Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Mercury, selenium and fish oils in marine food webs and implications for human health

  • Matthew O. Gribble (a1), Roxanne Karimi (a2), Beth J. Feingold (a3), Jennifer F. Nyland (a4), Todd M. O'Hara (a5), Michail I. Gladyshev (a6) (a7) and Celia Y. Chen (a8)...
  • Please note a correction has been issued for this article.
Abstract

Humans who eat fish are exposed to mixtures of healthful nutrients and harmful contaminants that are influenced by environmental and ecological factors. Marine fisheries are composed of a multitude of species with varying life histories, and harvested in oceans, coastal waters and estuaries where environmental and ecological conditions determine fish exposure to both nutrients and contaminants. Many of these nutrients and contaminants are thought to influence similar health outcomes (i.e., neurological, cardiovascular, immunological systems). Therefore, our understanding of the risks and benefits of consuming seafood require balanced assessments of contaminants and nutrients found in fish and shellfish. In this paper, we review some of the reported benefits of fish consumption with a focus on the potential hazards of mercury exposure, and compare the environmental variability of fish oils, selenium and mercury in fish. A major scientific gap identified is that fish tissue concentrations are rarely measured for both contaminants and nutrients across a range of species and geographic regions. Interpreting the implications of seafood for human health will require a better understanding of these multiple exposures, particularly as environmental conditions in the oceans change.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Mercury, selenium and fish oils in marine food webs and implications for human health
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Mercury, selenium and fish oils in marine food webs and implications for human health
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Mercury, selenium and fish oils in marine food webs and implications for human health
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Corresponding author
Correspondence should be addressed to: M.O. Gribble, Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California, 2001 N. Soto Street, Los Angeles, CA 90032, USA. email: mgribble@usc.edu
References
Hide All
Abd Aziz, N., Azlan, A., Ismail, A., Alinafiah, S.M. and Razman, M.R. (2013) Quantitative determination of fatty acids in marine fish and shellfish from warm water of straits of Malacca for nutraceutical purposes. BioMed Research International. Article 284329.
Ackerman, J.T. and Eagles-Smith, C.A. (2009) Selenium bioaccumulation and body condition in shorebirds and terns breeding in San Francisco Bay, California, USA. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 28, 21342141.
Adams, W.J., Brix, K.V., Edwards, M., Tear, L.M., DeForest, D.K. and Fairbrother, A. (2003) Analysis of field and laboratory data to derive selenium toxicity thresholds for birds. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 22, 20202029.
Ahrens, L. and Bundschuh, M. (2014) Fate and effects of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances in the aquatic environment: a review. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 33, 19211929.
Alkazemi, D., Egeland, G.M., Roberts Ii, L.J., Chan, H.M. and Kubow, S. (2013) New insights regarding tissue Se and Mercury interactions on oxidative stress from plasma IsoP and IsoF measures in the Canadian Inuit population. Journal of Lipid Research 54, 19721979.
Alonso, M.B., Azevedo, A., Torres, J.P., Dorneles, P.R., Eljarrat, E., Barceló, D., Lailson-Brito, J. Jr. and Malm, O. (2014) Anthropogenic (PBDE) and naturally-produced (MeO-PBDE) brominated compounds in cetaceans – a review. Science of the Total Environment 481, 619634.
Amlund, H., Lundebye, A.K., Boyle, D. and Ellingsen, S. (2015) Dietary selenomethionine influences the accumulation and depuration of dietary methylmercury in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Aquatic Toxicology 158, 211217.
Arts, M.T., Palmer, M.E., Skiftesvik, A.B., Jokinen, I.E. and Browman, H.I. (2012) UVB radiation variably affects n-3 fatty acids but elevated temperature reduces n-3 fatty acids in juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Lipids 47, 11811192.
Axelrad, D.A., Bellinger, D.C., Ryan, L.M. and Woodruff, T.J. (2007) Dose-response relationship of prenatal mercury exposure and IQ: an integrative analysis of epidemiologic data. Environmental Health Perspectives 115, 609615.
Bank, M.S., Chesney, E., Shine, J.P., Maage, A. and Senn, D.B. (2007) Mercury bioaccumulation and trophic transfer in sympatric snapper species from the Gulf of Mexico. Ecological Applications 17, 21002110.
Barceloux, D.G. (1999) Selenium. Journal of Toxicology – Clinical Toxicology 37, 145172.
Bartell, S.M. and Johnson, W.O. (2011) Estimating equations for biomarker based exposure estimation under non-steady state conditions. Environmental Health 10, 57.
Basu, N., Goodrich, J.M. and Head, J. (2014) Ecogenetics of mercury: from genetic polymorphisms and epigenetics to risk assessment and decision-making. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 33, 12481258.
Belanger, M.C., Mirault, M.E., Dewailly, E., Berthiaume, L. and Julien, P. (2008) Environmental contaminants and redox status of coenzyme Q10 and vitamin E in Inuit from Nunavik. Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental 57, 927933.
Bender, N., Portmann, M., Heg, Z., Hofmann, K., Zwahlen, M. and Egger, M. (2014) Fish or n3-PUFA intake and body composition: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obesity Reviews 15, 657665.
Bergé, J.P. and Barnathan, G. (2005) Fatty acids from lipids of marine organisms: molecular biodiversity, roles as biomarkers, biologically active compounds, and economical aspects. Advances in Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology 96, 49125.
Bjerregaard, P. and Christensen, A. (2012) Selenium reduces the retention of Methyl mercury in the brown shrimp Crangon crangon. Environmental Science and Technology 46, 63246329.
Bjerregaard, P., Fjordside, S., Hansen, M.G. and Petrova, M.B. (2012) Dietary selenium reduces retention of methyl mercury in freshwater fish. Environmental Science and Technology 45, 97939798.
Bogevik, A.S., Henderson, R.J., Mundheim, H., Olsen, R.E. and Tocher, D.R. (2011) The effect of temperature and dietary fat level on tissue lipid composition in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed wax ester-rich oil from Calanus finmarchicus. Aquaculture Nutrition 17, e781e788.
Boote, J., Telford, R. and Cooper, C. (2002) Consumer involvement in health research: a review and research agenda. Health Policy 61, 213236.
Bosnjak, I., Uhlinger, K.R., Heim, W., Smital, T., Franekic-Colic, J., Coale, K., Epel, D. and Hamdoun, A. (2009) Multidrug efflux transporters limit accumulation of inorganic, but not organic, mercury in sea Urchin embryos. Environmental Science and Technology 43, 83748380.
