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The calls of gadoid fish

  • A. D. Hawkins (a1) and Knud Just Rasmussen (a2)

Of nine northern European species of the Gadidae examined in the aquarium, or in cages in the sea, four produced sounds. The vocal species were the haddock, Melanogrammus aeglefinus (L.); the cod, Gadus morhua L.; the lythe, Pollachius pollachius (L.); and the tadpole-fish, Raniceps raninns (L.). The main differences between the calls of the vocal species lay in their temporal structure, all the calls being divisible into brief pulses of low frequency sound, repeated at different rates and in different groupings. Calls with this structure yielded spectra with a series of spaced harmonics, the frequency spacing depending upon the pulse repetition rate.

Sixteen additional species were dissected, and seven of these showed well developed muscles attached to the swimbladder, similar to those found in the four vocal species. The remaining nine species, together with the five non-vocal species examined in the aquarium, lacked the muscles.

The behavioural significance of the calls and the operation of the sound producing mechanism are discussed.

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V. M. Brawn , 1961. Sound production by the cod (Gadus callarias L.). Behaviour, 18, 239255.

G. A. Gray & H. E. Winn , 1961. Reproductive ecology and sound production of the toadfish, Opsanus tau. Ecology, 42, 274282.

A. D. Hawkins , C. J. Chapman & D. J. Symonds , 1967. Spawning of haddock in captivity. Nature, London, 215, 923925.

F. R. H. Jones & N. B. Marshall , 1953. The structure and functions of the teleostean swimbladder. Biological Reviews, 28, 1683.

G. C. Offutt , 1967. Integration of the energy in repeated tone pulses by man and the goldfish. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 41, 1319.

D. Poggendorf , 1952. The absolute auditory threshold of the dwarf catfish (Ameiurus rebulosus) and notes on the physics of the Weberian apparatus in the Ostariophysi. Zeitschrift für vergleichende Physiologie, 34, 222257.

A. N. Popper , 1972. Auditory threshold in the goldfish (Carassius auratus) as a function of signal duration. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 52, 596602.

C. R. Skoglund , 1961. Functional analysis of swimbladder muscles engaged in sound production of the toadfish. Journal of Biophysical and Biochemical Cytology, 10, 187200.

W. Templeman , & V. M. Hodder , 1958. Variation with fish length, sex, stage of sexual maturity and season, in the appearance and volume of the drumming muscles of the swimbladder in the haddock, Melanograrnmus aeglefinus L. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 15 355390.

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Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom
  • ISSN: 0025-3154
  • EISSN: 1469-7769
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-marine-biological-association-of-the-united-kingdom
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