The world as a whole has not been at peace since 1914, and it is definitely not at peace today. David J. Dunn argues that this state of affairs may be due, in no small part, to aspects of the conventional wisdom that informs practical foreign policy and diplomacy. For example, the ancient notion si vis pacem, para bellum [if you desire peace, prepare for war] (Vegetius) or the nineteenth century idea that argues ‘[w]e have no eternal allies, and we have no perpetual enemies. Our interests are eternal and perpetual, and those interests it is our duty to follow’ (Lord Palmerston). These ‘insights’ neatly summarize the intellectual core of political realism; in particular, the ‘balance-of-power’ doctrine.
1 E. Hobsbawm, ‘War and Peace’, The Guardian, 23 February 2002.
2 Dunn, D.J., The First Fifty Years of Peace Research: A Survey and Interpretation (2005), 1 .
3 Dunn, supra note 2, at 1.
4 What separates the concepts of ‘International Politics’ and ‘International Relations’ is a matter of debate and is best described as unclear. In order to avoid confusion, the former concept is used systematically in this essay. See further Baaz, M., A Meta-theoretical Foundation for the Study of International Relations in a Global Era. A Social Constructivist Approach (2002).
5 Porter, B., ‘David Davies and the Enforcement of Peace’, in Long, D. and Wilson, P. (eds.), Thinkers of the Twenty Years’ Crisis: Inter-war Idealism Reassessed (1995), 59 .
6 Department of International Politics: History, 2016, available at www.aber.ac.uk/en/interpol/about/ (accessed 31 March 2017).
7 Dunn, supra note 2, at 30; Dahl, R., ‘The Behavioral Approach in Political Science: Epitaph for a Monument to a Successful Protest’, (1961) 55 The American Political Science Review 763–72.
8 See further Baaz, M., ‘Harold D. Lasswell and the Social Study of Personal Insecurity’, in Cochran, M. and Navari, C. (eds.), Progressivism and US Foreign Policy (forthcoming).
9 Dunn, supra note 2, at 31.
10 Baaz, supra note 4. Cf. the contributions in Long, D. and Schmidt, B.C. (eds.) Imperialism and Internationalism in the Discipline of International Relations (2005), which, departing from the dual themes of imperialism and internationalism rather than the more commonly recognized couplet of realism and idealism, emphasizes that the beginnings of International Politics as an academic discipline have resonance with the recently picked-up discourse of empire and the global status and policies of the United States as the world's only hyperpower. Regarding the relation between International Law, empire and imperialism see, e.g., Baaz, M., ‘Hegemony, Power, and Jurisprudence: The Never-Ending Story of Legal Imperialism and Extraterritoriality’, (2013) 15 International Studies Review 292–4; Koskenniemi, M., Rech, W. and Fonseca, M.J., International Law and Empire: Historical Explorations (2017).
11 Dunn, supra note 2, at 31.
12 Lloyd, L., ‘Philip Noel-Baker and Peace Through Law’, in Long, D. and Wilson, P. (eds.), Thinkers of the Twenty Years’ Crisis: Inter-war Idealism Reassessed (1995), 25 .
13 P. Noel-Baker, The Arms Race: A Programme for World Disarmament (1958), quoted in 1995 in Lloyd, supra note 12, at 25.
14 Noel-Baker, Lloyd, supra note 12, at 50. Cf. Long and Wilson, supra note 12.
15 Noel-Baker, P., ‘The Permanent Court of International Justice’, in Temperley, H.V. (ed.), A History of the Peace Conference of Paris (1924), quoted in 1995 in Lloyd, supra note 12, at 33, italics added.
16 See further Wrange, P., ‘Protecting Which Peace for Whom against What? A Conceptual Analysis of Collective Security’, in Bailliet, C.M. and Larsen, K. Mujezinović (eds.), Promoting Peace Through International Law (2015), 86 .
17 Baaz, M., The Use of Force and International Society (2017), 120 .
18 Historian Mark Mazower, writing on the origins and early development of the UN, in the book, No Enchanted Palace: The End of Empire and the Ideological Origins of the United Nations (2008), even argues that its creators envisioned an international organization that ultimately would protect the interest of empire rather than promote ‘human security’.
19 Carr, E.H., The Twenty Years’ Crisis (1919–1939): An Introduction to the Study of International Relations (1939); Morgenthau, H.F., Politics Among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace (1948).
20 Morgenthau, H.F., ‘Positivism, Functionalism, and International Law’, (1940) 34 American Journal of International Law 260–84.
