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Roman Britain in 1961


Destruction by gravel-working of the successive fort and fortlet at Llystyn, Caernarvonshire (JRS xlviii, 130; L, 210–1) is nearly complete. (a) In the retentura of the fort four further barracks lay each side of the via decumana. The NW and NE gates had double carriageways between flanking towers, like the SE gate, and there were internal angle- and interval-turrets of timber, (b) The fortlet (fig. 10), whose gate lay on the SW, was asymmetrically planned, with a quadrangle SE of the unmetalled axial street and parallel blocks to NW of it.

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* This section (sites explored) is almost entirely the work of Mr. D. R. Wilson, Research Assistant to Professor I. A. Richmond.

page 160 note 1 Not on the SE, as reported in JRS L, 211, where also the cross-measurement of the fort's principia should read 75, not 175, ft.

page 161 note 2 Information from Mr. A. H. A. Hogg, who observed the gravel-working and conducted an excavation for the Ministry of Works; a second (final) interim report has been deposited in the library of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.

page 161 note 3 Nash-Williams, V. E., Roman Frontier in Wales (1954), 40–2.

page 161 note 4 Dr. M. G. Jarrett, who excavated for the Board of Celtic Studies, in ‘Archaeology in Wales, 1961’ (the first Newsletter of CBA Group 2).

page 161 note 5 Known since 1800, but since lost: Carmarthenshire Inventory (RCAM (Wales), 1917), 147.

page 161 note 6 Information from Dr. Jarrett, who excavated the threatened area for the Ministry of Works; report forthcoming in Carm. Antiq.

page 161 note 7 Haverfield, F., Military Aspects of Roman Wales (1910), 60–1; Nash-Williams, o.c. (n. 3), 68–9.

page 162 note 8 Information from Dr. Jarrett, who excavated for the Board of Celtic Studies.

page 162 note 9 Catalogue of Coins of the Roman Empire I (British Museum, 1923), Claudius I, no. 68.

page 162 note 10 Information from Mr. G. C. Boon of the National Museum of Wales; report forthcoming in Monm. Antiq. and Bull. Bd. of Celtic Studies.

page 162 note 11 Crawford, O. G. S., Topography of Roman Scotland (1949), 41–4.

page 162 note 12 Excavation by the Perthshire Soc. of Nat. Science (Archaeological Section), directed by Miss A. S. Robertson and Mr. D. B. Taylor; summary report, Discovery and Excavation, Scotland 1961, 40–1.

page 163 note 13 Summary report by Professor I. A. Richmond, ibid., 40.

page 163 note 14 By the Strathallan School Arch. Soc. directed by Mr. R. E. Birley, who sent details.

page 163 note 15 Crawford, o.c. (n. 11), 58.

page 163 note 16 Excavated for the Inspectorate of Ancient Monuments by Mr. I. Maclvor; summary report, Discovery and Excavation, Scotland 1961, 55.

page 163 note 17 G. Macdonald, JRS IX, 126–32; Crawford, o.c. (n. 11), 10–15.

page 163 note 18 Excavation before destruction by gravel-working directed by Dr. N. McCord for the Inspectorate of Ancient Monuments; summary report, Discovery and Excavation, Scotland 1961, 55.

page 163 note 19 For the plan cf. Balmuildy, where, however, the buttressed storehouse is a secondary feature: Macdonald, G., The Roman Wall in Scotland 2 (1934), 317.

page 163 note 20 Called a granary in JRS LI, 161.

page 163 note 21 Excavation by Mr. and Mrs. A. Rae with members of the Moray House College of Education for the Corporation of the City of Edinburgh, which is to display the excavated buildings in a garden at Cramond House. Information sent by Mr. Rae; report forthcoming in Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot.

page 163 note 22 Cut by the Fife County Schools Easter Camp, under supervision.

page 164 note 23 JRS XXIX, 201; Miller, S. N. (ed.), Roman Occupation of South-West Scotland (1952), pl. XXXVIII.

page 164 note 24 JRS XXVIII, 171; Miller (ed.), o.c. (n. 23), pl. XLIV–XLIX.

page 164 note 25 Summary report by MrMaxwell, G. S., Discovery and Excavation, Scotland 1961, 37.

page 164 note 26 By Dr. J. K. S. St. Joseph; summary report, ibid., 35.

page 164 note 27 cf. Bar Hill: Macdonald, o.c. (n. 19), 273.

page 164 note 28 Information and plan from Mr. C. M. Daniels, who directed the excavation for the Dumfriesshire and Galloway Nat. Hist. Soc. and the Durham University Excavation Committee.

page 164 note 29 By Mr. R. E. Birley; report forthcoming in Arch. Ael. 4 XL.

page 164 note 30 Arch. Ael. 4 VIII (1931), 189, 202–4; IX, 217–9.

page 164 note 31 By Messrs. J. D. Leach and J. Wilkes for the Durham University Excavation Committee; report forthcoming, ibid. XL. For three inscriptions see nos. 15–17 below, pp. 193–4.

page 164 note 32 Closely comparable with that of periods I and II in Building 14.

page 164 note 33 Arch. Ael. 2 XXV (1904), 240–1.

page 164 note 34 Information from the excavator, Mr. Birley, whose report will appear in Arch. Ael. 4

page 165 note 35 Information from Mr. J. P. Gillam, who directed the excavation for the Durham University Excavation Committee.

