Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Identifying hotspots of chimpanzee group activity from transect surveys in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire

  • Célestin Yao Kouakou (a1) (a2) (a3) (a4), Christophe Boesch (a3) (a4) and Hjalmar S. Kuehl (a3)
Abstract:

Locating activity hotspots – areas of higher density, more intense use, or distinct social units – is a prerequisite for answering many questions in animal ecology. However, for many species, carrying out such research from direct observations in tropical habitat is time-consuming and unrealistic for non-habituated animals. This study aimed to locate chimpanzee home ranges from transect nest counts. For validation purposes, 233 line transects were sampled within the home ranges of four habituated social groups of chimpanzees in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. In total, 373 km of transects were surveyed over 188 days and 683 nests of chimpanzee were recorded. First, we characterized heterogeneity of nest distribution patterns, including variation in density and group size within the area. Second, we used scan statistics, a likelihood-based cluster technique to locate chimpanzee social groups and compared them with the known home range boundaries. Chimpanzee nest distribution was characterized by a positive density and group-size gradient away from the range periphery. Furthermore, nest distribution clusters corresponding to the four groups could be successfully identified, although additional clusters for, for example, low-density areas between social groups seem to be an unavoidable by-product. The approach taken can be extended to a wide spectrum of data stemming from direct observations, camera traps, acoustic or genetic sampling to derive information about structure and patchiness of wild animal populations.

