Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Longitudinal outcomes of very low birth weight: Neuropsychological findings

  • H. GERRY TAYLOR (a1), NORI M. MINICH (a1), NANCY KLEIN (a2) and MAUREEN HACK (a1)

Abstract

To investigate the effects of very low birth weight (VLBW, <1500 g) on the development of neuropsychological skills, we assessed 67 children with birth weight <750 g, 64 with birth weight 750–1499 g, and 67 term-born controls. Growth modeling of raw scores from mean ages 7–14 years revealed persistent VLBW sequelae. Even when adjusting for IQ, the <750 g group scored more poorly than the term-born group on measures of language processing, verbal list learning, and perceptual–motor and organizational abilities. This group also made slower age-related progress than the control group on tests of perceptual-motor and executive functions. Environmental factors moderated group differences in change on other cognitive measures. These results revealed further evidence for slower skill development in both VLBW groups relative to controls, as well as“catch-up” growth in the 750–1499 g group on some measures. The findings suggest age-related changes in the cognitive sequelae of VLBW that depend on the skill assessed, the degree of VLBW, and environmental factors. (JINS, 2004, 10, 149–163.)

Copyright

Corresponding author

Reprint requests to: H. Gerry Taylor, Ph.D., Department of Pediatrics, Rainbow Babies & Children's Hospital, 11100 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106-6038. E-mail: hgt2@po.cwru.edu