Braune, B.M. (1987) Mercury accumulation in relation to size and age of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus harengus) from the southwestern Bay of Fundy, Canada. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 16, 311320.
Buck, R.C., Franklin, J., Berger, U., Conder, J.M., Cousins, I.T., de Voogt, P., Jensen, A.A., Kannan, K., Mabury, S.A. and van Leeuwen, S.P.J. (2011) Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances in the environment: terminology, classification and origins. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 7, 513541.
Burger, J. and Gochfeld, M. (2011) Mercury and selenium in 19 species of saltwater fish from New Jersey as a function of species, size, and season. Science of the Total Environment 409, 14181429.
Burger, J. and Gochfeld, M. (2012) Selenium and mercury molar ratios in saltwater fish from New Jersey: individual and species variability complicate use in human health fish consumption advisories. Environmental Research 114, 1223.
Burger, J., Gochfeld, M. and Fote, T. (2013) Stakeholder participation in research design and decisions: scientists, fishers, and mercury in saltwater fish. Ecohealth 10, 2130.
Burger, J., Stern, A.H. and Gochfeld, M. (2005) Mercury in commercial fish: optimizing individual choice to reduce risk. Environmental Health Perspectives 113, 266271.
Campbell, F., Dickinson, H.O., Critchley, J.A., Ford, G.A. and Bradburn, M. (2013) A systematic review of fish-oil supplements for the prevention and treatment of hypertension. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology 20, 107120.
Carocci, A., Rovito, N., Sinicropi, M.S. and Genchi, G. (2014) Mercury toxicity and neurodegenerative effects. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 229, 118.
Castro-Gonzalez, I., Maafs-Rodriguez, A.G., Silencio-Barrita, J.L., Galindo-Gomez, C. and Perez-Gil, F. (2013) Evaluation of the possible inclusion of certain fish species in chronic kidney disease diets based on their adverse and beneficial nutrient ratios. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 64, 8288.
Chapman, L. and Chan, H.M. (2000) The influence of nutrition on methyl mercury intoxication. Environmental Health Perspectives 108(Suppl. 1), 2956.
Chen, C.Y., Dionne, M., Mayes, B.M., Ward, D.M., Sturup, S. and Jackson, B. P. (2009) Mercury bioavailability and bioaccumulation in estuarine food webs in the Gulf of Maine. Environmental Science and Technology 43, 18041810.
Chen, C.Y., Lai, C.C., Chen, K.S., Hsu, C.C., Hung, C.C. and Chen, M.H. (2014) Total and organic mercury concentrations in the muscles of Pacific Albacore (Thunnus Alalunga) and Bigeye Tuna (Thunnus Obesus). Marine Pollution Bulletin 85, 606612.
Choi, A.L., Budtz-Jørgensen, E., Jørgensen, P.J., Steuerwald, U., Debes, F., Weihe, P. and Grandjean, P. (2007) Selenium as a potential protective factor against mercury developmental neurotoxicity. Environmental Research 107, 4552.
Chuang, L.-T., Bulbul, U., Wen, P.-C., Glew, R.H. and Ayaz, F.A. (2012) Fatty acid composition of 12 fish species from the Black Sea. Journal of Food Science 77, C512C518.
Conti, D.V., Cortessis, V., Molitor, J. and Thomas, D.C. (2003) Bayesian modeling of complex metabolic pathways. Human Heredity 56, 8393.
Cooper, L.T., Rader, V. and Ralston, N.V. (2007) The roles of selenium and mercury in the pathogenesis of viral cardiomyopathy. Congestive Heart Failure 13, 193199.
Cossa, D., Harmelin-Vivien, M., Mellon-Duval, C., Loizeau, V., Averty, B., Crochet, S., Chou, L. and Cadiou, J.F. (2012) Influences of bioavailability, trophic position, and growth on methylmercury in hakes (Merluccius merluccius) from Northwestern Mediterranean and Northeastern Atlantic. Environmental Science and Technology 46, 48854893.
Costa, S., Afonso, C., Bandarra, N.M., Gueifão, S., Castanheira, I., Carvalho, M.L., Cardoso, C. and Nunes, M.L. (2013) The emerging farmed fish species meagre (Argyrosomus regius): how culinary treatment affects nutrients and contaminants concentration and associated benefit-risk balance. Food and Chemical Toxicology 60, 277286.
Crump, K.S., Kjellstrom, T., Shipp, A.M., Silvers, A. and Stewart, A. (1998) Influence of prenatal mercury exposure upon scholastic and psychological test performance: benchmark analysis of a New Zealand cohort. Risk Analysis 18, 701713.
Cusick, K.D., and Sayler, G.S. (2013) An overview on the marine neurotoxin, saxitoxin: genetics, molecular targets, methods of detection and ecological functions. Marine Drugs 11, 9911018.
Davidson, P.W., Myers, G.J., Cox, C., Axtell, C., Shamlaye, C., Sloane-Reeves, J., Cernichiari, E., Needham, L., Choi, A., Wang, Y., Berlin, M. and Clarkson, T.W. (1998) Effects of prenatal and postnatal methylmercury exposure from fish consumption on neurodevelopment: outcomes at 66 months of age in the Seychelles Child Development Study. Journal of the American Medical Association 280, 701707.
Davidson, P.W., Myers, G.J., Weiss, B., Shamleye, C.F. and Cox, C. (2006) Prenatal methyl mercury exposure from fish consumption and child development: a review of evidence and perspectives from the Seychelles Child Development Study. Neurotoxicology 27, 11061109.
Davidson, P.W., Strain, J.J., Myers, G.J., Thurston, S.W., Bonham, M.P., Shamlaye, C.F., Stokes-Riner, A., Wallace, J.M., Robson, P.J., Duffy, E.M., Georger, L.A., Sloane-Reeves, J., Cernichiari, E., Canfield, R.L., Cox, C., Huang, L.S., Janciuras, J. and Clarkson, T.W. (2008) Neurodevelopmental effects of maternal nutritional status and exposure to methylmercury from eating fish during pregnancy. Neurotoxicology 29, 767775.
