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Torata Alta: An Inka Administrative Center and Spanish Colonial Reduccion in Moquegua, Peru

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 January 2017

Prudence M. Rice
Affiliation:
Department of Anthropology, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Carbondale, IL 62901 (price@siu.edu)
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

The hilltop site of Torata Alta displays a gridded site plan characteristic of Inka and Spanish colonial settlement planning, and it is now evident that the site’s brief history represents both occupations. Torata Alta began as a colony established by the Inka in the agriculturally rich Torata Valley and was settled by their Altiplano allies, the Lupaqa, in the Lake Titicaca Basin. Sometime during the early 1570s, as part of Spanish colonial administrative reforms, the community became a reducción resettlement of native Andeans drawn from small nearby hamlets. A church and ancillary buildings were constructed in the site center, and investigated structures include a beer-brewing facility and residences for textile-producing elites. In 1600, the eruption of Huaynaputina volcano and its accompanying earthquake swarm destroyed the church and covered the site with a layer of ash. Torata Alta’s residents continued living there but suffered another earthquake in 1604. The community appears to have been largely abandoned by the end of the first quarter of the seventeenth century, the residents moving down to the valley settlement that became modern Torata.

El sitio de Torata Alta, ubicado en la cresta de una sierra, muestra una planificación cuadriculada característica de los incas y los asentamientos coloniales españoles, y ahora es evidente que la historia breve del sitio representa ambas ocupaciones. Torata Alta comenzó como una colonia establecida por los incas en el fértil valle del Río Torata y fue ocupada por sus aliados del altiplano, los Lupaqa, en la cuenca del lago Titicaca. En algún momento durante la década de 1570, como parte de las reformas administrativas colonial-españolas, Torata se convirtió en un reasentamiento conocido como “reducción de indios” de los nativos andinos procedentes de pequeñas comunidades cercanas. Una iglesia y estructuras auxiliares fueron construidas en el centro del sitio. La recolección de la superficie en 16 kanchas y excavaciones en más de 30 localidades, incluidas las estructuras, patios, y la iglesia, proporcionaron fragmentos de la cerámica indígena de tipos policromados regionales, así como artefactos europeos tales como la cerámica mayólica y botijas. Una estructura parece haber sido utilizada para la fermentación de grandes cantidades de chicha, probablemente para fiestas, patrocinadas por los kurakas, en reciprocidad del trabajo de la comunidad. Otras estructuras parecen ser residencias de las élites quienes producían textiles y también fueron sitios para fiestas. Características inusuales de algunas residencias incluyen herraduras guardadas y fogoncitos a la base de cantos rodados y fogoncitos junto a las bases de grandes cantos, ambos quizás representando formas de “resistencia” sutiles contra las autoridades españolas. En 1600, la erupción del volcán Huaynaputina y los días de terremotios que le acompañaron destgruyeron la iglesia y el sitio quedó cubierto con una capa de ceniza volcánica. Los residentes de Torata Alta siguieron viviendo allí, pero sufrieron otro terremoto en 1604. La comunidad parece haber sido abandonada en gran medida hacia el fin del primer cuarto del siglo XVII, los residentes trasladándose al asentamiento del valle que es la actual villa de Torata.

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Copyright © 2012 by the Society for American Archaeology

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