Copyright
Corresponding author
1Corresponding author. Email: koyacel7@yahoo.fr or celestykoua18@gmail.com
References
Hide All
AZPURUA, M. & DOS RAMOS, K. 2010. A comparison of spatial interpolation methods for estimation of average electromagnetic field magnitude. Progress in Electromagnetics Research M 14:135145.
BENADI, G., FICHTEL, C. & KAPPELER, P. 2008. Intergroup relations and home range use in Verreaux's Sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi). American Journal of Primatology 70:110.
BOESCH, C. 2008. Why do chimpanzees die in the forest? The challenges of understanding and controlling for wild ape health. American Journal of Primatology 70:722726.
BOESCH, C. & BOESCH-ACHERMANN, H. 2000. The chimpanzees of the Taï Forest: behavioural ecology and evolution. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 316 pp.
BOESCH, C., KOHOU, G., NENE, H. & VIGILANT, L. 2006. Male competition and paternity in wild chimpanzees of the Tai forest. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 130:103115.
BOESCH, C., CROCKFORD, C., HERBINGER, I., WITTIG, R., MOEBIUS, Y. & NORMAND, E. 2008. Intergroup conflicts among chimpanzees in Tai National Park: lethal violence and the female perspective. American Journal of Primatology 70:519532.
BOUSQUET, B. 1978. Un parc de forêt dense en Afrique. Le parc national de Taï (Côte d'Ivoire). Bois et forêts des tropiques 179:2746.
BROWN, J. H., MEHLMAN, D. W. & STEVENS, G. C. 1995. Spatial variation in abundance. Ecology 76:20282043.
BUCKLAND, S. T., ANDERSON, D. R., BURNHAM, K. P., LAAKE, J. L., BORCHERS, D. L. & THOMAS, L. 2001. Introduction to distance sampling: estimating abundance of biological populations. OxfordUniversity Press, Oxford. 432 pp.
BURT, W. H. 1943. Territoriality and home range concepts as applied to mammals. Journal of Mammalogy 24:346352.
CHAPMAN, C. A., CHAPMAN, L. J. & MCLAUGHLIN, R. L. 1989. Multiple central place foraging by spider monkeys: travel consequences of using many sleeping sites. Oecologia 79:506511.
DEMATTEÏ, C., MOLINARI, N. & DAURÈS, J.-P. 2007. Arbitrarily shaped multiple spatial cluster detection for case event data. Computational Statistics and Data Analysis 51:39313945.
DEVOS, C., SANZ, C., MORGAN, D., ONONONGA, J. R., LAPORTE, N. & HUYNEN, M. C. 2008. Comparing ape densities and habitats in northern Congo: surveys of sympatric gorillas and chimpanzees in the Odzala and Ndoki regions. American Journal of Primatology 70:439451.
DOBSON, A. J. 2002. An introduction to generalized linear models. Chapman and Hall/CRC, Boca Raton. 225 pp.
FARAWAY, J. 2006. Extending the linear model with R. Generalized mixed effects and nonparametric regression models. Chapman & Hall/CRC, Boca Raton. 301 pp.
GORDON, D. M. 1997. The population consequences of territorial behaviour. Tree 12:6367.
HASHIMOTO, C. 1995. Population census of the chimpanzees in the Kalinzu forest, Uganda – comparison between methods with nest counts. Primates 36:477488.
HERBINGER, I., BOESCH, C. & ROTHE, H. 2001. Territory characteristics among three neighboring chimpanzee communities in the Tai National Park, Cote d'Ivoire. International Journal of Primatology 22:143167.
HOLT, R. D. 1984. Spatial heterogeneity, indirect interactions and the coexistence of prey species. American Naturalist 124:337406.
JAMES, R. N. I. 2009. The origin of spaces: understanding residential satisfaction from ape nests, human cultures and the hierarchy of natural housing functions. Housing Theory and Society 26:295297.
KOUAKOU, Y. C., BOESCH, C. & KUEHL, H. 2009. Estimating chimpanzee population size with nest counts: validating methods in Taï national park. American Journal of Primatology 71:447457.
KULLDORF, M. 1997. A spatial scan statistic. Communications in Statistics: Theory and Methods 26:14811496.
KULLDORF, M. & NAGARWALLA, N. 1995. Spatial disease clusters: detection and inference. Statistics in Medicine 14:799810.
LEENDERTZ, F. H., PAULI, G., MAETZ-RENSING, K., BOARDMANE, W., NUNN, C., ELLERBROK, H., JENSEN, S. A., JUNGLEN, S. & BOESCH, C. 2006. Pathogens as drivers of population declines: the importance of systematic monitoring in great apes and other threatened mammals. Biological Conservation 131:325337.
LEHMANN, J. & BOESCH, C. 2003. Social influences on ranging patterns among chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in the Tai National Park, Cote d'Ivoire. Behavioral Ecology 14:642649.
LI, J. & HEAP, A. D. 2008. A review of spatial interpolation methods for environmental scientists. Geoscience Australia, Canberra. 137 pp.
LOPEZ-SEPULCRE, A. & KOKKO, H. 2005. Territorial defense, territory size, and population regulation. American Naturalist 166:317329.
LORTIE, C. J., ELLIS, E., NOVOPLANSKY, A. & TURKINGTON, R. 2005. Implications of spatial pattern and local density on community-level interactions. Oikos 109:495502.
MAESTRE, F. T., ESCUDERO, A., MARTINEZ, I., GUERRERO, C. & RUBIO, A. 2005. Does spatial pattern matter to ecosystem functioning? Insights from biological soil crusts. Functional Ecology 19:566573.
MITANI, J. C. 2006. Demographic influences on the behavior of chimpanzees. Primates 47:613.
MOHR, C. O. 1947. Table of equivalent populations of North American small mammals. American Midland Naturalist 37:223249.
NAVEAU, P. & ALLARD, D. 2005. Modeling skewness in spatial data analyis without data transformation. Pp. 929937 in Leuangthong, O. & Deutsch, C. V. (ed.). Geostatistics Banff 2004. Springer, Netherlands.
NUNN, C. L., THRALLD, P. H., BARTZE, K., DASGUPTAE, T. & BOESCH, C. 2009. Do transmission mechanisms or social systems drive cultural dynamics in socially structured populations? Animal Behaviour 77:15151524.
PLUMPTRE, A. J. & REYNOLDS, V. 1996. Censusing chimpanzees in the Budongo Forest, Uganda. International Journal of Primatology 17:8599.
QUIATT, D. & HUFFMANN, M. A. 1993. On home bases, nesting sites, activity centers and new analytic perspectives. Current Anthropology 34:6870.
RIEZEBOS, E. P., VOOREN, A. P. & GUILLAUMET, J. L. (eds.) 1994. Le Parc National de Taï, Côte d'Ivoire. I: Synthèse des connaissances. II: Bibliographie. Tropenbos Série 8, Wageningen. 322 pp.
SEAMAN, D. E. & POWELL, R. A. 1996. An evaluation of the accuracy of kernel density estimators for home range analysis. Ecology 77:20752085.
SMITH, G. C. 2006. Persistence of disease in territorial animals: insights from spatial models of bovine tuberculosis. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 30:3541.
TELEKI, G., HUNT, E. E. & PFIFFERLING, J. H. 1976. Demographic observations (1963–1973) on chimpanzees of Gombe-National-Park, Tanzania. Journal of Human Evolution 5:559598.
THOMAS, L., BUCKLAND, S. T., BURNHAM, K. P., ANDERSON, D. R., LAAKE, J. L., BORCHERS, D. L. & STRINDBERG, S. 2002. Distance sampling. Pp. 544552 in El-Shaarawi, A. H. & Piegorsch, W. W. (ed.). Encyclopedia of environmetrics. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.
TOBLER, M. W. S., CARRILLO-PERCASTEGUI, E., LEITE PITMAN, R., MARES, R. & POWELL, G. 2008. An evaluation of camera traps for inventorying large- and medium-sized terrestrial rainforest mammals. Animal Conservation 11:169178.
TUTIN, C. E. G. & FERNANDEZ, M. 1984. Nationwide census of Gorilla (Gorilla g. gorilla) and chimpanzee (Pan t. troglodytes) populations in Gabon. American Journal of Primatology 6:313336.
WARDEN, C. R. 2008. Comparison of Poisson and Bernoulli spatial cluster analyses of pediatric injuries in a fire district. International Journal of Health Geographics 7:117.
WATTS, D. P., MULLER, M., AMSLER, S. J., MBABAZI, J. & MITANI, J. 2006. Lethal intergroup aggression by chimpanzees in Kibale national park, Uganda. American Journal of Primatology 68:161180.
WILSON, M. L., HAUSER, M. D. & WRANGHAM, R. W. 2007. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) modify grouping and vocal behaviour in response to location-specific risk. Behaviour 144:16211653.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Tropical Ecology
  • ISSN: 0266-4674
  • EISSN: 1469-7831
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-tropical-ecology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed