Aweto, A. O. 1981a. Secondary succession and soil fertility restoration in south-western Nigeria. I Succession. Journal of Ecology 69:601–607.
Aweto, A. O. 1981b. Secondary succession and soil fertility restoration in south-western Nigeria. II. Soil fertility and restoration. Journal of Ecology 69:709–614.
Barrera, A., Gómez-Pompa, A. & Vásquez-Yanes, C. 1977. El manejo de las selvas por los Mayas: sus implicaciones silvícolas y agrícolas. Biotica 2:47–61.
Bartholomew, W. V., Meyer, J. & Laudelot, H. 1953. Mineral nutrient immobilization under forest and grass fallow in the Yangambi (Belgian Congo) region. Publications de L'Institut National pour L'Étude Agronomique du Congo Beige, Série Scientifique No. 57, 27 pp.
Bazzaz, F. A. & Pickett, S. T. A. 1980. Physiological ecology of tropical succession: a comparative review. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 11:287–310.
Berish, C. W. & Ewel, J. J. 1988. Root development in simple and complex tropical successional ecosystems. Plant and Soil 106:73–84.
Birdsey, R. A. & Jiménez, D. 1985. The forests of Toro Negro. US Department of Agriculture Forest Service Research Paper SO-222. Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, LA.
Birdsey, R. A. & Weaver, P. L. 1982. The forest resources of Puerto Rico. US Department of Agric-culture Forest Service Resource Bulletin SO–85. Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, LA.
Birdsey, R. A. & Weaver, P. L. 1987. Forest area trends in Puerto Rico. US Department of Agriculture Forest Service Research Note SO–331. Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, LA.
Birdsey, R. A., Weaver, P. L. & Nicholls, C. F. 1986. The forest resources of St. Vincent, West Indies. US Department of Agriculture Forest Service Research Paper SO–229. Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, LA.
Bormann, F. H. & Likens, G. E. 1981. Pattern and processes in a forested ecosystem. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY. 253 pp.
Bowen, G. D. & Nambiar, E. K. S. 1984. Nutrition of plantation forests. Academic Press, New York, NY. 516 pp.
Brown, S. & Lugo, A. E. 1982. The storage and production of organic matter in tropical forests and their role in the global carbon cycle. Biotropica 14:161–187.
Brown, S., Gillespie, A. J. R. & Lugo, A. E. 1989. Biomass estimation methods for tropical forests and the application to forest inventory data. Forest Science in press.
Brown, S., Glubczynski, A. & Lugo, A. E. 1984. Effects of land use and climate on the organic carbon content of tropical forest soils in Puerto Rico. Pp. 204–209 in New forests for a changing world, Proceedings of the Convention of the Society of American Foresters, Portland, Oregon. Society of American Foresters, Washington, D.C.
Budowski, G. 1961. Studies on forest succession in Costa Rica and Panama. Ph.D. Dissertation, Yale University, New Haven, CT., 189 pp.
Budowski, G. 1965. Distribution of tropical American rain forest species in the light of successional processes. Turrialba 15:40–42.
Budowski, G. 1970. The distinction between old secondary and climax species in tropical central American lowland forests. Tropical Ecology 11(1):44–48.
Chudnoff, M. 1969. Research needs. Pp. 10.1–10.10 in Proceedings Conference on Tropical Hardwoods. State University College of Forestry, Syracuse, NY.
Clay, J. W. 1988. Indigenous models of tropical agriculture and forest development. Paper prepared for the US MAB Program and Cultural Survival Report No. 27, Cultural Survival, Cambridge, MA.
Denevan, W. M., Tracy, J. M., Alcorn, J. B., Paduch, C., Denslow, J. & Flores Paitan, S. 1984. Indigenous agroforestry in the Peruvian Amazon: Bora Indian management of swidden fallows. Interciencia 9:346–357.
Denslow, J. S. 1987. Tropical rainforest gaps and tree species diversity. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 18:421–451.
Drew, W. B., Aksornkoae, S. & Kaitpraneet, W. 1978. An assessment of productivity in successional stages from abandoned swidden (rai) to dry evergreen forest in northeastern Thailand. Forest Research Bulletin No. 56, Kasetsart University, Bangkok.