Deroma, L., Parpinel, M., Tognin, V., Channoufi, L., Tratnik, J., Horvat, M., Valent, F. and Barbone, F. (2013) Neuropsychological assessment at school-age and prenatal low-level exposure to mercury through fish consumption in an Italian birth cohort living near a contaminated site. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 216, 486493.
Dickey, R.W. and Plakas, S.M. (2010) Ciguatera; a public health perspective. Toxicon 56, 123136.
Dijkstra, J.A., Buckman, K.L., Ward, D., Evans, D.W., Dionne, M. and Chen, C.Y. (2013) Experimental and natural warming elevates mercury concentrations in estuarine fish. PloS ONE 8, e58401.
Drescher, O., Dewailly, E., Diorio, C., Ouellet, N., Sidi, E.A., Abdous, B., Valera, B. and Ayotte, P. (2014) Methylmercury exposure, PON1 gene variants and serum paraoxonase activity in Eastern James Bay Cree adults. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 24, 608614.
Edmonds, J.S. and Francesconi, K.A. (1993) Arsenic in seafoods: human health aspects and regulations. Marine Pollution Bulletin 26, 665674.
Edwards, M. and Richardson, A.J. (2004) Impact of climate change on marine pelagic phenology and trophic mismatch. Nature 430, 881884.
Epel, D., Stevenson, C.N., MacManus-Spencer, L.A., Luckenbach, T., Hamdoun, A. and Smital, T. (2008) Efflux transporters: newly appreciated roles in protection against pollutants. Environmental Science and Technology 42, 39143920.
Eto, K., Takizawa, Y., Akagi, H., Haraguchi, K., Asano, S., Takahata, N. and Tokunaga, H. (1999) Differential diagnosis between organic and inorganic mercury poisoning in human cases – the pathologic point of view. Toxicologic Pathology 27, 664671.
European Marine Board (2013) Linking oceans & human health: a strategic research priority for Europe. Position Paper 19 of the European Marine Board, Ostend, Belgium.
FAO (2014) The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2014: Opportunities and Challenges. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. E-ISBN 978-92-5-108276-8.
FAO/WHO (2011) FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Report No. 978. Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on the Risks and Benefits of Fish Consumption. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; Geneva: World Health Organization. 50 pp.
Farina, M., Aschner, M. and Rocha, J.B. (2011) Oxidative stress in methylmercury-induced neurotoxicity. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 256, 405417.
Fuschino, J.R., Guschina, I.A., Dobson, G., Yan, N.D., Harwood, J.L. and Arts, M.T. (2011) Rising water temperatures alter lipid dynamics and reduce N-3 essential fatty acid concentration in Scendesmus obliguus (Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 47, 763774.
Ganther, H.E., Goudie, C., Sunde, M.L., Kopicky, M.J., Wagner, P., Oh, S.H. and Hoekstra, W.G. (1972) Selenium relation to decreased toxicity of methylmercury added to diets containing tuna. Science 175, 11221124.
Garcia-Moreno, P.J., Perez-Galvez, R., Morales-Medina, R., Guadix, A. and Guadix, E.M. (2013) Discarded species in the west Mediterranean sea as sources of omega-3 PUFA. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 115, 982989.
Gardner, R.M., Nyland, J.F., Evans, S.L., Wang, S.B., Doyle, K.M., Crainiceanu, C.M. and Silbergeld, E.K. (2009) Mercury induces an unopposed inflammatory response in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. Environmental Health Perspectives 117, 19321938.
Gardner, R.M., Nyland, J.F., Silva, I.A., Ventura, A.M., deSouza, J.M., and Silbergeld, E.K. (2010a) Mercury exposure, serum antinuclear/ antinucleolar autoantibodies, and serum cytokine levels in mining populations in Amazonian Brazil: a cross-sectional study. Environmental Research 104, 345354.
Gardner, R.M., Nyland, J.F. and Silbergeld, E.K. (2010b) Differential immunotoxic effects of inorganic and organic mercury species in vitro. Toxicology Letters 198, 182190.
Garthwaite, I. (2000) Keeping shellfish safe to eat: a brief review of shellfish toxins, and methods for their detection. Trends in Food Science and Toxicology 11, 235244.
Gehrke, G. E., Blum, J. D. and Marvin-DiPasquale, M. (2011) Sources of mercury to San Francisco Bay surface sediment as revealed by mercury stable isotopes. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 75, 691705.
Gerber, L.R., Karimi, R. and Fitzgerald, T.P. (2012) Sustaining seafood for public health. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 10, 487493.
Gladyshev, M.I., Anishchenko, O.V., Sushchnik, N.N., Kalacheva, G.S., Gribovskaya, I.V. and Ageev, A.V. (2012a) Influence of anthropogenic pollution on content of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in links of food chain of river ecosystem. Contemporary Problems of Ecology 5, 376385.
Gladyshev, M.I., Lepskaya, E.V., Sushchik, N.N., Makhutova, O.N., Kalachova, G.S., Malyshevskaya, K.K. and Markevich, G.N. (2012b) Comparison of polyunsaturated fatty acids content in filets of anadromous and landlocked sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. Journal of Food Science 77, C1306C1310.
Gladyshev, M.I., Sushchik, N.N., Anishchenko, O.V., Makhutova, O.N., Kalachova, G.S. and Gribovskaya, I.V. (2009) Benefit-risk ratio of food fish intake as the source of essential fatty acids vs. heavy metals: a case study of Siberian grayling from the Yenisei River. Food Chemistry 115, 545550.
Gladyshev, M.I., Sushchik, N.N., Anishchenko, O.V., Makhutova, O.N., Kolmakov, V.I., Kalachova, G.S., Kolmakova, A.A. and Dubovskaya, O.P. (2011) Efficiency of transfer of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids versus organic carbon from producers to consumers in a eutrophic reservoir. Oecologia 165, 521531.
Gladyshev, M.I., Sushchik, N.N., Gubanenko, G.A., Demirchieva, S.M. and Kalachova, G.S. (2006) Effect of way of cooking on content of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in muscle tissue of humpback salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). Food Chemistry 96, 446451.
Gladyshev, M.I., Sushchik, N.N., Gubanenko, G.A., Demirchieva, S.M. and Kalachova, G.S. (2007) Effect of boiling and frying on the content of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in muscle tissue of four fish species. Food Chemistry 101, 16941700.
Gladyshev, M.I., Sushchik, N.N. and Makhutova, O.N. (2013) Production of EPA and DHA in aquatic ecosystems and their transfer to the land. Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators 107, 117126.
