation in the American States: The Case of Environmental Attitudes. Social Science Quarterly 86(1): 87108.
Joossens, L. and Raw, M. (2007) Progress in Tobacco Control in 30 European Countries, 2005 to 2007. Paper read at 4th European Conference Tobacco or Health, Bern.
Joossens, L. and Raw, M. (2011) The Tobacco Control Scale 2010 in Europe. Brussels: Association of the European Cancer Leagues.
Joossens, L. and Raw, M. (2014) The Tobacco Control Scale 2013 in Europe. Brussels: Associations of European Cancer Leagues.
Keller, R., Radtke, T., Krebs, H. and Hornung, R. (2011a) Der Tabakkonsum der Schweizer Wohnbevölkerung in den Jahren 2001 bis 2010. University of Zurich: Institute for Social and Health Psychology.
Keller, R., Radtke, T., Krebs, H. and Hornung, R. (2011b) Einstellungen der Schweizer Wohnbevölkerung zu Tabakwerbung und Sponsoring (2010). University of Zurich: Institute for Social and Health Psychology.
Kriesi, H.-P. and Trechsel, A. H. (2008) The Politics of Switzerland: Continuity and Change in a Consensus Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kyriss, T., Pötschke-Langer, M. and Grüning, T. (2008) Der Verband der Cigarettenindustrie‚ Verhinderung wirksamer Tabakkontrollpolitik in Deutschland. Gesundheitswesen 70(5): 315324.
Lacey, J. (2014) Must Europe be Swiss? On the Idea of a Voting Space and the Possibility of a Multilingual Demos. British Journal of Political Science 44(1): 6182.
Lee, C.-Y. and Glantz, S. A. (2001) The Tobacco Industry’s Successful Efforts to Control Tobacco Policy Making in Switzerland. University of California, San Francisco: Institut for Health Policy Studies.
Leeflang, P. S. H. and Reuyl, J. C. (1995) Effects of Tobacco Advertising on Tobacco Consumption. International Business Review 4(1): 3954.
Linder, W. (1994) Swiss Democracy. Possible Solutions to Conflict in Multicultural Societies. Houndmills, Basingstoke: MacMillan.
Lopipero, P., Apollonio, D. E. and Bero, L. A. (2008) Interest Groups, Lobbying, and Deception: The Tobacco Industry and Airline Smoking. Political Science Quarterly 122(4): 635656.
Mach, A., Häusermann, S. and Papadopoulos, Y. (2003) Economic Regulatory Reforms in Switzerland: Adjustment Without European Integration, or How Rigidities Become Flexible. Journal of European Public Policy 10(2): 301318.
Maggetti, M. and Gilardi, F. (2016) Problems (and Solutions) in the Measurement of Policy Diffusion Mechanisms. Journal of Public Policy 36(1): 87107.
Manatschal, A. (2011) Taking Cantonal Variations of Integration Policy Seriously – Or How to Validate International Concepts at the Subnational Comparative Level. Swiss Political Science Review 17(3): 336357.
Marmor, T. R. and Liebermann, E. S. (2004) Tobacco Control in Comparative Perspective: Eight Nations in Search of an Explanation. In Feldman E. A. and Bayer R. (eds.), Unfiltered: Conflicts Over Tobacco Policy and Public Health. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 275291.
Marques-Vidal, P., Melich-Cerveira, J., Paccaud, F., Waeber, G., Vollenweider, P. and Cornuz, J. (2010) Opinions on Tobacco Control Policies in Lausanne, Switzerland, 2003–2006. Preventive Medicine 51(2): 193194.
Mayes, R. and Oliver, T. R. (2012) Chronic Disease and the Shifting Focus of Public Health: Is Prevention Still a Political Lightweight? Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law 37(2): 181200.
Mooney, C. Z. (2001) Modeling Regional Effects on State Policy Diffusion. Political Research Quarterly 54(1): 103124.
Nadeau, R. and Lewis‐Beck, M. S. (2001) National Economic Voting in US Presidential Elections. Journal of Politics 63(1): 159181.
Neuman, M., Bitton, A. and Glantz, S. (2002) Tobacco Industry Strategies for Influencing European Community Tobacco Advertising Legislation. The Lancet 359(9314): 13231330.
Nordhaus, W. D. (1975) The Political Business Cycle. Review of Economic Studies 42(2): 169190.
OECD (2011) OECD-Reviews of Health Systems: Switzerland. Paris: OECD Publishing.
OECD and WHO (World Health Organizations) (2006) OECD-Reviews of Health Systems: Switzerland. Paris: OECD Publishing.
Pacheco, J. (2011) Trends: Public Opinion on Smoking and Anti-Smoking Policies. Public Opinion Quarterly 75(3): 576592.
Pacheco, J. (2012) The Social Contagion Model: Exploring the Role of Public Opinion on the Diffusion of Antismoking Legislation Across the American States. The Journal of Politics 74(1): 187202.
Pacheco, J. (2013) Attitudinal Policy Feedback and Public Opinion: The Impact of Smoking Bans on Attitudes Towards Smokers, Secondhand Smoke, and Antismoking Policies. Public Opinion Quarterly 77(3): 714734.
Pierce, J. P., Gilpin, E., Burns, D. M., Whalen, E., Rosbrook, B., Shopland, D. and Johnson, M. (1991) Does Tobacco Advertising Target Young People to Start Smoking?: Evidence from California. Journal of the American Medical Association 266(22): 31543158.
Pierson, P. (1995) Fragmented Welfare States: Federal Institutions and the Development of Social Policy. Governance 8(4): 449478.
Prorok, A. K. and Huth, P. K. (2015) International Law and the Consolidation of Peace Following Territorial Changes. The Journal of Politics 77(1): 161174.
Ritter, C. and Elger, B. S. (2014) Attitudes of Detainees and Prison Staff Towards Tobacco Control Policy in Switzerland: A Qualitative Interview Study. Health Policy 115(1): 104109.
Saffer, H. and Chaloupka, F. (2000) The Effect of Tobacco Advertising Bans on Tobacco Consumption. Journal of Health Economics 19(6): 11171137.
Schimmelfennig, F. (2009) Europeanization Beyond Europe. Living Reviews in European Governance 4(3): 128.
Schneider, S. K. and Jacoby, W. G. (2007) Reconsidering the Linkage Between Public Assistance and Public Opinion in the American Welfare State. British Journal of Political Science 37(3): 555566.
Sciarini, P., Fischer, A. and Nicolet, S. (2004) How Europe Hits Home: Evidence from the Swiss Case. Journal of European Public Policy 11(3): 353378.
Shipan, C. R. and Volden, C. (2006) Bottom-Up Federalism: The Diffusion of Antismoking Policies from U.S. Cities to States. American Journal of Political Science 50(4): 825843.
Shipan, C. R. and Volden, C. (2008) The Mechanisms of Policy Diffusion. American Journal of Political Science 52(4): 840857.
Shipan, C. R. and Volden, C. (2014) When the Smoke Clears: Expertise, Learning and Policy Diffusion. Journal of Public Policy 34(3): 357387.
Simmons, B. A., Dobbin, F. and Garrett, G. (2006) Introduction: The International Diffusion of Liberalism. International Organization 60(4): 781810.
Simmons, B. A. and Elkins, Z. (2004) The Globalization of Liberalization: Policy Diffusion in the International Political Economy. American Political Science Review 98(1): 171189.
Stevenson, R. T. (2001) The Economy and Policy Mood: A Fundamental Dynamic of Democratic Politics? American Journal of Political Science 45(3): 620633.
Studlar, D. T. (1999) Diffusion of Tobacco Control in North America. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 566: 6879.
Studlar, D. T. (2002) Tobacco Control: Comparative Politics in the United States and Canada. Peterborough, ON: Broadview Press.
Studlar, D. T. (2005) The Political Dynamics of Tobacco Control in Australia and New Zealand: Explaining Policy Problems, Instruments, and Patterns of Adoption. Australian Journal of Political Science 40(2): 255274.
Studlar, D. T. (2006a) Tobacco Control Policy Instruments in a Shrinking World: How Much Policy Learning? International Journal of Public Administration 29(4–6): 367396.
Studlar, D. T. (2006b) Unfiltered: Conflicts Over Tobacco Policy and Public Health; Smoke in Their Eyes: Lessons in Movement Leadership from the Tobacco Wars; the Fight Against Big Tobacco: the Movement, the State, and the Public’s Health. Journal of Health Politics Policy and Law 31(2): 395407.
Studlar, D. T. (2010) What Explains the Paradox of Tobacco Control Policy Under Federalism in the U.S. and Canada? Comparative Federalism Theory Versus Multi-Level Governance. Publius 40(3): 389411.
Studlar, D. T., Christensen, K. and Sistari, A. (2011) Tobacco Control in the EU-15: The Role of the Member States in the European Union. Journal of European Public Policy 18(5): 728745.
Toshkov, D. (2013) Policy-Making Beyond Political Ideology: The Adoption of Smoking Bans in Europe. Public Administration 91(2): 448468.
Vatter, A. (2002) Kantonale Demokratien im Vergleich: Entstehungsgründe, Interaktionen und Wirkungen politischer Institutionen in den Schweizer Kantonen. Opladen: Leske & Budrich.
Vatter, A. (2014a) Föderalismus. In Knoepfl P. , Papadopoulos Y. , Sciarini P. , Vatter A. and Häusermann S. (eds.), Handbuch der Schweizer Politik. Zürich: Verlag Neue Züricher Zeitung, 119144.
Vatter, A. (2014b) Kantone. In Knoepfl P. , Papadopoulos Y. , Sciarini P. , Vatter A. and Häusermann S. (eds.), Handbuch der Schweizer Politik. Zürich: Verlag Neue Züricher Zeitung, 245274.
Vatter, A. and Stadelmann-Steffen, I. (2013) Subnational Patterns of Democracy in Austria, Germany and Switzerland. West European Politics 36(1): 7196.
Walker, J. L. (1969) The Diffusion of Innovations Among the American States. American Political Science Review 63(3): 880899.
Yach, D. (2005) Tobacco Control in Finland and Switzerland: Opportunities to Learn About Overcoming Resistance to Change. Sozial- und Präventivmedizin/Social and Preventive Medicine 50(6): 337338.


Related content

Powered by UNSILO
Type Description Title
Supplementary materials

Trein supplementary material
Online Appendix

 Word (40 KB)
40 KB

Europeanisation beyond the European Union: tobacco advertisement restrictions in Swiss cantons

  • Philipp Trein (a1)


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.