page 165 note 36 Directed by Mr. J. W. Thornbarrow for the S. Shields Arch, and Hist. Soc.

page 165 note 37 Westmorland Inventory (RCHM, 1936), 144–6.

page 165 note 38 Information from Miss D. Charlesworth, who excavated here, and also at Papcastle and Hardknot Castle in Cumberland, on behalf of the Ministry of Works.

page 165 note 39 For other traces of buildings in the Foregate St. area see Chester Arch. Journ. (n.s.) XXVII (1928), 93–102, 182, pl. XXVI; XXXIII (1939), 64–116, pl. XV; JRS XLVII (1957), 208. For a stamped tile see no. 39 below, p. 197, and for a graffito no. 51, p. 198.

page 165 note 40 Thompson, F. H., Deva: Roman Chester (1959), 38, fig. 9.

page 165 note 41 Information from Mr. F. H. Thompson of the Grosvenor Museum, who directed the excavations for the Ministry of Works.

page 165 note 42 Proc. Leeds Phil, and Lit. Soc. (Lit. and Hist. Section) IX, 110–11, fig. 5c.

page 165 note 43 ibid. II, 237, fig. 2.

page 165 note 44 Information from Mr. B. R. Hartley, who directed the excavation for Leeds University.

page 165 note 45 Observed by Mrs. J . S. Wacher; plan by courtesy of Mr. Wacher.

page 166 note 46 Yorks. Arch. Journ. XL, 5.

page 166 note 47 Information from Miss Charlesworth, who excavated for the Ministry of Works. For a graffito see no. 48 below, p. 198.

page 166 note 48 Information from Mr. P. Wenham, the excavator. For stamped tiles of the Sixth and Ninth Legions see nos. 36 and 38 below, p . 197.

page 166 note 49 Eburacum: Roman York (RCHM, 1962), 3.

page 167 note 50 Yorks. Evening Press, 5th August, 1961.

page 167 note 51 Yorks. Evening Post, 19th August, 1961.

page 167 note 52 By Mr. I. M. Stead for the Ministry of Works.

page 167 note 53 The hoard is being examined in the British Museum and a detailed report will appear in Num. Chron. 1962. Information from Mr. R. A. G . Carson of the British Museum.

page 167 note 54 It is hoped to re-erect both portions of the fountain in the garden of the Usher Art Gallery. Information and photographs were sent by Mr. D. F. Petch on behalf of the Lincoln Arch. Research Committee.

page 167 note 55 By Mr. and Mrs. W. T. Jones for the Ministry of Works; information sent by Mrs. Jones.

page 168 note 56 Information from Mrs. H. E. O'Neil, who excavated for the Ministry of Works. For an inscribed slab from Ancaster see no. 7 below, p. 192.

page 168 note 57 Arch. Journ. XCI (1934), 169.

page 168 note 58 Information from Mr. E. Greenfield, who excavated on behalf of the Ministry of Works.

page 168 note 59 For other Midland roads see under Castor, Northants, (p. 169) and Chesterton, Warwicks (p. 711). For a road in Kent see under Boughton (p. 190).

page 168 note 60 Excavated by the Wrekin (previously Wellington) Arch. Group; summary report by Mr. J. A. Pagett in ‘W. Midlands Annual Arch. News-sheet’ no. 4 (1961), 8.

page 168 note 61 Margary, I. D., Roman Roads in Britain I (1955), 159–60. Excavation by the Rugby Arch. Group; summary report by Messrs. J. R. Foster and H.Cameron in ‘W. Midlands Annual Arch. News-Sheet’ no. 4 (1961), 7.

page 168 note 62 Excavated by the Shrewsbury Roman Research Group; information from Dr. A. W. J. Houghton.

page 168 note 63 For kilns in East Anglia see under Witton, Norfolk (p. 176) and Lakenheath, Suffolk (p. 178).

page 168 note 64 JRS XIV (1924), 228; Antiq. Journ. V (1925), 285–7; Trans. Worcs. Arch. Soc. XXXII (1955), 65.

page 168 note 65 Excavated by the Malvern Research Group; summary report by Mr. P. L. Walters in ‘W. Midlands Annual Arch. News-Sheet’ no. 4 (1961), 6.

page 168 note 66 Atkinson, D., Excavations at Wroxeter 1923–7 (1942), 298; ‘its commonness at Wroxeter strongly suggests a local origin.’

page 168 note 67 Excavated by the Shrewsbury Roman Research Group; information from Dr. Houghton.

page 169 note 68 Information sent by Mrs. B. R. Hartley, who directed the excavation for the Ministry of Works.

page 169 note 69 Vict. Co. Hist. Northants I (1901), 171; Vict. Co. Hist. Hunts I (1926), 231.

page 169 note 70 Information from Mr. B. R. Hartley, who directed excavations for the Water Newton Excavation Committee.

page 169 note 71 Excavated by the Woolhope Club; summary report by Mr. S. C. Stanford in ‘W. Midlands Annual Arch. News-Sheet’ no. 4 (1961), 8.

page 169 note 72 Excavated by the Hereford Research Group; summary report by Miss M. Thomas and Mr. F. G. Heys, ibid., 5.

page 169 note 73 By the Archenfield Arch. Group.