Gochfeld, M., Burger, J., Jeitner, C., Donio, M. and Pittfield, T. (2012) Seasonal, locational and size variations in mercury and selenium levels in striped bass (Morone saxatilis) from New Jersey. Environmental Research 112, 819.
Grandjean, P., Weihe, P., Burse, V.W., Needham, L.L., Storr-Hansen, E., Heinzow, B., Debes, F., Murata, K., Simonsen, H., Ellefsen, P., Budtz-Jørgensen, E., Keiding, N. and White, R.F. (2001) Neurobehavioral deficits associated with PCB in 7-year-old children prenatally exposed to seafood neurotoxicants. Neurotoxicology and Teratology 23, 305317.
Grandjean, P., Weihe, P., Debes, F., Choi, A.L. and Budtz-Jørgensen, E. (2014) Neurotoxicity from prenatal and postnatal exposure to methylmercury. Neurotoxicology and Teratology 43, 3944.
Grandjean, P., Weihe, P., White, R.F., Debes, F., Araki, S., Murata, K., Sørensen, N., Dahl, D., Yokoyama, K. and Jørgensen, P.J. (1997) Cognitive deficit in 7-year-old children with prenatal exposure to methylmercury. Neurotoxicology and Teratology 19, 417428.
Greenland, S. and Robins, J. (2009) Identifiability, exchangability and confounding revisited. Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations 6.
Guallar, E., Sanz-Gallardo, M.I., van't Veer, P., Bode, P., Aro, A., Gómez-Aracena, J., Kark, J.D., Riemersma, R.A., Martín-Moreno, J.M., Kok, F.J. and the Heavy Metals and Myocardial Infarction Study Group (2002) Mercury, fish oils, and the risk of myocardial infarction. New England Journal of Medicine 347, 17471754.
Guglielmo, F., Lammel, G. and Maier-Reimer, E. (2009) Global environmental cycling of gamma-HCH and DDT in the 1980s – a study using a coupled atmosphere and general ocean circulation model. Chemosphere 76, 15091517.
Guo, Y., Little, R.J. and McConnell, D.S. (2012) On using summary statistics from an external calibration sample to correct for covariate measurement error. Epidemiology 23, 165174.
Hallgren, C.G., Hallmans, G., Jansson, J.H., Marklund, S.L., Huhtasaari, F., Schütz, A., Strömberg, U., Vessby, B. and Skerfving, S. (2001) Markers of high fish intake are associated with decreased risk of a first myocardial infarction. British Journal of Nutrition 86, 397404.
Halpern, B.S., Longo, C., Hardy, D., McLeod, K.L., Samhouri, J.F., Katona, S.K., Kleisner, K., Lester, S.E., O'Leary, J., Ranelletti, M., Rosenberg, A.A., Scarborough, C., Selig, E.R., Best, B.D., Brumbaugh, D.R., Chapin, F.S., Crowder, L.B., Daly, K.L., Doney Scott, C., Elfes, C., Fogarty, M.J., Gaines, S.D., Jacobsen, K.I., Karrer, L.B., Leslie Heather, M., Neeley, E., Pauly, D., Polasky, S., Ris, B., St. Martin, K., Stone, G.S., Sumaila, U.R. and Zeller, D. (2012) In index to assess the health and benefits of the global ocean. Nature 488, 615620.
Halpern, B.S., Walbridge, S., Selkoe, K.A., Kappel, C.V., Micheli, F., D'Agrosa, C., Bruno, J.F., Casey, K.S., Ebert, C., Fox, H.E., Fujita, R., Heinemann, D., Lenihan, H.S., Madin, E.M.P., Perry, M.T., Selig, E.R., Spalding, M., Steneck, R. and Watson, R. (2008) A global map of human impacts on marine ecosystems. Science 321, 14461447.
Harada, M. (1995) Minamata disease: methylmercury poisoning in Japan caused by environmental pollution. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 25, 124.
Hartweg, J., Perera, R., Montori, V., Dinneen, S., Neil, H.A. and Farmer, A. (2008) Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 1, CD003205.
Hladun, K.R., Kaftanoglu, O., Parker, D.R., Tran, K.D. and Trumble, J.T. (2013) Effects of selenium on development, survival, and accumulation in the honeybee (Aphis mellifera L.). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 23, 25842592.
Hoffman, D.J. (2002) Role of selenium toxicity and oxidative stress in aquatic birds. Aquatic Toxicology 57, 1126.
Huang, S.S., Strathe, A.B., Fadel, J.G., Johnson, M.L., Lin, P., Liu, T.Y. and Hung, S.S. (2013) The interactive effects of selenomethionine and methylmercury on their absorption, disposition, and elimination in juvenile white sturgeon. Aquatic Toxicology 126, 274282.
Huguet, C.T., Norambuena, F., Emery, J.A., Hermon, K. and Turchini, G.M. (2015) Dietary n-6/n-3 LC-PUFA ratio, temperature and time interactions on nutrients and fatty acids digestibility in Atlantic salmon. Aquaculture 436, 160166.
Huynh, M.D. and Kitts, D.D. (2009) Evaluating nutritional quality of pacific fish species from fatty acid signatures. Food Chemistry 114, 912918.
Janssen, C.I. and Kiliaan, A.J. (2014) Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) from genesis to senescence: the influence of LCPUFA on neural development, aging, and neurodegeneration. Progress in Lipid Research 53, 117.
Jeandel, C. and Minster, F. (1987) Chromium behavior in the oceans: global versus regional processes. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 1, 131154.
Jiang, H. and Gao, K. (2004) Effects of lowering temperature during culture on the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Bacillariophyceae). Journal of Phycology 40, 651654.
Jiao, J., Li, Q., Chu, J., Zeng, W., Yang, M. and Zhu, S. (2014) Effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation on cognitive function throughout the life span from infancy to old age: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 100, 14221436.
Kaneko, J.J. and Ralston, N.V.C. (2007) Selenium and mercury in pelagic fish in the central north pacific near Hawaii. Biological Trace Element Research 119, 242254.
Karagas, M.R., Choi, A.L., Oken, E., Horvat, M., Schoeny, R., Kamai, E., Cowell, W., Grandjean, P. and Korrick, S. (2012) Evidence on the human health effects of low-level methylmercury exposure. Environmental Health Perspectives 120, 799806.
