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Ibn Abi 'l-Dunyā on Penitence

  • A. J. Arberry
Extract

Brockelmann lists no fewer than forty-four surviving works of the celebrated litterateur Ibn Abi 'l-Dunyā, (d. 281/894), who was tutor to the caliphs al-Mu'tadid (d. 291/902) and al-Muktafī (d. 295/908), ten more than the catalogue of titles given by Ibn al-Nadīm. While no detailed study of this important and entertaining author has yet been undertaken and the contents of only one of his books are at all well known, it is evident from his titles that the great majority of these works discuss various ascetic themes; so that Ibn al-Nadīm is sufficiently justified in including him in his section on zuhhād, 'ubbād, and mutaṣauwifa. As a traḍitionist he was reckoned to be trustworthy (ṣadūq) by Ibn Abī Ḥātim (d. 327/939), quoting the opinion of his father, Abū Ḥātim Muḥammad b. Idrīs b. al-Mundhir al-Tamīmī al-Ḥanẓalī al-Rāzi (d. 277/890): this might, indeed, be considered a somewhat biased judgment, for Muḥammad b. Idrīs, as we shall show later, was one of Ibn Abi 'l-Dunyā's favourite sources of information. The same favourable estimate was reached by Abū. 'Ahī Ṣāliḥ b. Muḥammad b. 'Amr b. Ḥabīb al-Asadī (d. 293/906), who, however, added the demurrer that Ibn Abi 'l-Dunyā attended a certain Muḥammad b. Isḥāq, of Balkh, who was a liar, a forger, and a fabricator of isnād.

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page 48 note 1 G.A.L. I 153, Suppl. 1247–8.

page 48 note 2 al-Khatib, Ta'rīkh Baghdād X 91.

page 48 note 3 Ibn al-Nadīm, al-Fihrist (Cairo 1348/1929) 262.

page 48 note 4 Loc. cit.; for a detailed discussion see Wiener, A. S. in Der Islam IV 413–20.

page 48 note 5 The al-Faraj ba'd al-shidda, lithographed twice in India and printed at Cairo; summarized in al-Suyūṭī (d. 911/1505), al-Araj fi 'ntiẓāar al-faraj (printed Damascus 1350/1931).

page 48 note 6 Ta'rīkh Baghdād X 89; al-Dhahabī, , Tadhkirat al-huffāẓ II 224.

page 48 note 7 Tadhlcirat al-huffāẓz III 46–9.

page 48 note 8 Tadhkirat al-huffāẓ II 132–4; Ḥajar, Ibn, Tahdhīb al-Tahdhīb IX 31–4.

page 48 note 9 Tadhkirat al-huffāẓ II 194–5; Ta'rīkh Baghdād IX 322–8.

page 48 note 10 Ta'rīkh Baghdād X 90. However, al-Dhahabī (Tadhkirat al-huffāẓ II 13), who mentions that Ibn Abi 'l-Dunyā quoted from him, cites an opinion that he was a marvellous ḥāfiẓ; see also Ta'rīkh Baghdād I 234–6, where it is stated inter alia that he said he went to Baghdad to study the works of Aristotle.

page 49 note 1 The date of the study-note signed by Ibn Qudāma, see below.

page 49 note 2 Named as owner of the manuscript in Ibn Qudāma's entry.

page 49 note 3 See Brookelmann I 398, Suppl. I 688–9 with references.

page 50 note 1 No. 7 in Brockelmann'a List.

page 50 note 2 We know from Muḥammad Jamīl, Mukhtaṣar Tabaqāt al-Ḥanābila 45 that Ibn Qudāma went to Baghdad, where he met 'Abd al-Qādir al-Jīlānī (d. 661/1166), in 561/1166 and remained there about four years.

page 50 note 3 Yāqūt, Mu'jam al-biddan (Cairo 1323/1905) VIII 123.

page 50 note 4 al-'Imad, Ibn, Shadharāt al-dhahab IV 274.

page 50 note 5 Yāqūt, loo. cit.

page 50 note 6 Tadhkirat al-huffāẓ III 313.

page 50 note 7 Shadharāt al-dhahab IV 64.

page 50 note 8 Brookelmann I 329, Suppl. 1562–4.

page 50 note 9 Tadhkirat al-ḥuffāẓ III 73–5.

page 50 note 10 Shadharāt al-dhahab III 220.

page 50 note 11 Ibid. II 349.

page 51 note 1 Brockelmann I 66, Suppl. I 102.

page 51 note 2 Tahdhīb al-Tahdhīb I 484–5.

page 51 note 3 Ibid. X 14–15.

page 51 note 4 Shadharāt al-dhahab I 125.

page 51 note 5 Tahdhīb al-Tahdhīb III 132.

page 51 note 6 Ibid. VI 27–8.

page 51 note 7 Brockelmann, Suppl. I 156.

page 51 note 8 Shadharāt al-dhahab I 140.

page 51 note 9 Brockelmann, Suppl. I 430; Nu'aim, Abū, Ḥilyat al-auliyā' VIII 84139.

page 51 note 10 Tahdhīb al-Tahdhīb III 117–122.

page 51 note 11 Shadharāt al-dhahab I 255–6; Ḥilyat al-auliyā' VII 367–VIII 57.

page 51 note 12 Shadharāt al-dhahab I 140.

page 52 note 1 Qāḍī of the eastern quarter of Baghdad in the reign of al-Mahdī (160–70/775–85) see Ta'rīkh Baghdād V 388–9.

page 52 note 2 Died 152/769, see Tahdhīb al-Tahdhīb I 142–3.