21 Dunn, supra note 2, at 2.
22 Ibid., at 3–4; see further Baaz, supra note 8; Bull, H., ‘The Case for a Classical Approach’, (1966) 18 World Politics 361–77; Lasswell, H.D., World Politics and Personal Insecurity (1935); Lasswell, H.D. and McDougal, M.S., Jurisprudence for a Free Society: Studies in Law, Science and Policy (1992), Vol. 1; Kaplan, M.A., System and Processes in International Politics (1957); Kaplan, M.A., ‘The New Great Debate: Traditionalism versus Science in International Relations’, in Knorr, K. and Rosenau, J. N. (eds.), Contending Approaches to International Politics (1969).
23 C.M. Bailliet and K. Mujezinović Larsen, ‘Introduction: Promoting Peace through International Law’, in Bailliet and Mujezinović Larsen, supra note 16, at 1.
24 Ibid., at 2.
26 See further Galtung, J., ‘An Editorial’, (1964) 1 Journal of Peace Research 1–4 ; Galtung, J., ‘Violence, Peace, and Peace Research’, (1969) 6 Journal of Peace Research 167–91.
27 Bailliet and Mujezinović Larsen, supra note 16, at 3–8.
28 Ibid., at 8.
29 Ibid., at 18.
30 Ibid., at 11.
31 K. Lidén and H. Syse, ‘The Politics of Peace and Law: Realism, Internationalism and the Cosmopolitan Challenge’, in Bailliet and Mujezinović Larsen supra note 16, 21 at 23.
32 Bailliet and Mujezinović Larsen, supra note 16, at 11; C.M. Bailliet, ‘Normative Foundation of the International Law of Peace’, in Bailliet and Mujezinović Larsen, supra note 16, at 43, 62; Cf. Baaz, M., ‘International Law is Different in Different Places: Russian Interpretations and Outlooks, (2016) 14 International Journal of Constitutional Law 262–76.
33 Bailliet and Mujezinović Larsen, supra note 16, at 11; S. O'Connor and C. Bailliet, ‘The Good Faith Obligation to Maintain International Peace and Security and the Pacific Settlements of Disputes’, in Bailliet and Mujezinović Larsen, supra note 16, 66 at 85.
34 Wrange, supra note 16, at 88, 107.
35 Ibid., at 108.
36 See further Baaz supra note 17; Baaz, M., ‘Beyond Order versus Justice Middle Ground Ethics and the Responsibility to Protect’, in Navari, C. (ed.), Ethical Reasoning in International Affairs (2013), 127 .
37 Bailliet and Mujezinović Larsen, supra note 16, at 12.
38 O. Engdah, ‘Protection of Human Rights and the Maintenance of International Peace and Security: Necessary Precondition or a Clash of Interests’, in Bailliet and Mujezinović Larsen, supra note 16, 109 at 129.
39 Bailliet and Mujezinović Larsen, supra note 16, at 13.
40 K. Skarstad, ‘Human Rights Violations and Conflict Risk: A Theoretical and Empirical Assessment’, in Bailliet and Mujezinović Larsen, supra note 16, 133 at 147.
41 Bailliet and Mujezinović Larsen, supra note 16, at 13; B.A. Andreassen, ‘Traps of Violence: A Human Rights Analysis of Relationships between Peace and Development’, in Bailliet and Mujezinović Larsen, supra note 16, at 148, 167.
42 Bailliet and Mujezinović Larsen, supra note 16, at 13–14.
43 Ibid., at 14.
45 G. Nystuen and K. Egeland, ‘The Potential of the Arms Trade Treaty to Reduce Violations of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights Law’, in Bailliet and Mujezinović Larsen, supra note 16, 209 at 223.
46 Ibid., at 223–4.
47 Ibid., at 224–5.
48 V. Blaker Strand, ‘Non-Discrimination and Equality as the Foundation of Peace’, in Bailliet and Mujezinović Larsen, supra note 16, 229 at 232.
49 Bailliet and Mujezinović Larsen, supra note 16, at 15.
50 M. Janmyr, ‘Refugees and Peace’, in Bailliet and Mujezinović Larsen, supra note 16, 252 at 253, 272–3.
51 C. Weiss, ‘Barely Begun: The Inclusion of Women Peacemakers, Peacekeepers, and Peacebuilders in International Law and Practice’, in Bailliet and Mujezinović Larsen, supra note 16, at 274.
52 Bailliet and Mujezinović Larsen, supra note 16, at 15; Weiss, supra note 51, at 296.
53 K. Mujezinović Larsen, ‘United Nations Peace Operations an International law: What Kind of Law Promotes What Kind of Peace?’, in Bailliet and Mujezinović Larsen, supra note 16, at 299.