Karimi, R., Fisher, N.S. and Folt, C.L. (2010) Multielement stoichiometry in aquatic invertebrates: when growth dilution matters. American Naturalist 176, 699709.
Karimi, R., Fitzgerald, T.P. and Fisher, N.S. (2012) A quantitative synthesis of mercury in commercial seafood and implications for exposure in the United States. Environmental Health Perspectives 120, 15121519.
Karimi, R., Frisk, M. and Fisher, N.S. (2013) Contrasting food web factor and body size relationships with Mercury and Se concentrations in marine biota. PloS ONE 9, e74695.
Karimi, R., Fisher, N.S. and Meliker, J.R. (2014) Mercury-nutrient signatures in seafood and in the blood of avid seafood consumers. Science of the Total Environment 496, 636643.
Kattner, G. and Hagen, W. (2009) Lipids in marine copepods: latitudinal characteristics and perspectives to global warming. In Arts, M.T., Kainz, M. and Brett, M.T. (eds) Lipids in aquatic ecosystems. New York, NY: Springer, pp. 147178.
Kjellström, T., Kennedy, P., Wallis, S. and Mantell, C. (1986) Physical and mental development of children with prenatal exposure to mercury from fish. Stage 1: Preliminary tests at age 4. Report 3030. Solna: National Swedish Environmental Board.
Kjellström, T., Kennedy, P., Wallis, S., Stewart, A., Friberg, L., Lind, B., Wutherspoon, T. and Mantell, C. (1989) Physical and mental development of children with prenatal exposure to mercury from fish. Stage 2: Interviews and psychological tests at age 6. Report 3642. Solna: National Swedish Environmental Board.
Kim, Y.N., Kim, Y.A., Yang, A.R. and Lee, B.H. (2014) Relationship between blood mercury level and risk of cardiovascular diseases: results from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KHANES IV): 2008–2009. Preventive Nutrition and Food Science 19, 333342.
Khan, M.A. and Wang, F. (2009) Mercury-selenium compounds and their toxicological significance: toward a molecular understanding of the mercury-selenium antagonism. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 28, 15671577.
Kite-Powell, H.L., Fleming, L.E., Backer, L.C., Faustman, E.M., Hoagland, P., Tsuchiya, A., Younglove, L.R., Wilcox, B.A. and Gast, R.J. (2008) Linking the oceans to public health: current efforts and future directions. Environmental Health 7(Suppl. 2), S6.
Kitson, A.P., Patterson, A.C., Izadi, H. and Stark, K.D. (2009) Pan-frying salmon in an eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) enriched margarine prevents EPA and DHA loss. Food Chemistry 114, 927932.
Kroeker, K.J., Gambi, M.C. and Micheli, F. (2012) Ocean acidification causes ecosystem shifts via altered competitive interactions. Nature Climate Change 3, 156159.
Kuntz, S.W., Ricco, J.A., Hill, W.G. and Anderko, L. (2010) Communicating methylmercury risks and fish consumption benefits to vulnerable childbearing populations. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing 39, 118126.
Lail, E.M., Skrabal, S.A., Kieber, R.J., Bouillon, R.C. and Wright, J.L.C. (2007) The role of particles on the biogeochemical cycling of domoic acid and its isomers in natural water matricies. Harmful Algae 6, 651657.
Laird, B.D., Goncharov, A.B., Egeland, G.M. and Chan, H.M. (2013) Dietary advice on Inuit traditional food use needs to balance benefits and risks of mercury, selenium, and n3 fatty acids. Journal of Nutrition 143, 923930.
Laird, B.D., Shade, C., Gantner, N., Chan, H.M. and Siciliano, S.D. (2009) Bioaccessibility of mercury from traditional northern country foods measured using an in vitro gastrointestinal model is independent of mercury concentration. Science of the Total Environment 407, 60036008.
Lau, D.C.P., Vrede, T., Pickova, J. and Goedkoop, W. (2012) Fatty acid composition of consumers in boreal lakes – variation across species, space and time. Freshwater Biology 57, 2438.
Laurel, B.J., Copeman, L.A. and Parrish, C.C. (2012) Role of temperature on lipid/fatty acid composition on Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) eggs and unfed larvae. Marine Biology 159, 20252034.
Lemly, A.D. (2002) Symptoms and implications of selenium toxicity in fish: the Belews Lake case example. Aquatic Toxicology 57, 3949.
Li, Y.F., Dong, Z., Chen, C., Li, B., Gao, Y., Qu, L., Wang, T., Fu, X., Zhao, Y. and Chai, Z. (2012) Organic selenium supplementation increases mercury excretion and decreases oxidative damage in long-term mercury-exposed residents from Wanshan, China. Environmental Science and Technology 46, 1131311318.
Lowery, T. and Garrett, E.S. (2005) Synoptic survey of total mercury in recreational finfish of the Gulf of Mexico. NOAA Fisheries, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, National Seafood Inspection Laboratory.
Lynch, M.L., Huang, L.S., Cox, C., Strain, J.J., Myers, G.J., Bonham, M.P., Shamlaye, C.F., Stokes-Riner, A., Wallace, J.M., Duffey, E.M., Clarkson, T.W. and Davidson, P.W. (2011) Varying coefficient function models to explore interactions between maternal nutritional status and prenatal methylmercury toxicity in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study. Environmental Research 111, 7580.
Mahaffey, K.R. (2004) Fish and shellfish as dietary sources of methylmercury and the omega-3 fatty acids, eicosahexaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid: risks and benefits. Environmental Research 95, 414428.
Mahaffey, K.R., Clickner, R.P. and Jeffries, R.A. (2009) Adult women's blood mercury concentrations vary regionally in the United States: association with patterns of fish consumption (NHANES 1999–2004). Environmental Health Perspectives 117, 4753.
Makhutova, O.N., Sushchik, N.N., Gladyshev, M.I., Ageev, A.V., Pryanichnikova, E.G. and Kalachova, G.S. (2011) Is the fatty acid composition of freshwater zoobenthic invertebrates controlled by phylogenetic or trophic factors? Lipids 46, 709721.
Mergler, D., Anderson, H.A., Chan, L.H., Mahaffey, K.R., Murray, M., Sakamoto, M., Stern, A.H. and the Panel on Health Risks and Toxicological Effects of Methylmercury (2007) Methylmercury exposure and health effects in humans: a worldwide concern. Ambio 36, 311.
Micheli, F., De Leo, G., Butner, C., Martone, R.G. and Shester, G. (2014) A risk-based framework for assessing the cumulative impact of multiple fisheries. Biological Conservation 176, 224235.
Moore, M.N., Depledge, M.H., Fleming, L., Hess, P., Lees, D., Leonard, P., Madsen, L., Owen, R., Pirlet, H., Seys, J., Vasconcelos, V., Viarengo, A. and the Marine Board-ESF Working Group on Oceans and Human Health (2013) Oceans and Human Health (OHH): a European perspective from the Marine Board of the European Science Foundation (Marine Board-ESF). Microbial Ecology 65, 889900.
Moses, S.K., Whiting, A.V., Bratton, G.R., Taylor, R.J. and O'Hara, T.M. (2009a) Inorganic nutrients and contaminants in subsistence species of Alaska: linking wildlife and human health. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 68, 5374.
Moses, S.K., Whiting, A.V., Muir, D.C., Wang, X. and O'Hara, T.M. (2009b) Organic nutrients and contaminants in subsistence species of Alaska: concentrations and relationship to food preparation method. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 68, 354371.
Moths, M.D., Dellinger, J.A., Holub, B., Ripley, M.P., McGraw, J.E. and Kinnunen, R.E. (2013) Omega-3 fatty acids in fish from the Laurentian Great Lakes tribal fisheries. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 19, 16281643.
Mozaffarian, D. (2009) Fish, mercury, selenium and cardiovascular risk: current evidence and unanswered questions. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 6, 18941916.
Mozaffarian, D., Shi, P., Morris, J.S., Spiegelman, D., Grandjean, P., Siscovick, D.S., Willett, W.C. and Rimm, E.B. (2011) Mercury exposure and risk of cardiovascular disease in two U.S. cohorts. New England Journal of Medicine 364, 11161125.
Murad, H. and Freedman, L.S. (2007) Estimating and testing interactions in linear regression models when explanatory variables are subject to classical measurement error. Statistics in Medicine 26, 42934310.
Myers, G.J., Davidson, P.W., Cox, C., Shamlaye, C.F., Palumbo, D., Cernichiari, E., Sloane-Reeves, J., Wilding, G.E., Kost, J., Huang, L.S. and Clarkson, T.W. (2003) Prenatal methylmercury exposure from ocean fish consumption in the Seychelles child development study. Lancet 361, 16861692.
Myers, G.J., Thurston, S.W., Pearson, A.T., Davidson, P.W., Cox, C., Shamlaye, C.F., Cernichiari, E. and Clarkson, T.W. (2009) Postnatal exposure to methyl mercury from fish consumption: a review and new data from the Seychelles Child Development Study. Neurotoxicology 30, 338349.
Neff, J.M. (1997) Ecotoxicology of arsenic in the marine environment. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 16, 917927.
Oken, E., Wright, R.O., Kleinman, K.P., Bellinger, D., Amarasiriwardena, C.J., Hu, H., Rich-Edwards, J.W. and Gillman, M.W. (2005) Maternal fish consumption, hair mercury, and infant cognition in a U.S. Cohort. Environmental Health Perspectives 113, 13761380.
Outzen, M., Tjønneland, A., Larsen, E.H., Andersen, K.K., Christensen, J., Overvad, K. and Olsen, A. (2015) The effect on selenium concentrations of a randomized intervention with fish and mussels in a population with relatively low habitual dietary selenium intake. Nutrients 7, 608624.
Pase, M.P., Grima, N.A. and Sarris, J. (2011) Do long-chain n-3 fatty acids reduce arterial stiffness? A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. British Journal of Nutrition 106, 974980.
Penglase, S., Hamre, K. and Ellingsen, S. (2014) Selenium and mercury have a synergistic negative effect on fish reproduction. Aquatic Toxicology 149, 1624.
Peterson, S.A., Ralston, N.V.C., Whanger, P.D., Oldfield, J.E. and Mosher, W.D. (2009) Selenium and mercury interactions with emphasis on fish tissue. Environmental Bioindicators 4, 318334.
Piraino, M.P. and Taylor, D.L. (2009) Bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of mercury in striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and tautog (Tautoga onitis) in the Narragansett Bay (Rhode Island, USA). Marine Environmental Research 67, 117128.
Pollack, A.Z., Perkins, N.J., Mumford, S.L., Ye, A. and Schisterman, E.F. (2013) Correlated biomarker measurement error: an important threat to inference in environmental epidemiology. American Journal of Epidemiology 117, 8492.
Power, M., Klein, G.M., Guiguer, K. and Kwan, M.K.H. (2002) Mercury accumulation in the fish community of a sub-Arctic lake in relation to trophic position and carbon sources. Journal of Applied Ecology 39, 819830.
Prego-Faraldo, M.V., Valdiglesias, V., Méndez, J. and Eirín-López, J. (2013) Okadaic acid meet and greet: an insight into detection methods, response strategies and genotoxic effects in marine invertebrates. Marine Drugs 11, 28292845.
Presser, T.S. and Luoma, S.N. (2010) A methodology for ecosystem-scale modeling of selenium. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 6, 685710.
Ralston, N.V.C. (2008) Selenium health benefit values as seafood safety criteria. Ecohealth 5, 442455.
Ralston, N.V.C., Blackwell, J.L. and Raymond, L.J. (2007) Importance of molar ratios in selenium-dependent protection against methylmercury toxicity. Biological Trace Element Research 119, 255268.
Ralston, N.V.C. and Raymond, L.J. (2010) Dietary selenium's protective effects against methylmercury toxicity. Toxicology 278, 112123.
Rice, G.E., Hammitt, J.K. and Evans, J.S. (2010) A probabilistic characterization of the health benefits of reducing methyl mercury intake in the United States. Environmental Science and Technology 44, 52165224.
Rigby, M.C., Deng, X., Grieb, T.M., Teh, S.J. and Hung, S.S. (2010) Effect threshold for selenium toxicity in juvenile spittail, Pogonichthys macrolepidotus A. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 84, 7679.
Rizos, E.C., Ntzani, E.E., Bika, E., Kostapanos, M.S. and Elisaf, M.S. (2012) Association between omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and risk of major cardiovascular disease events: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the American Medical Association 308, 10241033.
