Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Spatial distribution of Bertholletia excelsa in selectively logged forests of the Peruvian Amazon

Abstract
Abstract:

To date, the spatial distribution pattern and density of Brazil nut trees in logged forest stands is unclear across the Amazon basin. We asked the following questions: (1) What are the densities and spatial distributions of Brazil nut juveniles (10 ≤ dbh < 40 cm) and adults (≥ 40 cm dbh) in three selectively logged Brazil nut concessions (1413 ha sampled) in Madre de Dios, Peru; (2) What is the spatial relationship between adults and juveniles (10 ≤ dbh < 30 cm); and (3) What is the spatial relationship between juveniles (10 ≤ dbh <30 cm) and cut stumps (≥ 10 y)? Spatial analyses were conducted using statistics derived from Ripley's K function. Juveniles were aggregated in all three concessions. Results for adult populations rejected the null hypothesis of a random distribution among trees ≥ 40 cm dbh. We did not find an attraction between juveniles and cut-stump locations, nor between adults and juveniles. The strong peaks of aggregation for juveniles and adult Brazil nuts in this study occurred at long distances (300–900 m), suggesting multiple tree canopy gaps as drivers of spatial distribution patterns, either via natural or anthropogenic sources. Our data contribute to a more thorough understanding of Brazil nut population structure in disturbed forests in south-western Amazonia.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author. Email: crockwel@fiu.edu
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

G. P. ASNER , M. KELLER & J. N. SILVA 2004. Spatial and temporal dynamics of forest canopy gaps following selective logging in the eastern Amazon. Global Change Biology 10:765783.

G. P. ASNER , D. E. KNAPP , A. BALAJII & G. PÁEZ-ACOSTA 2009. Automated mapping of tropical deforestation and forest degradation: CLASlite. Journal of Applied Remote Sensing 3:033543.

G. P. ASNER , J. R. KELLNER , T. KENNEDY-BOWDOIN , D. E. KNAPP , C. ANDERSON & R. E. MARTIN 2013. Forest canopy gap distributions in the southern Peruvian Amazon. PLoS ONE 8: e60875.

B. BLEHER & K. BÖHNING-GAESE 2001. Consequences of frugivore diversity for seed dispersal, seedling establishment and the spatial pattern of seedlings and trees. Oecologia 129:385394.

R. J. W. BRIENEN & P. A. ZUIDEMA 2006. Lifetime growth patterns and ages of Bolivian rain forest trees obtained by tree ring analysis. Journal of Ecology 94:481493.

J. N. COTTA , K. A. KAINER , L. H. O. WADT & C. L. STAUDHAMMER 2008. Shifting cultivation effects on Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) regeneration. Forest Ecology and Management 256:2835.

P. CRONKLETON , M. R. GUARIGUATA & M. A. ALBORNOZ 2012. Multiple use forestry planning: timber and Brazil nut management in the community forests of Northern Bolivia. Forest Ecology and Management 268:4956.

M. DELANEY , S. BROWN , A. E. LUGO , A. TORRES-LEZAMA & N. BELLO QUINTERO 1998. The quantity and turnover of dead wood in permanent forest plots in six life zones of Venezuela. Biotropica 30:211.

M. V. N. D'OLIVEIRA 2000. Artificial regeneration in gaps and skidding trails after mechanised forest exploitation in Acre, Brazil. Forest Ecology and Management 127:6776.

A. E. DUCHELLE , M. R. GUARIGUATA , G. LESS , M. A. ALBORNOZ & A. CHÁVEZ 2012. Evaluating the opportunities and limitations of Brazil nuts and timber in Western Amazonia. Forest Ecology and Management 268:3948.

T. S. FREDERICKSEN & F. E. PUTZ 2003. Silvicultural intensification for tropical forest conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation 12:14451453.

F. GOREAUD & R. PÉLISSIER 1999. On explicit formulas of edge effect correction for Ripley's K-function. Journal of Vegetation Science 10:433438.

F. GOREAUD & R. PÉLISSIER 2003. Avoiding misinterpretation of biotic interactions with the intertype K12-function: population independence vs. random labelling hypotheses. Journal of Vegetation Science 14:681692.

B. W. GRISCOM & P. M. S. ASHTON 2006. A self-perpetuating bamboo disturbance cycle in a neotropical forest. Journal of Tropical Ecology 22:587597.

M. R. GUARIGUATA , J. C. LICONA , B. MOSTACEDO & P. CRONKLETON 2009. Damage to Brazil nut trees (Bertholletia excelsa) during selective timber harvesting in Northern Bolivia. Forest Ecology and Management 258:788793.

P. HAASE 1995. Spatial pattern analysis in ecology based on Ripley's K-function: introduction and methods of edge correction. Journal of Vegetation Science 6:575582.

T. HAUGAASEN & J. M. HAUGAASEN 2010. Cache pilferage may be prominent in Neotropical forests. Mammalia 74:423425.

J. M. T. HAUGAASEN , T. HAUGAASEN , C. A. PERES , R. GRIBEL & P. WEGGE 2012. Fruit removal and natural seed dispersal of the Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa) in Central Amazonia, Brazil. Biotropica 44:205210.

B. HERAULT , J. OAULLET , L. BLANC , F. WAGNER & C. BARALOTO 2010a. Growth responses of neotropical trees to logging gaps. Journal of Applied Ecology 47:821831.

B. HERAULT , J. BEAUCHÊNE , F. MULLER , F. WAGNER , C. BARALOTO , L. BLANC & J.-M. MARTIN 2010b. Modeling decay rates of dead wood in a neotropical forest. Oecologia 164:243251.

C. HERRERO-JÁUREGUI , P. SIST & M. A. CASADO 2012. Population structure of two low-density neotropical tree species under different management systems. Forest Ecology and Management 280: 3139.

P. A. JANSEN , B. T. HIRSCH , W. J. EMSENS , V. ZAMORA-GUTIERREZ , M. WIKELSKI & R. KAYS 2012. Thieving rodents as substitute dispersers of megafaunal seeds. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 109:1261012615.

D. H. JANZEN 1970. Herbivores and the number of tree species in tropical forests. American Naturalist 104:501528.

R. JOHN , J. W. DALLING , K. E. HARMS , J. B. YAVITT , R. F. STALLARD , M. MIRABELLO , S. P. HUBBELL , R. VALENCIA , H. NAVARRETE , M. VALLEJO & R. B. FOSTER 2007. Soil nutrients influence spatial distributions of tropical tree species. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 104: 864869.

K. A. KAINER , M. L. DURYEA , N. C. DE MACEDO & K. WILLIAMS 1998. Brazil nut seedling establishment and autecology in extractive reserves of Acre, Brazil. Ecological Applications 8:397410.

K. A. KAINER , L. H. O. WADT & C. L. STAUDHAMMER 2014. Testing a silvicultural recommendation: Brazil nut responses 10 years after liana cutting. Journal of Applied Ecology 51:655663.

A. LEDO , S. CONDÉS & F. MONTES 2011. Intertype mark correlation function: a new tool for the analysis of species interactions. Ecological Modelling 222:580587.

C. H. MCMICHAEL , D. R. PIPERNO , M. B. BUSH , M. R. SILMAN , A. R. ZIMMERMAN , M. F. RACZKA & L. C. LOBATO 2012. Sparse pre-Columbian human habitation in western Amazonia. Science 336:14291431.

J. MOLL-ROCEK , M. E. GILBERT & E. N. BROADBENT 2014. Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, Lecythidaceae) regeneration in logging gaps in the Peruvian Amazon. International Journal of Forestry Research 2014: 420764.

G. P. MYERS , A. C. NEWTON & O. MELGAREJO 2000. The influence of canopy gap size on natural regeneration of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) in Bolivia. Forest Ecology and Management 127: 119128.

R. NATHAN & H. C. MULLER-LANDAU 2000. Spatial patterns of seed dispersal, their determinants and consequences for recruitment. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15:278285.

B. W. NELSON , V. KAPOS , J. B. ADAMS , W. J. OLIVEIRA & O. P. G. BRAUN 1994. Forest disturbance by large blowdowns in the Brazilian Amazon. Ecology 75:853858.

M. PEÑA-CLAROS , T. S. FREDERICKSEN , A. ALARCÓN , G. M. BLATE , U. CHOQUE , C. LEAÑO , J. C. LICONA , B. MOSTACEDO , W. PARIONA , Z. VILLEGAS & F. E. PUTZ 2008. Beyond reduced-impact logging: silvicultural treatments to increase growth rates of tropical trees. Forest Ecology and Management 256:14581467.

C. A. PERES & C. BAIDER 1997. Seed dispersal, spatial distribution and population structure of Brazil nut trees (Bertholletia excelsa) in southeastern Amazonia. Journal of Tropical Ecology 13:595616.

C. A. PERES , C. BAIDER , P. A. ZUIDEMA , L. H. O. WADT , K. A. KAINER , D. A. P. GOMES-SILVA , R. P. SALOMÃO , L. L. SIMÕES , E. R. N. FRANCIOSI , F. C. VALVERDE , R. GRIBEL , G. H. SHEPARD , M. KANASHIRO , P. COVENTRY , D. W. YU , A. R. WATKINSON & R. P. FRECKLETON 2003. Demographic threats to the sustainability of Brazil nut exploitation. Science 302:21122114.