Dunevitz, V. L. 1985. Regrowth of clearcut subtropical dry forest: mechanisms of recovery and quantification of resilience. Masters Thesis, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI.
Ewel, J. J. 1971. Biomass changes in early tropical succesion. Turrialba 21:110–112.
Ewel, J. J. 1975. Biomass of second growth tropical moist forest. Pp. 143–150 in Golley, F. B., McGin-nis, J. T., Clements, R. G., Child, G. I. & Duever, M. J. (eds). Mineral cycling in a tropical moist forest ecosystem. University of Georgia Press, Athens, GA.
Ewel, J. J. 1976. Litterfall and leaf decomposition in a tropical forest succession in eastern Guatemala. Journal of Ecology 64:293–308.
Ewel, J. J. 1977. Differences between wet and dry successional tropical ecosystems. Geo-Eco-Trop 1:103–177.
Ewel, J. J. 1979. Secondary forests: the tropical wood resource of the future. Pp. 53–60 in Chavarria, M. (ed.). Simposio Internacional Sobre las Ciencias Forestales y su Contribución al Desarrollo de la América Tropical, 11–17 de Octubre, 1979. Condt/Interciencia/SCITEC, San José, Costa Rica.
Ewel, J. J., (ed.). 1980. Tropical succession. Biotropica 12(supplement):l–95.
Ewel, J. J. 1983. Succession. Pp. 217–223 in Golley, F. B. (ed.). Tropical rainforest ecosystems. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co., Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Ewel, J. J. 1986. Designing agricultural ecosystems for the humid tropics. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 17:245–271.
Ewel, J. J., Chai, P. & Lim, M. T. 1983. Biomass and floristics of three young second-growth forests in Sarawak. The Malaysian Forester 46:347–364.
Fölster, H. & De Las Salas, G. 1976. Litter fall and mineralization in three tropical evergreen stands, Columbia. Acta Científica Venezolana 27:196–202.
Fölster, H., De Las Salas, G. & Khanna, P. 1976. A tropical evergreen forest site with perched water table, Magdalena Valley, Colombia. Biomass and bioelement inventory of primary and secondary vegetation. Oecologia Plantarium 11:297–320.
Gómez-Pompa, A. 1987. On Maya silviculture. Mexican Studies 3:1–19.
Gómez-Pompa, A. & Kaus, A. 1988. The conservation of resources by traditional cultures in the tropics. World Wilderness Congress, Estes Park, Colorado, (in press).
Gómez-Pompa, A. & Vásquez-Yanes, C. 1974. Studies on secondary succession of tropical lowlands: the life cycle of secondary species. Pp. 336–342 in Proceedings First International Congress of Ecology. The Hague.
Gómez-Pompa, A., Flores, J. S. & Sosa, V. 1987. The ‘pet kot’: a man-made tropical forest of the Maya. Interciencia 12:10–15.
Greenland, D. J. & Kowal, J. M. L. 1960. Nutrient content of the moist tropical forest of Ghana. Plant and Soil 12(2):154–174.
Greig-Smith, P. 1952. Ecological observations on degraded and secondary forest in Trinidad, British West Indies. I. General features on the vegetation. Journal of Ecology 40:283–315.
Hall, J. R. & Okali, D. U. U. 1979. A structural and floristic analysis of woody fallow vegetation near Ibadan, Nigeria. Journal of Ecology 67:321–346.
Hart, R. D. 1980. A natural ecosystem analog approach to the design of a successful crop system for tropical forest environments. Biotropica 12(supplement):73–82.
Jordan, C. F. & Farnworth, E. G. 1982. Natural vs. plantation forests: a case study of land reclamation strategies for the humid tropics. Environmental Management 6(6):485–492.
Kellman, M. C. 1970. Secondary plant succession in tropical montane Mindanao. Australian National University, Department of Biogeography and Geomorphology, Canberra, Publ. BG/2, 174 pp.
Kochummen, K. M. & Ng, F. S. P. 1977. Natural plant succession after farming in Kepong. The Malay sian Forester 40(1):61–78.