page 169 note 74 The iron spearhead and coins (JRS LI, 171, n. 81, and 172, fig. 20) came from the W flue.

page 170 note 75 Information and drawings were sent by Mr. N. P. Bridgewater.

page 170 note 76 T. Wright, Uriconium (1872), 122.

page 170 note 77 Information from Mr. G. Webster, who directed excavation by the Wroxeter Training School.

page 170 note 78 Trans. Shropshire Arch. Soc. LVI (1957–9), 133–7.

page 170 note 79 Excavation by the Shrewsbury Roman Research Group. Information and photograph from Dr. Houghton through the kind offices of Professor J. M. C. Toynbee.

page 170 note 80 JRS XLVI, 131; Birmingham Arch. Soc. Trans. LXXV (1957), 24–9. For the baths see JRS XLVII, 212; Birmingham Arch. Soc. Trans, LXXIV, 12–29.

page 170 note 81 Excavation by the Lichfield Arch, and Hist. Soc.; report forthcoming in Birmingham Arch. Soc. Trans.; summary report by Mr. J. T. Gould, who also sent drawings, in ‘W. Midlands Annual Arch. News-Sheet’ no. 4 (1961), 6.

page 170 note 82 Vict. Co. Hist. Staffs 1 (1908), 192; JRS xxii (1932), 206.

page 171 note 83 Information from Mr. Webster, who directed the excavation for the Ministry of Works.

page 171 note 84 Excavated by the Coventry and District Arch. Soc.; summary report by Mrs. M. and Brian Stanley in ‘W. Midlands Annual Arch. News-Sheet’ no. 4 (1961), 4.

page 171 note 85 Vict. Co. Hist. Warwicks I (1904), 234–5; Birmingham Arch. Soc. Trans. XLIX (1923), 58–60.

page 172 note 86 Information from Mr. Webster, who directed emergency excavation before road-widening.

page 172 note 87 By Mr. M. G. Hebditch for the City of Leicester Museums; information and plan sent by Mr. T-D. Clarke.

page 172 note 88 Kenyon, K. M., Jewry Wall Site, Leicester (1948), 23, 38.

page 172 note 89 By Mr. E. Greenfield for the Ministry of Works.

page 172 note 90 The long measurement is E–W, not N–S as previously reported (JRS LI, 175).

page 173 note 91 cf. R. E. M., and Wheeler, T. V., Lydney Park (1932), pl. XXIX, no. 137.

page 173 note 92 cf. Antiquities of Roman Britain 2 (British Museum, 1958). fig. 31, no. 9, and cf. Barkway (Herts), Vict. Co. Hist. Herts iv (1914), 149.

page 173 note 93 JRS XLIX, 123; Norfolk Arch, XXXII (1960), 142–62.

page 173 note 94 The quarry itself stands over the county boundary in Lincolnshire.

page 173 note 95 cf. also the furnace at Colsterworth, Lines., near Ermine Street, 7½ miles NW of Pickworth: Antiq. Journ. XII (1932), 263–8; XIII, 166–7; Arch. Journ. XCI (1934), 127.

page 173 note 96 Both excavated kilns have been removed for archaeomagnetic investigation by Dr. M. Aitken; the large quantity of slag and the meagre pottery also await definitive reports.

page 173 note 97 Information and photograph sent by Mr. I. M. Smith, who excavated with Messrs. Grimwood and Stevenson.

page 173 note 98 Antiq. Journ. XXXVII (1957), 71, and forthcoming.

page 174 note 99 Information and plans sent by Mr. E. Greenfield, who directed the excavation for the Ministry of Works.

page 174 note 100 Vict. Co. Hist. Northants I (1902), 218.

page 174 note 101 Information from Mr. Greenfield, who excavated for the Ministry of Works.

page 174 note 102 In 1959 the E side of the gate was located, 40 ft. to the S of the position inferred in JRS XLVIII, 138, fig. 13. The sequence was (a) first-century hutbase with Romanizing Belgic pottery, (b) ditch, gradually filled with rubbish and finally levelled off with gravel and (c) town-wall with second-century Castor ware and Anitonine Samian in the foundation-trench.

page 174 note 103 JRS XLVIII, 138, fig. 13. For an account of the defences as known up to 1960 see Proc. Cambridge Antiq. Soc. LIV, 68–82 with map.

page 175 note 104 Information and plan sent by Mr. C. Green, who directed the work for the Ministry of Works.

page 176 note 105 Information from the excavators, Messrs. A. R. Hands and A. C. C. Brodribb. The site was already known (see Vict. Co. Hist. Oxon I (1939), 319). A small bronze bull's head from an escutcheon is published in Antiquity xxxvi (1962), 219 f.

page 176 note 106 Information from Mr. R. A. G. Carson of the British Museum; a full report will appear in Num. Chron. 1962. The hoard, complete with pot, has been acquired as treasure trove by the Verulamium Museum.

page 176 note 107 cf. JRS XLVIII, 141, for the Claudian date.

page 176 note 108 Grenier, A., Manuel d' archéologie gallo-romaine 1 (1931). 569, fig.223.

page 176 note 109 Directed by Dr. J. Alexander.

page 176 note 110 Information from Miss J. Liversidge of the University Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology.

page 176 note 110a Material now in Norwich Museum; information from Mr. R. R. Clarke.

page 176 note 111 Excavation directed by Mr. A. P. Baggs for Norwich Museum.

