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Integrating genetic and biophysical approaches to estimate connectivity in an isolated, insular system: case of the culturally important marine gastropod Monetaria caputdraconis

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  18 July 2023

Ernesto Díaz-Cabrera
Affiliation:
Departamento de Ciencias Ecológicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Chile Centro Milenio de Ecología y Manejo Sustentable de Islas Oceánicas (ESMOI), Coquimbo, Chile
Caren Vega-Retter
Affiliation:
Departamento de Ciencias Ecológicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Chile
Noemi Roja-Hernández
Affiliation:
Departamento de Ciencias Ecológicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Chile
Erika Meerhoff*
Affiliation:
Centro Milenio de Ecología y Manejo Sustentable de Islas Oceánicas (ESMOI), Coquimbo, Chile Facultad de Ciencias, UNDECIMAR, Universidad de la República, Uruguay
Boris DeWitte
Affiliation:
Centro Milenio de Ecología y Manejo Sustentable de Islas Oceánicas (ESMOI), Coquimbo, Chile Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas (CEAZA), Coquimbo, Chile Université de Toulouse, CERFACS/CNRS, Toulouse, France
David Veliz*
Affiliation:
Departamento de Ciencias Ecológicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Chile Centro Milenio de Ecología y Manejo Sustentable de Islas Oceánicas (ESMOI), Coquimbo, Chile
*
Corresponding author: David Veliz; Email: dveliz@uchile.cl; Erika Meerhoff; Email: kikameerhoff@gmail.com
Corresponding author: David Veliz; Email: dveliz@uchile.cl; Erika Meerhoff; Email: kikameerhoff@gmail.com

Abstract

Population connectivity has a fundamental role in metapopulation dynamics with important implications for population persistence in space and time. Oceanic islands, such as Easter Island (EI) and the Salas & Gómez Island (SG), are ideal for the study of population connectivity because they are separated by 415 km and isolated from other islands in the Pacific Ocean by >2000 km. Considering that the dispersal process could play a critical role in the persistence of their populations, we evaluated the connectivity pattern of the endemic gastropod Monetaria caputdraconis between EI and SG using population genetics and biophysical modelling. Eleven microsatellite loci did not show differences in the allelic frequency of individuals located in EI and SG, suggesting the presence of one genetic population. Historical reciprocal migration implies that 0.49% of the recruits in EI come from SG and 0.37% in SG come from EI. Considering year-round larval release and a larval development of 2 weeks in the plankton, a Lagrangian experiment based on a regional oceanic simulation indicated a weak population connectivity with a high rate of self-recruitment. Interestingly, self-recruitment showed both monthly and interannual variation ranging from 1 to 45% of returned larvae, with lower values estimated in SG compared to EI. The results suggest that few larvae/individuals arrive at each other's island, possibly due to stochastic events, such as rafting. Overall, our results indicate that both islands maintain population connectivity despite their distance; these findings have implications for designing conservation strategies in this region.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © The Author(s), 2023. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom

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