References

Hide All

REFERENCES

Anderson, M. (1998). Mental retardation general intelligence and modularity. Learning and Individual Differences, 10, 159178.
Anderson, P., Anderson, V., Northam, E., & Taylor, H.G. (2000). Standardization of the Contingency Naming Test (CNT) for school-aged children: A measure of reactive flexibility. Clinical Neuropsychological Assessment, 1, 247273.
Anderson, V., Catroppa, C., Morse, S., Haritou, F., & Rosenfeld, M. (2000). Recovery of intellectual ability following traumatic brain injury in childhood: Impact of injury severity and age at injury. Pediatric Neurosurgery, 32, 282290.
Bates, E. & Roe, K. (2001). Language development in children with unilateral brain injury. In C.A. Nelson & M. Luciana (Eds.), Handbook of developmental cognitive neuroscience (pp. 281308). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Beery, K.E. (1989). Revised administration, scoring, and teaching manual for the Developmental Test of Visual–Motor Integration. Cleveland, OH: Modern Curriculum Press.
Bendersky, M. & Lewis, M. (1994). Environmental risk, biological risk, and developmental outcome. Developmental Psychology, 30, 484494.
Bernstein, J.H. & Waber, D.P. (1996). Developmental scoring system for the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure: Professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Booth, J.R., Burman, D.D., Van Santen, F.W., Harasaki, Y., Gitelman, D.R., Parrish, T.B., & Mesulam, M.M. (2001). The development of specialized brain systems in reading and oral-language. Child Neuropsychology, 7, 119141.
Botting, N., Powls, A., Cooke, R.W.I., & Marlow, N. (1998). Cognitive and educational outcome of very low birth weight children in early adolescence. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 40, 652660.
Bradley, R.H., Whiteside, L., Mundfrom, D.J., Casey, P.H., Kelleher, K.J., & Pope, S.K. (1994). Early indications of resilience and their relation to experiences in the home environments of low birthweight, premature children living in poverty. Child Development, 65, 346360.
Breslau, N., Chilcoat, H., Del Dotto, J.E., Andreski, P., & Brown, G.G. (1996). Low birth weight and neurocognitive status at six years of age. Biological Psychiatry, 40, 389387.
Breslau, N., Chilcoat, H.D., Susser, E.S., Matte, T., Liang, K., & Peterson, E.L. (2001). Stability and change in children's intelligence quotient scores: A comparison of two socioeconomically disparate communities. American Journal of Epidemiology, 154, 711717.
Bruininks, R.H. (1978). Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency: Examiner's manual. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.
Burchinal, M.R., Bailey, D.B., Jr., & Snyder, P. (1994). Using growth curve analysis to evaluate child changes in longitudinal investigations. Journal of Early Intervention, 18, 403423.
Burchinal, M.R., Roberts, J.E., Hooper, S., & Zeisel, S.A. (2000). Cumulative risk and early cognitive development: A comparison of statistical risk models. Developmental Psychology, 36, 793807.
Campbell, F.A., Pungello, E.P. Miller-Johnson, S., Burchinal, M., & Ramey, C.T. (2001). The development of cognitive and academic abilities: Growth curves from an early childhood educational experiment. Developmental Psychology, 37, 231242.
Carlsson, G. & Hugdahl, K. (2000). Cerebral reorganization in children with congenital hemiplegia: Evidence from the dichotic listening test. In H.S. Levin & J. Grafman (Eds.), Cerebral reorganization of function after brain damage (pp. 232246). New York: Oxford University Press.
Carr, J. (1992). Longitudinal research in Down syndrome. International Review of Research in Mental Retardation, 18, 197223.
Carran, D., Scott, K., Shaw, K., & Beydoun, S. (1989). The relative risk of educational handicaps in two birth cohorts of normal and low birthweight disadvantaged children. Topics Early Childhood Special Education, 9, 1431.
Carta, J.J., Atwater, J.B., Greenwood, C.R., McConnell, S.R., McEvoy, M.A., & Williams, R. (2001). Effects of cumulative prenatal substance exposure and environmental risks on children's developmental trajectories. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 30, 327337.
Cohen, S.E., Beckwith, L., Parmelee, A.H., Sigman, M., Asarnow, R., & Espinosa, M.P. (1996). Prediction of low and normal school achievement in early adolescents born preterm. Journal of Early Adolescence, 16, 4670.
Cutting, L.E., Huang, G., Zeger, S., Koth, C.W., Thompson, R.E., & Denckla, M.B. (2002). Growth curve analyses of neuropsychological profiles in children with neurofibromatosis Type I: Specific cognitive tests remain “spared” and “impaired” over time. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 8, 838846.
Delis, D., Kramer, J., Kaplan, E., & Ober, B. (1994). The California Verbal Learning Test–Children's Version. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.
Denckla, M.G. (1974). Development of motor co-ordination in normal children. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 16, 729741.
Denckla, M.B. & Reiss, A.L. (1997). Prefrontal–subcortical circuits in developmental disorders. In N.A. Krasnegor, G.R. Lyon, & P.S. Goldman-Rakic (Eds.), Development of the prefrontal cortex: Evolution, neurobiology, and behavior (pp. 283293). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