page 176 note 112 By Dr. R. M. Cook; information from Mr. R. R. Clarke.

page 176 note 113 The outer edge of the large ditch was seen by Mr. C. Green in an unpublished excavation a short distance NE of site E.

page 176 note 114 Information and plan sent by Mr. J. A. Ellison, who directed the excavation for the Ministry of Works.

page 176 note 115 Margary, I. D., Roman Roads in Britain I (1955), 230.

page 176 note 116 The Wilton diadems (JRS XLVII, 211) were found 2½ miles E of this site on the further side of Hockwold-cum-Wilton.

page 176 note 117 Directed for the Ministry of Works by Dr. P. Salway, who sent information and a plan of the cropmarks.

page 178 note 118 Information from Lady Briscoe by courtesy of Mr. N. Smedley.

page 178 note 119 Suffolk Inst. Arch. Proc. XXIV (1947), 105.

page 178 note 120 First seen; in 1958: ‘Bulletin no. 5 of Arch. Discoveries for 1958’ (CBA Regional Group 7).

page 178 note 121 Norfolk Arch. v (1859), 153.

page 178 note 122 The external radius is 25¼ ft., rather than 18 ft. as in Suffolk Inst. Arch. Proc. XXIV, 103, and Arch. Journ. CVI (1949), 68.

page 178 note 123 Information from Mr. C . Green, who excavated for the Ministry of Works. The glass has been placed on indefinite loan in the British Museum.

page 178 note 123a Information from Mr. N . Smedley, of Ipswich Museum.

page 178 note 124 Information from Professor C. F . C. Hawkes, who excavated with Mr. B. Blake for the Colchester Excavation Committee. Professor Hawkes also completed for the Ministry of Works his exploration of the pre-Roman dykes in the sector S of Dugard Avenue; a full report on the exploration of the Colchester dykes from 1932 to 1961 is in preparation for the Society of Antiquaries.

page 178 note 125 Professor W. F. Grimes, director of the excavations of the Roman and Medieval London Excavation Council, sent details of nos. 2b (St. Swithin) 3, ii (Lawrence Lane) and vi a and b (Paternoster Row). For the rest we are indebted to Mr. Norman Cook and his staff at the Guildhall Museum.

page 178 note 126 Roman London (RCHM 1928) 83, no. 5, pl. 23; 89, no. 25.

page 178 note 127 It was found also E of Birchin Lane in 1935 (JRS XXVI, 254).

page 179 note 128 Roman London, 110; , Plan A 109–113.

page 179 note 129 Roman London 120, Plan A; Arch. LX (1906), 219.

page 179 note 130 Information from Mr. Merrifield, of the Guildhall Museum, who is examining the hoard.

page 179 note 131 This stream resulted from the junction of two found in 1908–9 to N of Newgate St. (Arch. LXIII (1912), 275, 282, pl. XLVII) on the site of the present G.P.O., 150 and 200 ft. E of Newgate.

page 179 note 132 Information from Mr. F. Celoria, of the London Museum. An account of the finds will be published in the London and Middlesex Arch. Soc. Transactions.

page 179 note 133 Directed for the Ministry of Works by Mrs. M. U. Jones, to whom we are indebted for the information. A circular space, 10 ft. in diameter, containing a single post-hole off-centre and surrounded by ditches successively recut and widened to a final diameter of 50 ft., is not dated and is enigmatical.

page 180 note 134 By Mrs. H. E. O'Neil, on behalf of the City Museum and the Gloucester Research Committee.

page 180 note 135 Information from Mr. Alan Hunter (now at Canterbury Museum), the excavator for the City Museum

page 181 note 136 Identified by Professor J. M. C. Toynbee.

page 181 note 137 By the Extra-Mural Department of Birmingham and Bristol Universities, a joint project Birmingham and Bristol Universities, a joint project for training advanced students in archaeology, under the direction of Mr. Graham Webster.

page 181 note 138 By Mr J. S. Wacher for the Cirencester Excavation Committee.

page 181 note 139 By Mr. R. Reece.

page 181 note 140 What was known of the streets before 1920 is shown on a plan of the town illustrating Professor Haverfield's article in Arch., LXIX (1920), pl. XI, and on p. 195 he mentions the possibility of a fort, suggested by the discovery in 1835 and 1836 of two military tombstones in Watermoor meadow in the southern area of the town.

page 182 note 141 An interim report on both (a) and (b) by Mr. Wacher has now been published in Antiq. Journ. XLII, I ff. We are indebted to him and to the Society of Antiquaries for plans and photographs. For earlier discoveries in Ashcroft see Arch, LXIX, 176, nos. 16–23, and JRS XLII (1952), 98.

page 182 note 142 Information from Captain H. S. Gracie, R.N., who carried out the excavation.

page 182 note 143 Information from P. Rahtz, who carried out a small excavation for the City of Bristol Museum. For the earlier discovery, see Clifton Antiq. Club Proc. 111 (1893), 21.

page 182 note 144 Hayward, L. C., Som. Arch, and N.H. Soc. Proc. XCVII (1952), 91 ff. and plan.

page 184 note 145 Information from Mr. L. C. Hayward, the director of the excavation for Yeovil School, Yeovil High School and Yeovil Archaeological and Local History Societies.