page 52 note 3 Died 250/864, see ibid. I 14–15.

page 52 note 4 Died 212/827 or 213/828, see ibid. VI 83–4.

page 52 note 5 Died 264/878, see ibid. I 76–7.

page 53 note 1 Died 243/857, see Shadharāt al-dhahab II 104; for other dates see Tahdhīb al-Tahdīb VII 250.

page 53 note 2 Died 194/810, see Tahdhīb al-Tahdhīb IX 12–13.

page 53 note 3 Died 40/662, see ibid. I 359.

page 53 note 4 = Abmad b. Jamīl al-Marwazī, d. 230/845, see Ta'rīkh Baghdād IV 76–7; Ibn Ḥajar, Lisān al-mīzān I 147.

page 54 note 1 Died 253/867, see Tahdhīb al-Tahdhīb II 342–3.

page 54 note 2 Well-known poet, lived 160–213/777–828, see Ta'rīkh Baghdād XI 359; Abu 'l-Faraj, Kitāb al-Aghānī XVIII 100–14; Ibn Qutaiba, al-Shi'r wa'l-shu'ara' 550–3

page 55 note 1 Died 167/774, see Shadharāt al-dhahab I 263.

page 55 note 2 Psalms I 1.

page 55 note 3 Tutor of the caliph-poet Ibn al-Mu'tazz (251–5/866–9), see Ta'rikh Baghdād III 132–3.

page 55 note 4 Noted poet, died 209/824, see Ta'rīkh Baghdād V 204–8, Tahdhīb al-Tahdhīb IX 259–60.

page 55 note 5 Well-known poet who died in the reign of al-Ma'mūn (201–18/815–33), see Ta'rīkh Baghdād IX 73–4 where those verses are quoted, Kitāb al-Aghānī XXI 104–10.

page 56 note 1 Died 225/840, see Tahdhīb al-Tahdhīb I 226–7.

page 56 note 2 Died 175/791, see ibid. II 69–72.

page 56 note 3 Died 148/765, ibid. IV 222–6, Shadharāt al-dhdhab I 220–1.

page 56 note 4 Died 116/734 or 118/736, see Tahdhīb al-Tahdhīb VIII 102–3, Shadharāt aldhahab I 152.

page 56 note 5 Died 100/719, see Tahdhīb al-Tahdhīb III 432–3, Shadharāt al-dhahab I 118

page 57 note 1 See Lisān al-mīzān II 509.

page 57 note 2 Died 167/783, see Tahdhīb al-Tahdhīb III 11–16, Shadharāt al-dhahab I 362.

page 57 note 3 Died 140/757, see Tahdhīb al-Tahdhīb III 204–5, Shadharāt al-dhahab I 208.

page 57 note 4 Died 100/719, see Tahdhīb al-Tahdhib IV 369–72, Shadharāt al-dhahabI 119.

page 57 note 5 Died 260/874, see Ta'rīkh Baghdād VIII 179–80.

page 57 note 6 Died 221/837, see Tahdhīb al-Tahdhīb V 313–4.

page 57 note 7 See ibid. VI 109–10.

page 57 note 8 Died 57/677, see Tahdhīb al-Tahdhīb XII 262–7.

page 57 note 9 Died 228/843, see ibid. VII 45–6.

page 57 note 10 Died under al-Ma'mun, see ibid. III 353.

page 58 note 1 Ta'rīkh Baghdād X 89.

page 58 note 2 Tadhkirāt al-ḥuffāẓ II 224.

page 58 note 3 Tahdhīb al-Tahdhīb VI 12.

page 58 note 4 See Ta'rīkh Baghdād II 370.

page 58 note 5 Died 225/840, see Tahdhīb al-Tahdhīb IV 43–4.

page 58 note 6 Died 236/850, see ibid. I 9.

page 58 note 7 Died 229/844, see Tahdhīb al-Tahdhīb III 156–7.

page 58 note 8 Died 223/838 or 224/839, see ibid. III 85–6.

page 58 note 9 Died 235/850, see ibid. III 257–9.

page 58 note 10 Died 239/853, see ibid. III 184–5.

page 58 note 11 Died 230/845, see ibid. VII 289–293.

page 59 note 1 Ta'rīkh Baghdād II 73–7, Tadhkirat al-ḥuffāẓ II 132–4, Tahdhīb al-Tahdhīb IX 31–4.

page 59 note 2 Ta'rīkh Baghdād VIII 17–8.

page 60 note 1 Died 261/875, see Tahdhīb al-Tahdhīb VII 302–3.

page 60 note 2 Ibid. IX 121–2, Ta'rīkh Baghdād II 223–4.

page 60 note 3 Mu'jam al-buldān III 80.

page 60 note 4 Tahdhīb al-Tahdhīb II 342–3.

page 61 note 1 Ta'rīkh Baghdād XI 371–2.

page 61 note 2 Ta'rīkh Baghdād III 55–6, Tahdhīb al-Tahdhīb IX 349–50.

page 62 note 1 Brockelmann II 72, Suppl. II 78.

page 62 note 2 Ibn Ḥajar, al-Durar al-kāmina III 142–3.

page 62 note 3 Ibid. I 12–13.

page 62 note 4 Ibid. IV 24–5.

page 63 note 1 Ibid. III 172.

page 63 note 2 al-Sakhāwī, al-Ḍau' al-lami' XII 47–8.

page 63 note 3 al-Durar al-kāmina II 245–6.

page 63 note 4 Ibid. II 340.

page 63 note 5 Brockelmann, Suppl. II 104.

page 63 note 6 al-Durar al-kāmina III 457.

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