54 Ibid., at 320.
55 Bailliet and Mujezinović Larsen, supra note 16, at 16; J García-Godos, ‘It's About Trust: Transitional Justice and Accountability in the Search for Peace’, in Bailliet and Mujezinović Larsen, supra note 16, 321 at 323; Cf. Baaz, M., ‘Dissident Voices in International Criminal Law’, (2015a) 28 Leiden Journal of International Law 673–89; Baaz, M., ‘Bringing the Khmer Rouge to Trial: An Extraordinary Experiment in International Criminal Law, (2015b) 61 Scandinavian Studies in Law 292–338 ; Baaz, M., ‘The “Dark Side” of International Law. The Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia’, (2015c) 60 Scandinavian Studies in Law 157–86.
56 Bailliet and Mujezinović Larsen, supra note 16, at 16.
57 Ibid., at 17.
58 C. Hellestveit, ‘International Fact-Finding Mechanisms: Lighting Candles or Cursing Darkness?’, in Bailliet and Mujezinović Larsen, supra note 16, 368 at 394.
59 Bailliet and Mujezinović Larsen, supra note 16, at 17.
60 Ibid., at 17; M.D. Sommardahl, ‘Education for Peace: Epilogue’, in Bailliet and Mujezinović Larsen, supra note 16, 416 at 416–17.
61 Ibid., at 429.
62 See, e.g., Armstrong, D., Farrell, T. and Lambert, H., International Law and International Relations (2012); Byers, M., The Role of Law in International Politics (2000); Cali, B. (ed.), International Law for International Relations (2009); Reus-Smit, C., Politics of International Law (2004).
63 Cali, supra note 62, at 7.
64 See, e.g., Baaz, supra note 4; Baylis, J., Smith, S. and Owens, P., The Globalization of World Politics: An Introduction to International Relations (2013).
65 M. Baaz, Law and Politics in International Society (forthcoming).
66 Bull, supra note 22, at 361.
67 Jackson, R.H. and Sørensen, G., Introduction to International Relations: Theories and Approaches (2007), 130 .
68 Bull, H. and Watson, A. (eds.), The Expansion of International Society (1984), 1 ; Bull, H., The Anarchical Society: A Study of Order in World Politics (2012), 71 (italics added). The concept of international society has also been fundamental to international law since at least the nineteenth century; Buzan, B., An Introduction to the English School of International Relations (2014), 5 .
69 Jørgensen, K.E., International Relations Theory: A New Introduction (2010), 102 . See also Baaz supra note 17, at 35–42.
70 See, e.g., Jørgensen, supra note 69, at 102–25.
71 Foot, R., ‘Introduction’, in Foot, R., Gaddis, J.L. and Hurrell, A. (eds.) Order and Justice in International Relations (2003), at 1 ; A. Hurrell, ‘Order and Justice in International Relations: What is at Stake?’, ibid., 24 at 31. See also Baaz, M. and Lilja, M., ‘Understanding Hybrid Democracy in Cambodia: The Nexus Between Liberal Democracy, the State, Civil Society and a “Politics of Presence”’, (2013) 6 Asian Politics and Policy 5–24 ; Baaz, 2015a, 2015b, 2015c, supra note 55.
72 Cf. Clark, I., Legitimacy in International Society (2005), 26–9.
73 Bull, H., ‘Natural Law and International Relations’, (1979) 5 British Journal of International Studies 171, at 181.
74 Nardin, T., ‘Legal Positivism as a Theory of International Society’, in Mapel, D.R. and Nardin, T., International Society: Diverse Ethical Perspectives (1998), 17 at 20.
75 Vincent, R.J., ‘Order in International Politics’, in Miller, J.D.B. and Vincent, R.J. (eds.), Order and Violence: Hedley Bull and International Relations (1990), 55 .
76 Dunne, T., Inventing International Society: A History of the English School (1998), 121–2.
77 See Skocpol, T., ‘Wallersteins World Capitalist System Perspective: A Theoretical and Historical Critique’, (1977) 82 American Journal of Sociology 1075–90.
78 See Baaz, supra note 36.
79 Koskenniemi, M., ‘What is International Law for?’, in Evans, M. (ed.), International Law (2010), 32 at 38–9, 52–3. See further Baaz, supra note 65.
* Associate Professor in International Law and Associate Professor in Peace and Conflict Studies, School of Business, Economics and Law, University of Gothenburg [email@example.com].
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