page 184 note 146 Information and plan from Lady (Aileen) Fox, who with Dr. W. Ravenhill directed the excavationfor the Devon Archaeological Exploration Society and the Devon Association.

page 184 note 147 A SW late Iron-Age type dated to the first century A.D., see Fox, AileenRoman Exeter (1952), 80 ff.

page 184 note 148 Information from Miss Mary-Jane Mountain, who directed the excavation for the Ministry of Works.

page 185 note 149 Information from the excavator, Mr. G.Webster.

page 185 note 150 Directed for the Dorset Nat. Hist, and Arch. Soc. by Mr. C. J. Bailey and Mrs. G. M. Aitken; information from Mrs. Aitken. For a graffito see no. 52 below, p. 190.

page 185 note 151 By Messrs. F. K. Annable and A. J. Clark for the Wilts Arch, and Nat. Hist. Soc.; information from Mr. Annable.

page 185 note 152 Directed by Mr. M. Biddle, who sent information.

page 185 note 153 Excavated by Mr. A. T. Morley Hewitt, who sent information and photographs.

page 185 note 154 Arch., LIII (1893), 563–8, fig. 4; Vict. Co. Hist. Hants. 1 (1900), 277 ff., 364 ff.; Haverfield, F. and Macdonald, G., Roman Occupation of Britain (1924), 207, fig. 43.

page 188 note 155 Vict. Co. Hist. Sussex III (1935), 56.

page 188 note 156 By Mr. B. Cunliffe for Chichester Civic Society's Excavation Committee; an interim report has now appeared in Antiq. Journ. XLII, to which we are indebted for illustrations.

page 189 note 157 For the plan see S. E. Winbolt and G. Herbert, The Roman Villa at Bignor, Sussex (1930); Vict. Co. Hist. Sussex III, 21, fig.

page 189 note 158 Information from the excavator, Mr. S. S. Frere.

page 189 note 159 Full report by Mr. R. H. M. Dolley, Miss M. A. O'Donovan and Dr. J. P. C. Kent will appear in Num. Chron. British Museum.

page 189 note 160 For a general plan see Arch. Cant, LXXIII (1959) 37, fig. 15.

page 189 note 161 Excavation was directed for the Gravesend Hist. Soc. by Mr. W. S. Penn, who sent information and photographs.

page 190 note 162 Once thought to be a mithraeum: Vict. Co. Hist. Kent III (1932), 109–10; Arch. Cant, LXX (1956), 168–71. Cf. also the cellar near Whitstable, described below.

page 190 note 163 By Mr. A. F. Allen for the Gravesend and Shorne Historical Societies, and by Mr. D. E. Johnston, who sent information and drawings, for the Ministry of Works.

page 190 note 164 Vict. Co. Hist. Kent III, 149.

page 190 note 165 Of which a hypocaust was excavated by Mr. Allen.

page 190 note 166 Excavation and resistivity survey directed by Mr. F. Jenkins, who sent information.

page 190 note 167 Information from Mr. Jenkins, who directed excavation for the Stour Valley Research Group of the Canterbury Arch. Soc.

page 190 note 168 Partly excavated in 1945–6 (Arch. Cant. LXI, 1–45; JRS XXXVII, 177) and in 1958 (Arch. Cant. LXXIII, xlv; JRS XLVI, 135). Excavation was completed by Mr. Jenkins for the Canterbury Arch. Soc.

page 190 note 169 The coins were examined by Mr. Carson of the British Museum.

page 190 note 170 Observed by Mr. Jenkins.

page 190 note 171 Vict. Co. Hist. Kent III (1932), 65; JRS XVLI, 144.

page 190 note 172 Information from Mr. B. J. Philp, who directed the excavation for the Reculver Excavation Group.

page 190 note 1 When measurements are quoted the width precedes the height.

page 190 note 2 Found at a depth of about 25 ft. below the presentroad-surface and beneath cellar-level in the material filled in above a comparatively modern sewer at the northern point of the triangular site bounded by High Holborn, Barter Street, and Bloomsbury Court (map ref. TQ 30358153). The Co-operative Permanent Building Society has presented it to the British Museum. Mr. K. S. Painter provided details: see his article in Ants. Journ.

Mr. S. E. Ellis, of the Department of Mineralogy of the British Museum, judges that the rock comes from an area of Jurassic or Tertiary rocks, probably in Northern France or Southern England.

page 190 note 3 For burials near this road-line, see RCHM London III, 165, for Southampton Row and Proc. Soc. Ant. 2 II (1864), 376, RCHM London III, 165, for the N part of Endell Street, about 340 yds. SSW of the site.

page 191 note 4 The lettering, 1·8 in. high, is carefully cut. Although the use of the full formula Dis Manibus usually occurs in the first century, the extensive use of ligatures may suggest a later date. Ligatures occur on two tombstones (EE IX, 1047, 1057) of Leg. II, Adiutrix, which was transferred to the Danube by A.D 86 on the monumental inscription form Benwell, , JRS XXVIII, 1938, 200, pl. XXXIII; AA 4; XIX (1941), 19, pl. IV, set up by A. Platorius Nepos ther are no fewer than four ligatures, and second-century inscriptions from Birrens have several ligatured letters, e.g. EE IX, 1230, set up in or shortly after A.D. 158, and CIL VII, 1074. A curved form for the tombstone of L. Duccius Rufinus of leg VIIII, which antedates A.D. 122 (CIL VII, 243, York) (and also has two ligatures), and on slabs from the Antonine Wall e.g. CIL VII, 1136, Macdonald Roman Wall in Scotland (ed. 2) 387, pl. LXVIII; and CIL VII, 1139, Macdonald, ibid., 403, pl. LXXIII.

Professor E. Birley proposed the conjecture here adopted for the restoration of 1.5. The legion in question may have been leg. 11 Aug., leg. VI Victr., or leg. xx V.V.

In 1. 4 the origo of the deceased is given as Victricensis, a title accorded to Colchester (Camulodunum) in the second-century text, CIL XIV, 3955 (ILS 2740).

page 191 note 5 Miss Peters, of Colerne, presented it to the Roman Baths Museum. Miss I. E. Anthony sent details, and later Mr. M. B. Owen, through the Spa Director, provided a photograph and made the relief available to the present writer.

page 191 note 6 For a nomen Ing., expanded by Huebner to Ing(enuio), see CIL VII, 1070, JLS 7316 (Birrens). For the name Fabillus see Script. Hist. Aug., Maximinus, 27, 3.

page 191 note 7 Mr. W. J. Wedlake, for the Camerton Excavation Club, made the plaque available. Grid ref. ST 822769.

page 191 note 8 See above, n. 7. Professor K. Jackson (to Miss M. V. Taylor, 6th Sept., 1958) confirms that ‘Cunomaglos, a compound of *cuno- and *maglo-, means Hound-Prince, “hound” having honorific force in Celtic. The Primitive Breton Conomaglus is the same’, cited in K. Jackson Language and history in early Britain 182. For Maglocunus, giving the same elements in reverse order, see V. E. Nash-Williams, Early Christian Monuments in Wales 197, no. 353 and Jackson, ibid., 182. The name Iutos occurs in Iutumarus (CIL III, 5522), and as quoted by Professor Jackson, in Iutuccus (CIL XIII, 5788).

page 191 note 9 Now in Bridport Museum; sent by the Town Clerk of Bridport for study. See Webster, G.Dorset Nat. Hist. & Archaeol. Soc. Proc. LXXX (1960), 100, fig. 9, no. 45, p. 104; for the site JRS L (1960), 232.

page 192 note 10 Found by Mr. E. Greenfield in excavations undertaken for the Ministry of Works at Black Holme, Thistleton (map ref. SK 910171). Miss S. A. Butcher has provided photographs and Mr. Green field a report of the excavation.

page 192 note 11 The interpretation of the verb is due to Professor I. A. Richmond.

page 192 note 12 The Rector of Ancaster granted access to Mr. D. F. Petch, who provided details and a squeeze.

page 192 note 13 For the stem of Trenico there is a Dobunnian Trenus cited on a diploma (CIL XVI, no. 49). Holder (Altcelt. Sprachsch.) cites nine examples of -ico for men's names. Professor K. Jackson concurs in ‘lively’, ‘vigorous’, or ‘virile’ as the probable translation of Viridios, but says that certainty is unattainable as there are no derivatives in medieval or modern Celtic languages.

page 192 note 14 Now in Lincoln Museum; Mr. D. F. Petch provided full details and a photograph, reproduced as pl. XXVIII, I, and made the slab available for drawing. Grid ref. TF 012754.

page 192 note 15 For the second element see Nemetona, worshipped with Mars at Bath (CIL VII, 36; ILS 4586a) and Altrip (CIL XIII, 6131, ILS 4586). The cognomen of the dedicator suggests a native, or possibly libertine, origin. The nomen is rare; presumably his family received citizenship from L. Neratius Marcellus, governor of Britain in A.D. 103.

page 192 note l6 Mr. G. Welster reported this discovery made by a student and provided a squeeze and a fine photograph, from which the above reading is taken.

page 193 note 17 Mr. G. C. Boon consulted the present writer before making a full-scale drawing as the basis for resetting the reconstruction of ll. 1–4 in the National Museum of Wales, Cardiff.

page 193 note 18 Excavated for Leeds University by Mr. B. R. Hartley, who sent details and a squeeze.

page 193 note 19 Professor E. Birley (to R.P.W., 21st March, 1961), sent this interpretation with the full extract from Bulmer, T. F., History, Topography, and Directory of Westmoreland (1885), 164. He suggested that the stone was presumably robbed from the fort in or shortly after 1862, when Scarth, H. M. (Gent. Mag. 1862, ii, 181) showed that stone-robbing was in progress. For the fort see RCHM Westmorland, 215.

page 193 note 20 Mr. J. W. Thornborrow, for South Shields Arch, and Hist. Soc., made the stone accessible. For the excavation see Thornborrow, J. W., University of Durham Gazette, 19th Feb., 1962, p. 8.

page 193 note 21 Found by Mr. C. Anderson in conservation carried out by the Ministry of Works, and stored by the same authority.

page 193 note 22 EE VII, 1023, set up by turm (a) L. A. Fani, adds on the side t (urma) L A F | p(er) val(lum) | p(edes) CXIII. Although it was recorded as having come from Chesters, Haverfield noted, from Tailford's information, that the latter had excavated it at a point 50 yds. W of Brunton turret (26b).