S. G. PERZ , Y. QIU , Y. XIA , J. SOUTHWORTH , M. MARSIK , K. ROCHA , V. PASSOS , D. ROJAS , G. ALARCÓN , G. BARNES & C. BARALOTO 2013. Trans-boundary infrastructure and land cover change: highway paving and community-level deforestation in a tri-national frontier in the Amazon. Land Use Policy 34:2741.

M. B. N. RIBEIRO , A. JEROZOLIMSKI , P. DE ROBERT , N. V. SALLES , B. KAYAPÓ , T. P. PIMENTEL & W. E. MAGNUSSON 2014. Anthropogenic landscape in southeastern Amazonia: contemporary impacts of low-intensity harvesting and dispersal of Brazil nuts by the Kayapó Indigenous people. PLoS ONE 9: e102187.

C. A. ROCKWELL , M. R. GUARIGUATA , M. MENTON , E. A. QUISPE , J. QUAEDVLIEG , E. WARREN-THOMAS , H. F. SILVA , E. E. J. ROJAS , J. A. H. K. ARRUNATEGUI , L. A. M. VEGA , O. R. VERA , R. Q. HANCCO , J. F. V. TITO , B. T. V. PANDURO & J. J. Y. SALAS 2015. Nut production in Bertholletia excelsa across a logged forest mosaic: implications for multiple forest use. PLoS ONE 10 (8): e0135464.

J. SCHÖNGART , R. GRIBEL , S. FERREIRA DA FONSECA-JUNIOR & T. HAUGAASEN 2015. Age and growth patterns of Brazil nut trees (Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl.) in Amazonia, Brazil. Biotropica 47:550558.

R. SCOLES & R. GRIBEL 2011. Population structure of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, Lecythidaceae) stands in two areas with different occupation histories in the Brazilian Amazon. Human Ecology 39:455464.

R. SCOLES & R. GRIBEL 2012. The regeneration of Brazil nut trees in relation to nut harvest intensity in the Trombetas River valley of Northern Amazonia, Brazil. Forest Ecology and Management 265:7181.

R. SCOLES & R. GRIBEL 2015. Human influence on the regeneration of the Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl., Lecythidaceae) at Capanã Grande Lake, Manicoré, Amazonas, Brazil. Human Ecology 43:843854.

G. H. SHEPARD & H. RAMIREZ 2011. “Made in Brazil”: human dispersal of the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, Lecythidaceae) in ancient Amazonia. Economic Botany 65:4465.

M. SORIANO , K. A. KAINER , C. L. STAUDHAMMER & E. SORIANO 2012. Implementing multiple forest management in Brazil nut-rich community forests: effects of logging on natural regeneration and forest disturbance. Forest Ecology and Management 268:3948.

C. L. STAUDHAMMER , L. H. O. WADT & K. A. KAINER 2013. Tradeoffs in basal area growth and reproduction shift over the lifetime of a long-lived tropical species. Oecologia 173:4557.

M. D. SWAINE & J. B. HALL 1987. Early succession on cleared forest land in Ghana. Journal of Ecology 71:601627.

M. D. SWAINE , J. B. HALL & I. J. ALEXANDER 1987. Tree population dynamics at Kade, Ghana (1968–82). Journal of Tropical Ecology 3:331345.

J. TERBORGH , C. FLORES N , P. MUELLER & L. DAVENPORT 1997. Estimating the ages of successional stands of tropical trees from growth increments. Journal of Tropical Ecology 13:833856.

E. THOMAS , C. ALCÁZAR CAICEDO , C. H. MCMICHAEL , R. CORVERA & J. LOO 2015. Uncovering spatial patterns in the natural and human history of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) across the Amazon Basin. Journal of Biogeography 42:13671382.

T. TICKTIN 2004. The ecological implications of harvesting non-timber forest products. Journal of Applied Ecology 41:1121.

T. TICKTIN , R. GANESAN , M. PARAMESHA & S. SETTY 2012. Disentangling the effects of multiple anthropogenic drivers on the decline of two tropical dry forest trees. Journal of Applied Ecology 49:774784.

M. W. TOBLER , S. E. CARRILLO-PERCASTEGUI & G. POWELL 2009. Habitat use, activity patterns and use of mineral licks by five species of ungulate in south-eastern Peru. Journal of Tropical Ecology 25:261270.

S. TRAISSAC & J.-P. PASCAL 2014. Birth and life of tree aggregates in tropical forest: hypotheses on population dynamics of an aggregated shade-tolerant species. Journal of Vegetation Science 25: 491502.

P. A. ZUIDEMA & R. G. A. BOOT 2002. Demography of the Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa) in the Bolivian Amazon: impact of seed extraction on recruitment and population dynamics. Journal of Tropical Ecology 18:131.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Tropical Ecology
  • ISSN: 0266-4674
  • EISSN: 1469-7831
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-tropical-ecology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 7
Total number of PDF views: 66 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 348 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 9th January 2017 - 27th May 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.