Lanly, J. P. 1982. Tropical Forest Resources. FAO Forestry Paper 30. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome Italy.
Lebrón, M. L. 1980. Physiological plant ecology: some contributions to the understanding of secondary succession in tropical lowland rainforest. Biotropica 12(supplement):31–33.
Lovejoy, T. A. 1985. Rehabilitation of degraded tropical forest lands. The Environmentalist 5:1–8.
Lugo, A. E. 1978. Stress and ecosystems. Pp. 62–101 in Thorp, J. H. & Gibbons, J. W. (eds). Energy and environmental stress in aquatic ecosystems. U.S. Department of Energy Symposium Series, CONF-771114, National Technical Information Services, Springfield, VA.
Lugo, A. E. 1987. Wood utilization needs in the tropics. Pp. 57–66 in Forest products laboratory. Forest Products Research Conference 1986: Matching Utilization Research with the Needs of Timber Managers. USDA Forest Service Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, WI.
Lugo, A. E. & Brown, S. 1982. Conversion of tropical moist forests: a critique. Interciencia 7:89–93.
Lugo, A. E., Sanchez, M. J. & Brown, S. 1986. Land use and organic carbon content of some sub tropical soils. Plant and Soil 96:185–196.
Lugo, A. E., Brown, S. & Chapman, J. 1988. An analytical review of production rates and stemwood biomass of tropical forest plantations. Forest Ecology and Management 23:179–200.
Maury-Lechon, G. 1982. Regeneration forestière en Guyane francaise: recru sur 25 ha de coupe papetière en fôret dense humide (Arbocel). Revue Bois et Fôbrets des Tropiques 197(3):3–21.
Murphy, P. G. & Lugo, A. E. 1986. Ecology of tropical dry forest. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 17:67–88.
Nye, P. H. 1961. Organic matter and nutrient cycles under moist tropical forest. Plant and Soil 13(4):333–346.
Nye, P. H. & Greenland, D. J. 1960. The soil under shifting cultivation. Technical Comment No. 51, Commonwealth Bureau of Soils, Harpenden, England.
Opler, P. A., Baker, H. G. & Frankie, G. W. 1980. Plant reproductive characteristics during secondary succession in neotropical lowland forest ecosystems. Biotropica 12(supplement):40–46.
Porras, A. & Villarreal, B. 1986. Deforestación en Costa Rica. Editorial Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica. 118 pp.
Posey, D. A. 1982. Keepers of the forest. Garden 6:18–24.
Ramakrishnan, P. S. & Toky, O. P. 1981. Soil nutrient status of hill agro-ecosystems and recovery pattern after slash and burn agriculture (jhum) in north-eastern India. Plant and Soil 60(1):41–64.
Rambo, A. T. 1979. Primitive man's impact on genetic resources of the Malaysian tropical rain forest. Malaysian Applied Biology Journal 8:59–65.
Richards, P. W. 1955. The secondary succession in the tropical rain forest. Science Progress London 43:45–57.
Rosero, P. 1979. Some data on a secondary forest managed in Siquirres, Costa Rica. Pp. 209–210 in de las Salas, G. (ed.). Workshop: agroforestry systems in Latin America. CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica.
Ross, R. 1954. Ecological studies on the rain forest of southern Nigeria. III. Secondary succession in the Shasha reserve. Journal of Ecology 42:259–282.
Sabhasri, S. 1978. Effects of forest fallow cultivation on forest production and soil. Pp. 160–184 in Kunstadter, P., Chapman, E. C. & Sabhasri, S. (eds). Economic development and marginal agriculture in northern Thailand. University Press of Hawaii, Honolulu.
Saldarriaga, J. G., West, D. C. & Thorp, M. L. 1986. Forest succession in the Upper Rio Negro of Colombia and Venezuela. Environmental Sciences Division Publication No. 2694 (ORNL/TM-9712), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN.
Sánchez, P. A. 1976. Properties and management of soils in the tropics. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York, NY.
Sanford, R. L. Jr, Saldarriaga, J., Clark, K. E., Uhl, C. & Herrera, R. 1985. Amazon rainforest fires. Science 227:53–55.
Schmink, M. 1987. The rationality of forest destruction. Pp. 11–30 in Fugueroa, J., Wadsworth, F. H & Branham, S. (eds). Management of the forests of tropical America: prospects and technologies. Institute of Tropical Forestry, USDA Forest Service, Río Piedras, Puerto Rico.
Singh, J. & Ramakrishnan, P. S. 1982. Structure and function of a sub-tropical humid forest of Meghalaya. I. Vegetation, biomass and its nutrients. Proceedings Indian National Science Academy (Plant Science) 91(3):241–253.
Singh, R. P. 1975. Biomass, nutrient and productivity structure of a stand of dry deciduous forest of Varanasi. Tropical Ecology 16:104–109.
Snedaker, S. C. 1970. Ecological studies on tropical moist forest succession in eastern lowland Guatemala. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.
Swift, M. J., Russell-Smith, A. & Perfect, T. J. 1981. Decomposition and mineral-nutrient dynamics of plant litter in a regenerating bush-fallow in sub-humid tropical Nigeria. Journal of Ecology 69:981–995.
Toky, O. P. & Ramakrishnan, P. S. 1983a. Secondary succession following slash and burn agriculture in north-eastern India. I. Biomass, litterfall, and productivity. Journal of Ecology 71:735–745.
Toky, O. P. & Ramakrishnan, P. S. 1983b. Secondary succession following slash and burn agri culture in north-eastern India. II. Nutrient cycling. Journal of Ecology 71:747–757.
Toky, O. P. & Ramakrishnan, P. S. 1984. Litter decomposition related to secondary succession and species type under slash and burn agriculture (jhum) in north-eastern India. Proceedings Indian National Science Academy B50(1):57–65.
Uhl, C. 1987. Factors controlling succession following slash-and-burn agriculture in Amazonia. Journal of Ecology 75(2):377–407.
Uhl, C. 1988. Restoration of degraded lands in the Amazon basin. Pp. 326–332 in Wilson, E. O & Peter, F. M. (eds). Biodiversity. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.
Uhl, C. & Clark, K. 1983. Seed ecology of selected Amazon Basin successional species emphasizing forest seed banks, seed longevity, and seed germination triggers. Botanical Gazette 144:419–425.
Veillon, J. P. 1985. El crecimiento de algunos bosques naturales de Venezuela en relación con los parámetros del medio ambiente. Revista Forestal Venezolana 29:5–122.
Vitousek, P. M. 1984. Litterfall, nutrient cycling, and nutrient limitation in tropical forests. Ecology 65:285–298.
Vitousek, P. M. & Reiners, W. A. 1975. Ecosystem succession and nutrient retention: a hypothesis. Bio Science 25:376–381.
Wadsworth, F. H. 1983. Production of usable wood from tropical forests. Pp. 279–288 in Golley, F. B. (ed.). Tropical rain forest ecosystems, A. structure and function. Elsevier Scientific Publ., Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Wadsworth, F. H. 1984. Secondary forest management and plantation forestry technologies to improve the use of converted tropical lands. U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, Washington, D.C. Manuscript commissioned for OTA-F–214. 82 pp.
Wadsworth, F. H. & Birdsey, R. A. 1985. A new look at the forests of Puerto Rico. Turrialba 35:11–17.
Weaver, P. L. 1986. Hurricane damage and recovery in the montane forests of the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico. Caribbean Journal of Science 22:53–70.
Weaver, P. L. & Birdsey, R. A. 1986. Tree succession and management opportunities in coffee shade stands. Turrialba 36:47–58.
Weaver, P. L., Birdsey, R. A. & Lugo, A. E. 1987. Soil organic matter in secondary forests of Puerto Rico. Biotropica 19:17–23.
Williams-Linera, G. 1983. Biomass and nutrient content of two successional stages of tropical wet forest in Uxpanda, Mexico. Biotropica 15:275–284.
Zapata, T. R. & Arroyo, M. T. K. 1978. Plant reproductive ecology of a secondary deciduous forest in Venezuela. Biotropica 10:221–230.