page 193 note 23 Mr. J. Wilkes gave details of provenance; see his report in Arch. Ael. forthcoming. Drawn by the present writer, who owes to Professor I. A. Richmond the restoration here propounded.

page 193 note 24 For l. 3 the unit stationed at Housesteads under Hadrian is as yet unknown. L. 4 may have included the tribune's name. For the use of a pelta on a Hadrianic stone, of Platorius Nepos at Benwell, see JRS XXVII (1937), 247. As the slab, once 16 in. high, would with this text have been about 6 ft. long, it may well have crowned the main entrance of an important building.

page 194 note 25 Now in Housesteads Museum. Excavated by Mr. J. Wilkes; Mr. J. D. Leach made the suggestion that the fragment belonged to the Severan inscription, CIL VIII, 700a; EE IX, 1184, adjacent items, 1, 2; JRS XXII (1932), 226, no. II, which has a cable mould along the top. The first three fragments are in Chesters Museum, 1926 Catal. nos. 206, 207, 208, and the fourth is in Housesteads Museum.

page 194 note 26 Excavated by Mr. J. Wilkes; now in Housesteads Museum.

page 194 note 27 By Mr. W. Barnard, relief custodian at Housesteads. Details provided by Mr. C. Anderson; drawn by the present writer. For another unofficial stone, reading CIVILIS, from the same sector see CIL VII, 677.

page 194 note 28 Found in conservation carried out by the Ministry of Works, and stored by the same authority. Mr. C. Anderson provided details of discovery; for (c), however, no distance was recorded. The inscriptions are worn and have been drawn by the present writer. For Volusenus see Caesar BG IV, 21; CIL XI, 1442, 5995, 6011. For Caledonius Secundus, of coh. VI, see JRS L (1960), 237, no. 11(b), found 155 ft. W of Turret 45a, and two other instances, JRS XXV (1935), 224; EE VII, 1077.

page 194 note 29 Found in conservation carried out by the Ministry of Works; Mr. C. Anderson gave details of provenance. Drawn by the present writer. Horsley's drawing of >P[ … | SERE[ … (Horsley 217, Northd. XXIX; CIL VII, 613) can now be restored from this new text.

page 194 note 30 Found by Mr. J. Baxter and presented to Carlisle Museum by the Hon. Michael Eden. Drawn by the present writer; Professor E. Birley provided details, restoration and a provisional drawing.

page 194 note 31 Hippo Regius (now Bône) was a ‘municipium’ in Africa Proconsularis.

page 195 note 32 This stone, now in the Durham University Excavation Committee's hut at Corbridge, was drawn by the present writer on 12th June, 1958. Exhaustive inquiries have failed to discover its provenance. It is formed of buff sandstone from Northymberland or eastern Cumberland. The archaeological activities likely to have produced this piece cover, in the relevant period, the area from Corbridge to Birdoswald.

page 195 note 33 Found by Mr. A. T. Morley Hewitt, who provided a squeeze, a photograph and details, and granted access to it in his museum at West Park.

page 195 note 34 For Tetricus II alone see ILS 567. There were three Tetricus I inscriptions at Bitterne, Hants: (a) CIL VII, 1150; EE IX, 1249; JRS XLI, 1951, 141; (b) CIL VII, 1151; EE IX, 1250; (c) CIL VII, 1150 (Englefield's text), note to EE IX, 1250.

page 195 note 35 JRS L (1960), 238 no. 13a, b. The upper part of this stone, which carried the names of the Emperor, has broken off; the surviving portion, 46 in. high, carries the last two letters of his name and his titles.

The present writer has now been able to examine the stone. It has two adjacent flat faces, and the rest of the circumference is rounded. The wider, or right-hand, face is grey and appears to have been quarried off the rock along the bedding-plane. The narrower face, which is rougher, because it is formed from the edges of several laminations, seems to represent a natural joint. Its brown colour, like that of the rounded back, is due probably to the percolation of oxygen-rich water. When the stone was re-used it was inverted (as Mr. A. H. A. Hogg has suggested in his preliminary report in Caernarvonshire Hist. Soc. Trans, XXII (1961), 8) as the text, which occupies 25 in., begins only 6 in. from the unbroken end of the stone.

page 195 note 36 For other milestones of Postumus see JRS XII (1922), 281, no. 9 (Breage, Cornwall), JRS XXVII (1937) 248 (Margam, Glam.), CIL VII, 1161, with EE IX, p. 635 (Trecastle Hill. Carm.).

page 195 note 37 This solution was proposed by Professor I. A. Richmond. Cf. CIL XII, 4218, for a tripartite name, Dinomogetimarus, associated with Mars.

page 195 note 38 JRS XLVII (1957), 230. The originals have now been examined by the present writer. For the name Triferna see CIL XV, 2467.

page 195 note 39 See Charlton, J. M. T., North Staffs Journal of Field Studies I (1961), p. 45, fig. 6, nos. 25–8, p. 47. Now in the Borough Museum, Newcastle-under-Lyme; the Curator sent (a)–(c) for study, but (d) was not available.

page 196 note 40 First noticed in 1961 by Mr. K. S. Painter. The name Flaetio seems unmatched. For Suffolk material exhibited at Thetford in 1866 by H. Prigg, jun., see Quarterly Journal of Suffolk Institute of Archaeology I, pt. I (1869), 3.

page 196 note 41 Found with a second pewter vessel and some mid-fourth-century pots sealed in a large jar by an inverted ‘mortarium’ (Arch, LX, 1907, 439, fig. 3), and now in Newport Museum. Graffito first noticed in 1961 by Mr. G. C. Boon; Mr. C. Barnett sent the original for inspection.

page 196 note 42 Mr. Boon (to R.P.W., 9th Nov., 1961) notes that Cabrol-Leclercque Dict. d'arch. chrét., s.v. chrisme places the earliest examples of the chrism with latinized R in the last decades of the fourth century in Gaul. E. le Blant, Inscr. chrét. de la Gaule I p. 352, no. 247, pl. 26, no. 160, cites one instance on a sarcophagus which contained a coin of Magnus Maximus (A.D. 383–6); on p. 384, n. 2, he cites examples on marble of the confusion in reverse where P represents the Roman R, e.g. CAPVS for CARVS.

page 196 note 43 Now in Norwich Castle Museum. Drawn by the present writer after information from Dr. D. B. Harden, who cited a parallel from the same mould from Baden (Switzerland), CIL XIII, 10025, 175.

page 196 note 44 Birley, E., CW 2 LXI (1961), 298, cites the record of Simpson, Canon J., CW 1 I (18661874), 9, who said it was ‘now or lately in the possession of Mr. [Robert] Addison’. Its whereabouts are now unknown.

page 196 note 45 Now in the Yorkshire Museum, York.

page 196 note 46 Mr. A. T. Morley Hewitt sent this item and no. 33 (below) for inspection.

page 196 note 47 The plaster is in Leicester Museum, and is being cleaned by Mrs. J. S. Wacher, who made it accessible to the present writer.

page 197 note 48 Arch. Camb. CVIII (1959), pl. XXI (a) 3. Mrs. L. Murray Threipland sent it for inspection.

page 197 note 49 The excavator, Mr. L. P. Wenham, furnished full details. The present writer hesitates to assign the stamps to known types until an analytical study of the tile-stamps from York has been completed. For (a) see CIL VII, 1223, s; JRS XLII (1953), 130, no. 13.

page 197 note 50 Mr. R. E. Birley gave details and made the whole group available for study.

page 197 note 51 See no. 36 (above).

page 197 note 52 Now in the Grosvenor Museum, Chester, where Mr. F. H. Thompson made it available. For the same stamp found in 1950 in Goss St. see JRS XLI (1951), 143, no. 15, d.

page 197 note 53 Now in Gloucester City Museum. Mr. A. G. Hunter sent casts and details, including a graffito, no. 58 (below).

page 198 note 54 See above, no. 40. For this type see Mrs. Clifford, JRS XLV (1955), 72, pl. XV, no. 17; Wright, , JRS XLVI (1956), 149, no. 23.

page 198 note 55 See above, no. 37.

page 198 note 56 Mr. F. B. Ryan, of Westcliff-on-Sea, sent the sherd and details.

page 198 note 57 Altcelt. Sprachsch., s.v.

page 198 note 58 Found by a schoolboy, Master R. Smalley, on a dump of upcast, and now in his possession; drawn by the present writer.

page 198 note 59 Now in the Corinium Museum; Mr. D. Atkinson sent it and no. 55 (below) for study. See Miss K. M. Richardson, Antiqs. Journ. forthcoming.

page 198 note 60 Now in the Newcastle Museum of Antiquities. Sent by the excavator, Mrs. C. Woodfield, for study. Holder Altcelt. Sprachsch., cites the name Moelagnus from an ogam inscription.

page 198 note 61 Retained by the schoolboy, Robert Clarke, who found it; sent by Mr. A. J. H. Gunstone for study.

page 198 note 62 Excavated for the Ministry of Works by Miss D. Charlesworth, who sent it for study. For the masculine name Μαθθᾶς at Palmyra see Corp. Inscr. Graec. III, 4479, 4502.

page 198 note 63 Now in the Newcastle Museum of Antiquities. Dr. D. J. Smith, who excavated it, submitted it.

page 198 note 64 Sent by Mr. S. S. Frere. For ground-plan see Antiquity, Sept., 1949.

page 198 note 65 Now in the Grosvenor Museum, Chester. Mr. F. H. Thompson gave details and made it available.

page 199 note 66 Mrs. Aitken sent the sherds on behalf of the Dorset Archaeological Society. The lettering in 1. 2, somewhat larger than that in 1. 1, is ill-placed in relation to 1. 1, and may be by a different hand.

page 199 note 67 Part of the Arnold collection acquired about 1905 by the Gravesend Historical Society, whose Hon. Curator, Mr. E. W. Tilley, sent it for study.

page 199 note 68 See item 43 (above).

page 199 note 69 See above, n. 59.

page 199 note 70 Sent by Mr. S. S. Frere. Lettering on this type of bowl is not known to the present writer.

page 199 note 71 Now in the Yorkshire Museum, York. MissRichardson, K. M., Arch. Journ. CXVI (1959), p. 54, fig. 12, 20; p. 73.

page 199 note 72 See above, n. 53.

page 199 note 73 Found in the excavation by H.M. Ministry of Works; submitted by Mr. J. S. Wacher.

page 199 note 74 Information from the Hon. Curator, Mr. F. W. Kuhlicke.

page 199 note 75 Information from Mr. G. Webster.

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