Biodiversity of cnidarian and ctenophore forms in Toyama Bay, Japan Sea, was lower than that in Sagami Bay, north-western Pacific, according to all the indices investigated. Highest richness of forms occurred in the 400—600 m depth layer in Sagami Bay, while in Toyama Bay richness was low in most layers. New forms continued to occur with increasing depth in Sagami Bay but not in Toyama Bay and species composition differed remarkably between the two bays. Putative secondary deep-sea gelatinous forms were identified. Horizontal patchiness in normalized abundances was the rule rather than the exception and for accurate calculations of biodiversity indices incorporating evenness or equitability, the necessity for multiple submersible dives in a single area and survey period was noted. Vertical migration and predation were identified as possible factors contributing to the higher diversity in the 400—600 m depth layer in Sagami Bay.
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