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Liquid biomarkers for the management of paediatric neuroblastoma: an approach to personalised and targeted cancer therapy

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  27 February 2020

Ernest Osei*
Affiliation:
Department of Medical Physics, Grand River Regional Cancer Centre, Kitchener, ON, Canada Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada Department of Systems Design Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada Department of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada
Nidaa Al-Ani
Affiliation:
Department of Medical Physics, Grand River Regional Cancer Centre, Kitchener, ON, Canada
Aladdin Al-Asady
Affiliation:
Department of Medical Physics, Grand River Regional Cancer Centre, Kitchener, ON, Canada
Susan Dang
Affiliation:
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada
*Corresponding
Author for correspondence: Ernest Osei, Department of Medical Physics, Grand River Regional Cancer Centre, Kitchener, ON, Canada. E-mail: ernest.osei@grhosp.on.ca

Abstract

Background:

Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumour of infancy and accounts for about 6–10% of paediatric cancers. It has a biologically and clinically heterogeneous behaviour that ranges from spontaneous regression to cases of highly aggressive metastatic disease that could be unresponsive to standard therapy. In recent years, there have been several investigations into the development of various diagnostic, predictive and prognostic biomarkers towards personalised and targeted management of the disease.

Materials and Methods:

This paper reports on the review of current clinical and emerging biomarkers used in risk assessment, screening for early detection and diagnosis, prognostication and monitoring of the response of treatment of neuroblastoma in paediatric patients.

Conclusions:

Tumour markers can significantly improve diagnosis; however, the invasive, unpleasant and inconvenient nature of current tissue biopsies limits their applications, especially in paediatric patients. Therefore, the development of a non-invasive, reliable high accurate and personalised diagnostic tool capable of early detection and rapid response is the most promising step towards advanced cancer management from tumour diagnosis, therapy to patient monitoring and represents an important step towards the promise of precision, personalised and targeted medicine. Liquid biopsy assay with wide ranges of clinical applications is emerging to hold incredible potential for advancing cancer treatment and has greater promise for diagnostic purposes, identification and tracking of tumour-specific alterations during the course of the disease and to guide therapeutic decisions.

Type
Literature Review
Copyright
© The Author(s), 2020. Published by Cambridge University Press

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