Roman, H.A., Walsh, T.L., Coull, B.A., Dewailly, É., Guallar, E., Hattis, D., Mariën, K., Schwartz, J., Stern, A.H., Virtanen, J.K. and Rice, G. (2011) Evaluation of the cardiovascular effects of methylmercury exposures: current evidence supports development of a dose-response function for regulatory benefits analysis. Environmental Health Perspectives 119, 607614.
Sabino, P., Stranges, S. and Strazzullo, P. (2013) Does selenium matter in cardiometabolic disorders? A short review of the evidence. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation 36(10 Suppl.), 2127.
Saccone, G. and Berghella, V. (2015) Omega-3 supplementation to prevent recurrent preterm birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 213, 135140.
Sahari, M.A., Farahani, F., Soleimanian, Y. and Javadi, A. (2014) Effect of frozen storage on fatty acid composition of the different tissues of four scombrid and one dussumeriid species. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 30, 381391.
Sañudo-Wilhelmy, S.A., Gómez-Consarnau, L., Suffridge, C. and Webb, E.A. (2014) The role of B vitamins in marine biogeochemistry. Annual Review of Marine Science 6, 339367.
Scherer, A.C., Tsuchiya, A., Younglove, L.R., Burbacher, T.M. and Faustman, E.M. (2008) Comparative analysis of state fish consumption advisories targeting sensitive populations. Environmental Health Perspectives 116, 15981606.
Shaw, S.D. and Kannan, K. (2009) Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in marine ecosystems of the American continents: foresight from current knowledge. Reviews on Environmental Health 24, 157229.
Sheehan, M.C., Burke, T.A., Navas-Acien, A., Breysse, P.N., McGready, J. and Fox, M.A. (2014) Global methylmercury exposure from seafood consumption and risk of developmental neurotoxicity: a systematic review. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 92, 254269F.
Shenker, B.J., Berthold, P., Decker, S., Mayro, J., Rooney, C., Vitale, L. and Shapiro, I.M. (1992) Immunotoxic effects of mercuric compounds on human lymphocytes and monocytes. II. Alterations in cell viability. Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology 14, 555577.
Shenker, B.J., Berthold, P., Rooney, C., Vitale, L., DeBolt, K. and Shapiro, I.M. (1993) Immunotoxic effects of mercuric compounds on human lymphocytes and monocytes. III. Alterations in B-cell function and viability. Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology 15, 87112.
Shenker, B.J., Guo, T.L. and Shapiro, I.M. (1998) Low-level methylmercury exposure causes human T-cells to undergo apoptosis: evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction. Environmental Research 77, 149159.
Shin, H.M., Steenland, K., Ryan, P.B., Vieira, V.M. and Bartell, S.M. (2014) Biomarker-based calibration of retrospective exposure predictions of perfluorooctanoic acid. Environmental Science and Technology 48, 56365642.
Silva, I.A., Nyland, J.F., Gorman, A., Perisse, A., Ventura, A.M., Santos, E.C.O., de Souza, J.M., Burek, C.L., Rose, N.R. and Silbergeld, E.K. (2004) Mercury exposure, malaria, and serum antinuclear/antinucleolar antibodies in Amazon populations in Brazil: a cross-sectional study. Environmental Health 3, 1122.
Sinensky, M. (1974) Homoviscous adaptation – a homeostatic process that regulates the viscosity of membrane lipids in Escherichia coli. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 71, 522525.
Skjånes, K., Rebours, C. and Lindblad, P. (2013) Potential for green microalgae to produce hydrogen, pharmaceuticals and other high-value products in a combined process. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology 33, 172215.
Smital, T., Luckenbach, T., Sauerborn, R., Hamdoun, A.M., Vega, R.L. and Epel, D. (2004) Emerging contaminants – pesticides, PPCPs, microbial degradation products and natural substances as inhibitors of multixenobiotic defense in aquatic organisms. Mutation Research 552, 101117.
Somers, E.C., Ganser, M.A., Warren, J.S., Basu, N., Wang, L., Zick, S.M. and Park, S.K. (2015) Mercury exposure and antinucleolar antibodies among females of reproductive age in the United States: NHANES. Environmental Health Perspectives. http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408751.
Snyder, R.J., Schregel, W.D. and Wei, Y. (2012) Effects of thermal acclimation on tissue fatty acid composition of freshwater alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus). Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 38, 363373.
Sørmo, E.G., Ciesielski, T.M., Øverjordet, I.B., Lierhagen, S., Eggen, G.S., Berg, T. and Jenssen, B.J. (2011) Selenium moderates mercury toxicity in free-ranging freshwater fish. Environmental Science and Technology 45, 65616566.
Stewart, A.R., Luoma, S.N., Schlekat, C.E., Doblin, M.A. and Hieb, K.A. (2004) Food web pathway determines how selenium affects aquatic ecosystems: a San Francisco Bay case study. Environmental Science and Technology 38, 45194526.
Storelli, M.M. and Barone, G. (2013) Toxic metals (Hg, Pb, and Cd) in commercially important demersal fish from Mediterranean Sea: contamination levels and dietary exposure assessment. Journal of Food Science 78, T362T366.
Strain, J.J., McAfee, A., van Wijngaarden, E., Thurston, S.W., Mulhern, M. S., McSorley, E.M., Watson, G.E., Love, T.M., Smith, T.H., Yost, K., Harrington, D., Shamlaye, C.F., Henderson, J., Myers, G.J. and Davidson, P.W. (2015) Prenatal exposure to methyl mercury from fish consumption and polyunsaturated fatty acids: associations with child development at 20 mo of age in an observational study in the Republic of Seychelles. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 101, 530537 doi: 10.3945/ajcn.114.100503.
Strain, J.J., Yeates, A.J., van Wijngaarden, E., Thurston, S.W., Mulhern, M.S., McSorley, E.M., Watson, G.E., Love, T.M., Smith, T.H., Yost, K., Harrington, D., Shamlaye, C.F., Spiegelman, D., McDermott, A. and Rosner, B. (1997) Regression calibration method for correcting measurement-error bias in nutritional epidemiology. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 65(4 Suppl.), 1179S1186S.
Sunderland, E. M. (2007) Mercury exposure from domestic and imported estuarine and marine fish in the US seafood market. Environmental Health Perspectives 115, 235242.
Tacon, A.G.J. and Metian, M. (2013) Fish matters: importance of aquatic foods in human nutrition and global food supply. Reviews in Fisheries Science 21, 2238.
Tan, Y.M., Sobus, J., Chang, D., Tornero-Velez, R., Goldsmith, M., Pleil, J. and Dary, C. (2012) Reconstructing human exposures using biomarkers and other “clues”. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B: Critical Reviews 15, 2228.
Tanaka, R., and Nakamura, T. (2012) Effects of exhaustive exercise on lipid peroxide and hyroxy lipids in yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata. North American Journal of Aquaculture 74, 164168.
Tanaka, R., Shigeta, K., Sugiura, Y., Hatate, H. and Matsushita, T. (2014) Accumulation of hydroxyl lipids and 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal in live fish infected with fish diseases. Lipids 49, 385396.
Tatsuta, N., Nakai, K., Murata, K., Suzuki, K., Iwai-Shimada, M., Kurokawa, N., Hosokawa, T. and Satoh, H. (2014) Impacts of prenatal exposures to polychlorinated biphenyls, methylmercury, and lead on intellectual ability of 42-month-old children in Japan. Environmental Research 133, 321326.
Taylor, D.L., Linehan, J.C., Murray, D.W. and Prell, W.L. (2012) Indicators of sediment and biotic mercury contamination in a southern New England estuary. Marine Pollution Bulletin 64, 807819.
Teoh, M.L., Phang, S.M. and Chu, W.L. (2013) Response of Antarctic, temperate, and tropical microalgae to temperature stress. Journal of Applied Phycology 25, 285297.
Thomas, J.K. and Janz, D.M. (2014) In ovo exposure to selenomethionine via maternal transfer increases developmental toxicities and impairs swim performance in F1 generation zebrafish (Danio rerio). Aquatic Toxicology 152, 2029.
Thompson, P.A., Guo, M., Harrison, P.J. and Whyte, J.C. (1992) Effect of variation in temperature. II. On the fatty acid composition of eight species of marine phytoplankton. Journal of Phycology 28, 488497.
Tremain, D.M. and Adams, D.H. (2012) Mercury in groupers and sea basses from the Gulf of Mexico: relationships with size, age, and feeding ecology. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 141, 12741286.
Turyk, M.E., Bhavsar, S.P., Bowerman, W., Boysen, E., Clark, M., Diamond, M., Mergler, D., Pantazopoulos, P., Schantz, S. and Carpenter, D.O. (2012) Risks and benefits of consumption of Great Lakes fish. Environmental Health Perspectives 120, 1118.
Uauy, R., Hoffman, D.R., Peirano, P., Birch, D.G. and Birch, E.E. (2001) Essential fatty acids in visual and brain development. Lipids 36, 885895.
Uchino, M., Hirano, T., Satoh, H., Arimura, K., Nakagawa, M. and Wakamiya, J. (2005) The severity of Minamata disease declined in 25 years: temporal profile of the neurological findings analyzed by multiple logistic regression model. Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 205, 5363.
UNEP (2013) Technical background report for the global mercury assessment 2013. Odder: Narayana Press.
Valent, F., Mariuz, M., Bin, M., Little, D., Mazej, D., Tognin, V., Tratnik, J., McAfee, A.J., Mulhern, M.S., Parpinei, M., Carrozzi, M., Horvat, M., Tamburlini, G. and Barbone, F. (2013) Associations of prenatal mercury exposure from maternal fish consumption and polyunsaturated fatty acids with child neurodevelopment: a prospective cohort study in Italy. Journal of Epidemiology 23, 360370.
van Wijngaarden, E., Beck, C., Shamlaye, C.F., Cernichiari, E., Davidson, P.W., Myers, G.J. and Clarkson, T.W. (2006) Benchmark concentrations for methyl mercury obtained from the 9-year follow-up of the Seychelles Child Development Study. Neurotoxicology 27, 702709.
Vinceti, M., Dennert, G., Crespi, C.M., Zwahlen, M., Brinkman, M., Zeegers, M.P., Horneber, M., D'Amico, R. and Del Giovane, C. (2014) Selenium for preventing cancer. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 3, CD005195.
Virtanen, J.K., Voutilainen, S., Rissanen, T.H., Mursu, J., Tuomainen, T.P., Korhonen, M.J., Valkonen, V.P., Seppänen, K., Laukkanen, J.A. and Salonen, J.T. (2005) Mercury, fish oils, and risk of acute coronary events and cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, and all-cause mortality in men in Eastern Finland. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 25, 228233.
Xin, W., Wei, W. and Li, X. (2012) Effect of fish oil supplementation on fasting vascular endothelial function in humans: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. PLoS ONE 7, e46028.
Xin, W., Wei, W. and Li, X.Y. (2013) Short-term effects of fish-oil supplementation on heart rate variability in humans: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 97, 926935.
Wang, C., Harris, W.S., Chung, M., Lichtenstein, A.H., Balk, E.M., Kupelnick, B., Jordan, H.S. and Lau, J. (2006) n-3 fatty acids from fish or fish oil supplements, but not alpha-linolenic acid, benefit cardiovascular disease outcomes in primary- and secondary-prevention studies: a systematic review. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 84, 517.
Wen, W., Huang, X., Chen, Q. and Feng, L. (2013) Temperature effects on early development and biochemical dynamics of the marine fish, Inimicus japonicus. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology 442, 2229.
Yamashita, M., Yamashita, Y., Suzuki, T., Kani, Y., Mizusawa, N., Imamura, S., Takemoto, K., Hara, T., Hossain, M.A., Yabu, T. and Touhata, K. (2013) Selenoneine, a novel selenium-containing compound, mediates detoxification mechanisms against methylmercury accumulation and toxicity in zebrafish embryo. Marine Biotechnology 15, 559570.
Yogui, G.T. and Sericano, J.L. (2009) Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in the U.S. marine environment – a review. Environment International 35, 655666.
Zheng, J.S., Hu, X.J., Zhao, Y.M., Yang, J. and Li, D. (2013) Intake of fish and marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and risk of breast cancer: meta-analysis of data from 21 independent prospective cohort studies. British Medical Journal 346, f3706.
Zhu, W., Dong, C., Du, H., Zhang, H., Chen, J., Hu, X. and Hu, F. (2014) Effect of fish oil on serum lipid profile in dialysis patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Lipids in Health and Disease 13, 127.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom
  • ISSN: 0025-3154
  • EISSN: 1469-7769
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-marine-biological-association-of-the-united-kingdom
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed