Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Efficiency of the CATIE and BACS neuropsychological batteries in assessing cognitive effects of antipsychotic treatments in schizophrenia


Efficient and reliable assessments of cognitive treatment effects are essential for the comparative evaluation of procognitive effects of pharmacologic therapies. Yet, no studies have addressed the sensitivity and efficiency with which neurocognitive batteries evaluate cognitive abilities before and after treatment. Participants were primarily first episode schizophrenia patients who completed baseline (n = 367) and 12-week (n = 219) assessments with the BACS (Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia) and CATIE (Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness) neuropsychological batteries in a clinical trial comparing olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone. Exploratory factor analysis revealed that performance on both batteries was characterized by a single factor of generalized cognitive deficit for both baseline performance and cognitive change after treatment. Both batteries estimated similar levels of change following treatment, although the BACS battery required half the administration time. Because a unitary factor characterized baseline cognitive abilities in early psychosis as well as cognitive change after treatment with atypical antipsychotic medications, short batteries such as the BACS may efficiently provide sufficient assessment of procognitive treatment effects with antipsychotic medications. Assessment of cognitive effects of adjunctive therapies targeting specific cognitive domains or impairments may require more extensive testing of the domains targeted to maximize sensitivity for detecting specific predicted cognitive outcomes. (JINS, 2008, 14, 209–221.)Presented in part at the annual International Neuropsychology Society meeting in Portland, OR, February 2007; and the 2007 International Congress for Schizophrenia Research in Colorado Springs, CO.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Efficiency of the CATIE and BACS neuropsychological batteries in assessing cognitive effects of antipsychotic treatments in schizophrenia
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Efficiency of the CATIE and BACS neuropsychological batteries in assessing cognitive effects of antipsychotic treatments in schizophrenia
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Efficiency of the CATIE and BACS neuropsychological batteries in assessing cognitive effects of antipsychotic treatments in schizophrenia
      Available formats
Corresponding author
Correspondence and reprint requests to: Dr. S. Kristian Hill, University of Illinois at Chicago, Center for Cognitive Medicine, Department of Psychiatry (M/C 913), 912 South Wood Street, Suite 235, Chicago, IL 60612. E-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

Allen, D.N., Huegel, S.G., Seaton, B.E., Goldstein, G., Gurklis, J.A., & van Kammen, D.P. (1998). Confirmatory factor analysis of the WAIS-R in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 34, 8794.

Bilder, R.M., Goldman, R.S., Robinson, D., Reiter, G., Bell, L., Bates, J.A., Pappadopulos, E., Willson, D.F., Alvir, J.M.J., Woerner, M.G., Geisler, S., Kane, J.M., & Lieberman, J.A. (2000). Neuropsychology of first-episode schizophrenia: Initial characterization and clinical correlates. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 549559.

Bilder, R.M., Goldman, R.S., Volavka, J., Czobor, P., Hoptman, M., Sheitman, B., Lindenmayer, J., Citrome, L., McEvoy, J., Kunz, M., Chakos, M., Cooper, T.B., Horowitz, T.L., & Lieberman, J.A. (2002). Neurocognitive effects of clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, and haloperidol in patients with chronic schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 10181028.

Buchanan, R.W., Davis, M., Goff, D., Green, M.F., Keefe, R.S.E., Leon, A.C., Neuchterlein, K.H., Laughren, T., Levin, R., Stover, E., Fenton, W., & Marder, S.R. (2005). A summary of the FDA-NIMH-MATRICS workshop on clinical trial design for neurocognitive drugs for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 31, 519.

Buchanan, R.W., Koeppl, P., & Breier, A. (1994). Stability of neurological signs with clozapine treatment. Biological Psychiatry, 36, 198200.

Cassens, G., Inglis, A.K., Appelbaum, P.S., & Gutheil, T.G. (1990). Neuroleptics: Effects on neuropsychological function in chronic schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 16, 477499.

Dickinson, D., Iannone, V.N., Wilk, C.M., & Gold, J.M. (2004). General and specific cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 55, 826833.

Dickinson, D., Ragland, J.D., Calkins, M.E., Gold, J.M., & Gur, R.E. (2006). A comparison of cognitive structure in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls using confirmatory factor analysis. Schizophrenia Research, 85, 2029.

Fabrigar, L.R., Wegener, D.T., MacCallum, R.C., & Strahan, E.J. (1999). Evaluating the use of exploratory factor analysis in psychological research. Psychological Methods, 4, 272299.

Gladsjo, J.A., McAdams, L.A., Palmer, B.W., Moore, D.J., Jeste, D.V., & Heaton, R.K. (2004). A six-factor model of cognition in schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders: Relationships with clinical symptoms and functional capacity. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 30, 739754.

Gold, J.M., Randolf, C., Carpenter, C.J., Goldberg, T.E., & Weinberger, D.R. (1992). Forms of memory failure in schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101, 487494.

Gorsuch, R.L. (1990). Common factor analysis versus component analysis—some well and little known facts. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 25, 3339.

Gorsuch, R.L. (1997). Exploratory factor analysis: Its role in item analysis. Journal of Personality Assessment, 68, 532560.

Green, M.F., Marder, S.R., Glynn, S.M., McGurk, S.R., Wirshing, W.C., Wirshing, D.A., Liberman, R.P., & Mintz, J. (2002). The neurocognitive effects of low-dose haloperidol: A two-year comparison with risperidone. Biological Psychiatry, 51, 972978.

Harvey, P.D., Moriarty, P.J., Serper, M.R., Schnur, E., & Lieber, D. (2000). Practice-related improvement in information processing with novel antipsychotic treatment. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 46, 139148.

Herbener, E.S., Hill, S.K., Marvin, R.W., & Sweeney, J.A. (2005). Effects of antipsychotic treatment on emotion perception deficits in first episode schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 17461748.

Hill, S.K., Beers, S.R., Kmiec, J.A., Keshavan, M.S., & Sweeney, J.A. (2004b). Impairment of verbal memory and learning in antipsychotic-naive patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 68, 127136.

Hill, S.K., Ragland, J.D., Gur, R.C., & Gur, R.E. (2001). Neuropsychological differences among empirically derived clinical subtypes of schizophrenia. Neuropsychology, 15, 492501.

Hill, S.K., Schuepbach, D., Herbener, E.S., Keshavan, M.S., & Sweeney, J.A. (2004a). Pretreatment and Longitudinal studies of neuropsychological deficits in antipsychotic-naive patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 68, 4963.

Johnson-Selfridge, M. & Zalewski, C. (2001). Moderator variables of executive functioning in schizophrenia: Meta-analytic findings. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 27, 305316.

Kay, S.R., Fiszbein, A., & Opler, L.A. (1987). The positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 13, 261276.

Keefe, R.S.E., Bilder, R.M., Harvey, P.D., Davis, S.M., Palmer, B.W., Gold, J.M., Meltzer, H.Y., Green, M.F., Miller, D.D., Canive, J.M., Adler, L.W., Manschreck, T.C., Swartz, M., Rosenheck, R., Perkins, D.O., Walker, T.M., Stroup, T.S., McEvoy, J.P., & Lieberman, J.A. (2006). Baseline neurocognitive deficits in the CATIE schizophrenia trail. Neuropsychopharmacology, 31, 20332046.

Keefe, R.S.E., Goldberg, T.E., Harvey, P.D., Gold, J.M., Poe, M., & Coughenour, L. (2004). The brief assessment of cognition in schizophrenia: Reliability, sensitivity, and comparison with a standard neurocognitive battery. Schizophrenia Research, 68, 283297.

Keefe, R.S.E., Mohs, R.C., Bilder, R.M., Harvey, P.D., Green, M.F., Meltzer, H.Y., Gold, J.M., & Sano, M. (2003). Neurocognitive assessment in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) project schizophrenia trial: Development, methodology and rationale. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 29, 4555.

Keefe, R.S.E., Perkins, S., Silva, S.M., & Lieberman, J.A. (1999). The effect of atypical antipsychotic drugs on neurocognitive function in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 25, 201222.

Keefe, R.S.E., Sweeney, J.A., Gu, H., Hamer, R.M., Perkins, D.O., McEvoy, J.P., & Lieberman, J.A. (2007). A comparison of the effects of olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone on neurocognitive function in first-episode psychosis: A randomized, double-blind clinical trial. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 10611071.

Kern, R., Green, M., Neuchterlein, K., & Deng, B. (2004). NIMH-MATRICS survey on assessment of neurocognition in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 72, 1119.

Lancaster, R.S., Evans, J.D., Bond, G.R., & Lysaker, P.H. (2003). Social cognition and neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 191, 295299.

Loehlin, J.C. (1990). Component analysis versus common factor analysis—a case of disputed authorship. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 25, 2931.

Lyons-Warren, A., Lillie, R., & Hershey, T. (2004). Short and long-term spatial delayed response performance across the lifespan. Developmental Neuropsychology, 26, 661678.

McEvoy, J.P., Lieberman, J.A., Perkins, D.O., Hamer, R.M., Gu, H., Lazarus, A., Sweitzer, D., Olexy, C., Weiden, P., & Strakowski, S.M. (2007). Efficacy and tolerability of olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone in the treatment of early psychosis: A randomized, double-blind, 52-week comparison. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 10501060.

Neuchterlein, K.H., Barch, D.M., Gold, J.M., Goldberg, T.E., Green, M.F., & Heaton, R.K. (2004). Identification of separable cognitive factors in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 72, 2939.

Paulsen, J.S., Heaton, R.K., Sadek, J.R., Perry, W., Delis, D.C., Braff, D., Kuck, J., Zisook, S., & Jeste, D.V. (1995). The nature of learning and memory impairments in schizophrenia. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 1, 8899.

Purdon, S.E., Jones, B.D., Stip, E., Labelle, A., Addington, D., David, S.R., Breier, A., & Tollefson, G.D. (2000). Neuropsychological change in early phase schizophrenia during 12 months of treatment with olanzapine, risperidone, or haloperidol. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 249258.

Rollnik, J.D., Borsutzky, M., Huber, T.J., Mogk, H., Seifert, J., Emrich, H.M., & Schneider, U. (2002). Short-term cognitive improvement in schizophrenics treated with typical and atypical neuroleptics. Neuropsychobiology, 45, 7480.

Saykin, A.J., Gur, R.C., Gur, R.E., Mozley, P.D., Mozley, L.H., Resnick, S.M., Kester, B., & Stafiniak, P. (1991). Neuropsychological function in schizophrenia: Selective impairment in memory and learning. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48, 618624.

Tulsky, D.S. & Price, L.R. (2003). The joint WAIS-III and WMS-III factor structure: Development and cross-validation of a six-factor model of cognitive functioning. Psychological Assessment, 15, 149162.

Velicer, W.F. & Jackson, D.N. (1990). Component analysis versus common factor-analysis—some further observations. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 25, 9714.

Woodward, N.D., Purdon, S.E., Meltzer, H.Y., & Zald, D.H. (2005). A meta-analysis of neuropsychological change to clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone in schizophrenia. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 8, 116.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society
  • ISSN: 1355-6177
  • EISSN: 1469-7661
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-international-neuropsychological-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 7
Total number of PDF views: 33 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 88 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 22nd May 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.