Dennis, M., Spiegler, B.J., Hoffman, H.J., Hendrick, E.B., Humphreys, R.P., & Becker, L.E. (1991). Brain tumors in children and adolescents: I. Effects on working, associative, and serial-order memory of IQ, age at tumor onset and age of tumor. Neuropsychologia, 29, 813827.
Donders, J. & Hoffman, N.M. (2002). Gender differences in learning and memory after pediatric traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychology, 16, 491499.
Eslinger, P.J. & Biddle, K.R. (2000). Adolescent neuropsychological development after early right prefrontal cortex damage. Developmental Neuropsychology, 18, 297329.
Eslinger, P.J., Biddle, K.R., & Grattan, L.M. (1997). Cognitive and social development in children with prefrontal cortex lesions. In N.A. Krasnegor, G.R. Lyon, & P.S. Goldman-Rakic (Eds.), Development of the prefrontal cortex: Evolution, neurobiology, and behavior (pp. 295334). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
Espy, K.A., Molfese, V.J., & DiLalla, L.F. (2001). Effects of environmental measures on intelligence in young children: Growth curve modeling of longitudinal data. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 47, 4273.
Francis, D.J., Fletcher, J.M., Stuebing, K.K., Davidson, K.C., & Thompson, N.R. (1991). Analysis of change: Modeling individual growth. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 2737.
Frisk, V. & Whyte, H. (1994). The long-term consequences of periventricular brain damage on language and verbal memory. Developmental Neuropsychology, 10, 313333.
Gardner, R. (1979). The objective diagnosis of minimal brain dysfunction. Cresshill, NJ: Creative Therapies.
Goyen, T., Lui, K., & Woods, R. (1998). Visual–motor, visual–perceptual, and fine motor outcomes in very-low-birthweight children at 5 years. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 40, 7681.
Hack, M., Breslau, N., Aram, D., Weissman, B., Klein, N., & Borawski-Clark, E. (1992). The effect of very low birthweight and social risk on neurocognitive abilities at school age. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 13, 412420.
Hack, M. & Fanaroff, A.A. (1999). Outcomes of children of extremely low birthweight and gestational age in the 1990s. Early Human Development, 53, 193218.
Hack, M., Friedman, H., & Fanaroff, A.A. (1996a). Outcomes of extremely low birth weight infants. Pediatrics, 98, 931937.
Hack, M., Klein, N., & Taylor, H.G. (1996b). School-age outcomes of children of extremely low birthweight and gestational age. Seminars in Neonatology, 1, 227288.
Hack, M., Weismann, B., Breslau, N., Klein, N., Borawski-Clark, E., & Fanaroff, A. (1993). Health status of VLBW children during their first 8 years. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics.
Halpern, D.F. (1997). Sex differences in intelligence: Implications for education. American Psychologist, 52, 10911102.
Hatton, D.D., Bailey, D.B., Jr., Burchinal, M.R., & Ferrell, K.A. (1997). Development growth curves of preschool children with vision impairments. Child Development, 68, 788806.
Hauser-Cram, P., Warfield, M.E., Shonkoff, J.P., & Krauss, M.W. (2001). Children with disabilities: A longitudinal study of child development and parent well-being. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 66 (3, Serial No. 266).
Hodapp, R.M., Dykens, E.M., Hagerman, R.J., Schreiner, R., Lachiewicz, A.M., & Leckman, J.F. (1990). Developmental implications of changing trajectories of IQ in males with Fragile X Syndrome. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 29, 214219.
Hollingshead, A. (1975). Four Factor Index of Social Status. New Haven, CT: Yale University Department of Sociology.
Huttenlocher, P.R. & Dabholkar, A.S. (1997). Regional differences in synaptogenesis in human cerebral cortex. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 387, 167178.
Jaccard, J. & Guilamo-Ramos, V. (2002). Analysis of variance frameworks in clinical child and adolescent psychology: Advanced issues and recommendations. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 31, 278294.
Kaufman, A. & Applegate, B. (1988). Short forms of K-ABC Mental Processing and Achievement Scales at age 4 to 12-1/2 years for clinical and screening purposes. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 17, 359369.
Keogh, B.K., Bernheimer, L.P., & Guthrie, D. (1997). Stability and change over time in cognitive level of children with delays. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 101, 365373.
Klapper, Z.S. & Birch, H.G. (1967). A fourteen-year follow-up study of cerebral palsy: Intellectual change and stability. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 3, 540547.
Klebanov, P.K., Brooks-Gunn, J., & McCormick, M.C. (1994). School achievement and failure in very low birthweight children. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 15, 248256.
Klein, N., Hack, M., & Breslau, N. (1989). Children who were very low birthweight: Developmental and academic achievement at nine years of age. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 10, 3237.
Kolb, B. & Gibb, R. (2001). Early brain injury, Plasticity, and behavior. In C.A. Nelson & M. Luciana (Eds.), Handbook of developmental cognitive neuroscience (pp. 175190). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Kowaleski-Jones, L. & Duncan, G.J. (1999). The structure of achievement and behavior across middle childhood. Child Development, 70, 930943.
Landry, S.H., Smith, K.E., Miller-Loncar, C.L., & Swank, P.R. (1997). Predicting cognitive-language and social growth curves from early maternal behaviors in children at varying degrees of biological risk. Developmental Psychology, 33, 10401053.
Landry, S.H., Smith, K.E., Miller-Loncar, C.L., & Swank, P.R. (1998). The relation of change in maternal interactive styles to the developing social competence of full-tern and preterm children. Child Development, 69, 105123.
Levin, H.S., Song, J., Chapman, S.B., & Harward, H. (2000). Neuroplasticity following traumatic diffuse versus focal brain injury in children: Studies of verbal fluency. In H.S. Levin & J. Grafman (Eds.), Cerebral reorganization of function after brain damage (pp. 218231). New York: Oxford University Press.
Lorenz, J.M., Wooliever, D.E., Jetton, J.R., & Paneth, N. (1998). A quantitative review of mortality and developmental disability in extremely premature newborns. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 152, 425435.
Luciana, M., Lindeke, L., Georgieff, M., Mills, M., & Nelson, C.A. (1999). Neurobehavioral evidence for working-memory deficits in school-aged children with histories of prematurity. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 41, 521533.
Luoma, L., Herrgard, E., & Martikainen, A. (1998). Neuropsychological analysis of the visuomotor problems in children born preterm at <32 weeks gestation: A 5-year prospective follow-up. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 40, 2130.
McDermott, P.A. (1995). Sex, race, class, and other demographics as explanations for children's ability and adjustment: A national appraisal. Journal of School Psychology, 33, 7591.
Ment, L.R., Vohr, B., Allan, W., Katz, K.H., Schneider, K.C., Westerveld, M., Duncan, C.C., & Makuch, R.W. (2003). Change in cognitive function over time in very low-birth-weight infants. Journal of the American Medical Association, 289, 705711.
Mesulam, M. (1985). Principles of behavioral neurology. Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis.
Miller, C.L., Landry, S.H., Smith, K.E., Wildin, S.R., Anderson, A.E., & Swank, P.R. (1995). Developmental change in the neuropsychological functioning of very low birth weight infants. Child Neuropsychology, 1, 224236.
Monset-Couchard, M., de Bethmann, O., & Kastler, B. (1996). Mid- and long-term outcome of 89 premature infants weighing less than 1,000 g at birth, all appropriate for gestation age. Biology of the Neonate, 70, 328338.
Moos, R. & Moos, B. (1994). Life Stressors and Social Resources Inventory–Adult Form: Professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.
O'Callaghan, M.J., Burns, Y.R., Gray, P.H., Harvey, J.M., Mohay, H., Rogers, Y.M., & Tudehope, D.I. (1996). School performance of ELBW children: A controlled study. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 38, 917926.
Perlman, J.M. (1998). White matter injury in the preterm infant: An important determination of abnormal neurodevelopment outcome. Early Human Development, 53, 99120.
Powls, A., Botting, N., Cooke, R.W.I., & Marlow, N. (1995). Motor impairment in children 12 to 13 years old with a birthweight of less than 1250 g. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 72, F62F66.
Pungello, E.P., Kupersmidt, J.B., Burchinal, M.R., & Patterson, C.J. (1996). Environmental risk factors and children's achievement from middle childhood to early adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 32, 755767.
Rickards, A.L., Kelly, E.A., Doyle, L.W., & Callanan, C. (2001). Cognition, academic progress, behavior and self-concept at 14 years of very low birth weight children. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 22, 1118.
Rickards, A., Ryan, M., & Kitchen, W. (1988). Longitudinal study of very low birth-weight infants: Intelligence and aspects of school progress at 14 years of age. Journal of Australian Paediatrics, 24, 1923.
Roberts, J.E., Burchinal, M., Durham, M. (1999). Parents' report of vocabulary and grammatical development of African American preschoolers: Child and environmental associations. Child Development, 70, 92106.
Rourke, B.P. (1988). The syndrome of nonverbal learning disabilities: Developmental manifestations in neurological disease, disorder, and dysfunction. Clinical Neuropsychologist, 2, 293330.
Rutter, M. (2000). Psychosocial influences: Critiques, findings, and research needs. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 375405.
Rutter, M., Pickles, A., Murray, R., & Eaves, L. (2001). Testing hypotheses on specific environmental causal effects on behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 291324.
Saigal, S., Hoult, L.A., Streiner, D.L., Stoskopf, B.L., & Rosenbaum, P.L. (2000). School difficulties at adolescence in a regional cohort of children who were extremely low birthweight. Pediatrics, 105, 325331.
Salmon, D.P., Heindel, W.C., & Hamilton, J.M. (2001). Cognitive abilities mediated by frontal–subcortical circuits. In D.G. Lichter & J.L. Cummings (Eds.), Frontal–subcortical circuits in psychiatric and neurologic disorders (pp. 114150). New York: Guilford.
Schafer, J.L. (1997). Analysis of incomplete multivariate data. Boca Raton, FL: Chapman & Hall/CRC.
Schatz, J., Kramer, J.H., Ablin, A., & Matthay, K.K. (2000). Processing speed, working memory, and IQ: A developmental model of cognitive deficits following cranial radiation therapy. Neuropsychology, 14, 189200.
Schothorst, P.F. & van Engeland, H. (1996). Long-term behavioral sequelae of prematurity. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 175183.
Semel, E., Wiig, W., & Sabers, D. (1987). CELF–R: Clinical Evaluation of Language Functions–Revised (technical manual). New York: The Psychological Corporation.
Singer, J.D. (1998). Using SAS PROC MIXED to fit multilevel models, hierarchical models, and individual growth models. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 23, 323355.
Spreen, O. & Strauss, E. (1991). A compendium of neuropsychological tests: Administration, norms, and commentary. New York: Oxford University Press.
Stevenson, C.J., Blackburn, P., & Pharoah, P.O.D. (1999). Longitudinal study of behaviour disorders in low birthweight infants. Archives of Disease in Childhood Fetal and Neonatal Edition, 81, F5F9.
Stiles, J. (2000). Spatial cognitive development following prenatal or perinatal focal brain injury. In H.S. Levin & J. Grafman (Eds.), Cerebral reorganization of function after brain damage (pp. 201217). New York: Oxford University Press.
Szatmari, P., Saigal, S., Rosenbaum, P., & Campbell, D. (1993). Psychopathology and adaptive functioning among extremely low birthweight children at eight years of age. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 345357.
Taylor, H.G. & Alden, J. (1997). Age-related differences in outcomes following childhood brain insults: An introduction and overview. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 3, 555567.
Taylor, H.G., Burant, C., Holding, P.A., Klein, N., & Hack, M. (2002). Sources of variability in sequelae of very low birth weight. Child Neuropsychology, 8, 163178.
Taylor, H.G., Hack, M., & Klein, N. (1998a). Attention deficits in children with <750 gm birth weight. Child Neuropsychology, 4, 2134.
Taylor, H.G., Klein, N., & Hack, M. (2000a). School-age consequences of birth weight less than 750 g: A review and update. Developmental Neuropsychology, 17, 289321.
Taylor, H.G., Klein, N., Minich, N., & Hack, M. (2000b). Middle school-age outcomes in children with very low birthweight. Child Development, 71, 14951511.
Taylor, H.G., Klein, N., Schatschneider, C., & Hack, M. (1998b). Predictors of early school age outcomes in very low birthweight children. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 19, 235243.
Taylor, H.G., Minich, N.M., Klein, N., & Hack, M. (2000c). Verbal memory deficits in children with <750 g birth weight. Child Neuropsychology, 6, 4963.
Taylor, H.G., Schatschneider, C., & Minich, N.M. (2000d). Longitudinal outcomes of Haemophilus influenzae meningitis in school-age children. Neuropsychology, 14, 509518.
Taylor, H.G., Schatschneider, C., Petrill, S., Barry, C.T., & Owens, C. (1996). Executive dysfunction in children with early brain disease: Outcomes post Haemophilus influenzae meningitis. Developmental Neuropsychology, 12, 3551.
Thompson, N.M., Francis, D.J., Stuebing, K.K., Fletcher, J.M., Ewing-Cobbs, L., Miner, M.E., Levin, H.S., & Eisenberg, H.M. (1994). Motor, visual-spatial, and somatosensory skills after closed head injury in children and adolescents: A study of change. Neuropsychology, 8, 333342.
Usher, R. & McLean, F. (1969). Intrauterine growth of live-born Caucasian infants at sea level: Standards obtained from measurements of 7 dimensions of infants born between 25 and 44 weeks of gestation. Pediatrics, 74, 901910.
Volpe, J.J. (1998). Brain injury in the premature infant: Overview of clinical aspects, neuropathology, and pathogenesis. Seminars in Pediatric Neurology, 5, 135151.
Waber, D.P. & McCormick, M.C. (1995). Late neuropsychological outcomes in preterm infants of normal IQ: Selective vulnerability of the visual system. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 20, 721735.
Wechsler, D. (1991). WISC–III: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–3rd Edition: manual. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.
Wolke, D. & Meyer, R. (1999). Cognitive status, language attainment, and prereading skills of 6-year-old very preterm children and their peers: The Bavarian Longitudinal Study. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 41, 94109.
Zelkowitz, P., Papageorgiou, A., Zelazo, P.R., & Weiss, M.J.S. (1995). Behavioral adjustment in very low and normal birth weight children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 24, 2130.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society
  • ISSN: 1355-6177
  • EISSN: 1469-7661
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-international-neuropsychological-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed