Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 14
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Arruñada, Benito 2016. How Rome enabled impersonal markets. Explorations in Economic History, Vol. 61, p. 68.


    BOLT, JUTTA and HILLBOM, ELLEN 2016. Long-term trends in economic inequality: lessons from colonial Botswana, 1921-74. The Economic History Review,


    Erdkamp, Paul 2016. Economic growth in the Roman Mediterranean world: An early good-bye to Malthus?. Explorations in Economic History, Vol. 60, p. 1.


    Stark, Barbara L. Boxt, Matthew A. Gasco, Janine González Lauck, Rebecca B. Hedgepeth Balkin, Jessica D. Joyce, Arthur A. King, Stacie M. Knight, Charles L.F. Kruger, Robert Levine, Marc N. Lesure, Richard G. Mendelsohn, Rebecca Navarro-Castillo, Marx Neff, Hector Ohnersorgen, Michael Pool, Christopher A. Raab, L. Mark Rosenswig, Robert M. Venter, Marcie Voorhies, Barbara Williams, David T. and Workinger, Andrew 2016. Economic growth in Mesoamerica: Obsidian consumption in the coastal lowlands. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, Vol. 41, p. 263.


    Milanovic, Branko 2015. THE LEVEL AND DISTRIBUTION OF INCOME IN MID-EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY FRANCE, ACCORDING TO FRANÇOIS QUESNAY. Journal of the History of Economic Thought, Vol. 37, Issue. 01, p. 17.


    Roine, Jesper and Waldenström, Daniel 2015.


    Bolt, Jutta and van Zanden, Jan Luiten 2014. The Maddison Project: collaborative research on historical national accounts. The Economic History Review, p. n/a.


    Milanovic, Branko 2014. The Return of “Patrimonial Capitalism”: A Review of Thomas Piketty'sCapital in the Twenty-First Century†. Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. 52, Issue. 2, p. 519.


    Bang, Peter Fibiger 2012. The Encyclopedia of Ancient History.


    FOLDVARI, PETER and VAN LEEUWEN, BAS 2012. COMPARING PER CAPITA INCOME IN THE HELLENISTIC WORLD: THE CASE OF MESOPOTAMIA. Review of Income and Wealth, Vol. 58, Issue. 3, p. 550.


    Gotsis, George N. and Merianos, Gerasimos 2012. Early Christian Representations of the Economy: Evidence from New Testament Texts. History and Anthropology, Vol. 23, Issue. 4, p. 467.


    Milanovic, Branko Lindert, Peter H. and Williamson, Jeffrey G. 2011. Pre-Industrial Inequality*. The Economic Journal, Vol. 121, Issue. 551, p. 255.


    Ober, Josiah 2011. Wealthy Hellas. The Journal of Economic Asymmetries, Vol. 8, Issue. 1, p. 1.


    Smil, Vaclav 2011. Harvesting the Biosphere: The Human Impact. Population and Development Review, Vol. 37, Issue. 4, p. 613.


    ×
  • Journal of Roman Studies, Volume 99
  • 2009, pp. 61-91

The Size of the Economy and the Distribution of Income in the Roman Empire*

  • Walter Scheidel (a1) and Steven J. Friesen (a2)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3815/007543509789745223
  • Published online: 01 March 2010
Abstract

Different methods of estimating the Gross Domestic Product of the Roman Empire in the second century C.E. produce convergent results that point to total output and consumption equivalent to 50 million tons of wheat or close to 20 billion sesterces per year. It is estimated that élites (around 1.5 per cent of the imperial population) controlled approximately one-fifth of total income, while middling households (perhaps 10 per cent of the population) consumed another fifth. These findings shed new light on the scale of economic inequality and the distribution of demand in the Roman world.

Copyright
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Journal of Roman Studies
  • ISSN: 0075-4358
  • EISSN: 1753-528X
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-roman-studies
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: