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How Does Culture Matter? The Xin (Heart-Mind)-based Social Competence of Chinese Executives

  • Hongguo Wei (a1), Diana Bilimoria (a2) and Shaobing Li (a3)
Abstract
ABSTRACT

In this study we explore the emotional and cognitive dimensions of Chinese business leaders’ social competence. We argue for a culturally inclusive conceptualization of leader social competence and its internal structure, which takes into account Chinese indigenous features. Data were collected by critical incident interviews from 42 top executives of small- and medium-sized private enterprises in China. A total of 302 competency episodes were included in the current study. Grounded theory was used for data analysis. The following xin (heart-mind)-based social competencies were referenced in episodes of effective Chinese competency-relevant social interactions: guanxi building and maintenance, empathy, inspiration with wisdom, empowerment and developing others, resilience, and appreciation of problem solving. Each of these competencies includes an emotional and a cognitive element and embodies dynamic interplay between the emotional and cognitive dimensions of social competence. Xin-based social competencies impact effective interactions in relational contexts that implicate the individual self, the organizational self, and their interactions. The theoretical contributions and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

摘要:

在这项研究中, 我们探讨中国企业领袖社会能力的情感和认知维度。我们提出对领导者社会能力及其内部结构考虑中国本土特征的文化包容的概念化。数据是通过对42位在中国的中小型私企高管的关键事件访谈收集的。总共有302个能力情节被包括在目前的研究中。扎根理论被用于数据分析。以下以xin (心-智)为基础的社会能力在有效的与中国能力相关的社会互动情节里被提及:关系建设与维护, 同情, 智慧灵感, 赋权和发展他人, 回弹性, 欣赏解决问题。 这些能力中的每一个都包含情感和认知元素, 并体现了社会能力的情感和认知维度的动态的相互作用。基于Xin的社会能力影响启示个人自我, 组织自我, 及它们互动关系情境里的有效互动。本文对研究结果的理论贡献和实际意义进行了讨论。

इस शोध में हमने चीनी उद्योगपतियों की सामाजिक क्षमता के भावात्मक एवं संज्ञानात्मक आयामों पर अन्वेषण किया है. हमने नेतृत्व तथा उसकी आतंरिक संरचना की ऐसी समावेशित अवधारणा का पक्ष रखा है जिसमें स्वदेशीय चिन (मन-मस्तिष्क) तत्वों का समावेश है. इस शोध के लिए आंकड़े चीन के ४२ लघु व माध्यम आकर फार्मों के शीर्ष अधिकारीयों के क्रिटिकल इंसिडेंट आधारित साक्षात्कारों से एकत्रित किये गए हैं. कुल ३०२ क्षमता सम्बन्धी प्रसंगों को इस अध्ययन में शामिल किया गया है. आंकड़ों का आकलन ग्राउंडेड थ्योरी से किया गया है. तदनुसार निम्न चिन आधारित सामाजिक क्षमताओं का प्रभावशाली चीनी क्षमताओं के तौर पर प्रसंगों में उल्लेख हुआ है. गुआची गठन व पोषण, परानुभूति, बुद्धिपरक प्रेरणा, सहभागियों का विकास व शक्ति हस्तांतरण, जिजीविषा और समस्या पूर्ती का अधिमूल्यन. प्रत्येक क्षमता के भावात्मक व संज्ञानात्मक आयाम और इन दोनों आयामों की गतिशील परस्परता सन्निहित है. चिन आधारित सामाजिक क्षमताएं अन्तर्सम्बन्धों में प्रभावशाली परस्परता पर असर डालती हैं जो व्यक्तिगत अस्मिता, संगठन-जनित अस्मिता और इनकी अन्तः क्रिया के लिए महत्वपूर्ण है. शोध पत्र में सैद्धांतिक योगदान तथा व्यावहारिक असहायों की चर्चा की गयी है.

ABSTRACT:

Neste estudo, exploramos as dimensões emocional e cognitiva da competência social dos líderes empresariais chineses. Nós defendemos uma conceituação culturalmente inclusiva de competência social do líder e de sua estrutura interna, que leva em consideração as características chinesas originais. Os dados foram coletados por entrevistas sobre incidentes críticos de 42 altos executivos de pequenas e médias empresas privadas na China. Um total de 302 episódios de competência foram incluídos no presente estudo. Grounded Theory foi utilizada para análise de dados. As seguintes competências sociais baseadas em xin (coração-mente) foram referenciadas em episódios de efetivas interações sociais chinesas de competência-relevância: construção e manutenção de guanxi, empatia, inspiração com sabedoria, capacitação e desenvolvimento de outros, resiliência e apreciação da resolução de problemas. Cada uma dessas competências inclui um elemento emocional e cognitivo e incorpora uma interação dinâmica das dimensões emocional e cognitiva da competência social. As competências sociais baseadas em Xin afetam interações efetivas em contextos relacionais que implicam o eu individual, o eu organizacional e suas interações. As contribuições teóricas e as implicações práticas dos achados são discutidas.

АННОТАЦИЯ:

В данной работе мы исследуем эмоциональные и когнитивные аспекты социальной компетентности китайских бизнес-лидеров. Мы предлагаем культурно-всеобъемлющую концептуализацию социальной компетентности руководителей, а также рассматриваем ее внутреннюю структуру, которая учитывает исконные особенности Китая. Данные были собраны методом критических спонтанных интервью с участием 42 топ-менеджеров в малых и средних частных предприятиях в Китае. Это исследование содержит 302 эпизода, которые иллюстрируют социальную компетентность. Обоснованная теория была использована для анализа данных. Следующие социальные компетенции, основанные на понятии xin (сердце-разум), были выделены в эпизодах эффективных социальных взаимодействий, которые связаны с компетентностью в Китае: создание и развитие guanxi, эмпатия, вдохновение посредством мудрости, расширение прав и возможностей других, устойчивость и способность к решению проблем. Каждая из этих компетенций включает в себя эмоциональный и когнитивный элементы, а также воплощает динамическое взаимодействие эмоциональных и когнитивных аспектов социальной компетентности. Социальные компетенции на основе xin влияют на эффективность взаимодействий в контексте социальных отношений, которые подразумевают индивидуальное “я”, организационное “я” и их взаимодействия. В заключение, делаются некоторые теоретические выводы, а также обсуждаются практические результаты.

RESUMEN:

En este estudio exploramos las dimensiones emocionales y cognitivas de las habilidades sociales de los líderes empresariales chinos. Abogamos por una conceptualización culturalmente inclusiva de las habilidades sociales de un líder y su estructura interna, la cual tenga en cuenta características nativas de los chinos. Los datos fueron recogidos mediante entrevistas de incidentes críticos a 42 altos ejecutivos de empresas privadas pequeñas y medianas en China. Un total de 302 episodios de competencia fueron incluidos en el estudio. La teoría fundamentada fue usada para el análisis de los datos. Las siguientes habilidades sociales basadas en el xin (corazón.mente) fueron referenciadas en episodios de interacciones sociales relevantes para la competencia china: la construcción y mantenimiento de guanxi, la empatía, inspiración con sabiduría, el empoderamiento y desarrollo de otros, la resiliencia, y la apreciación de la resolución de problemas. Cada una de estas competencias incluye un elemento emocional y cognitivo y encarna una interacción dinámica de las dimensiones emocionales y cognitivas de las habilidades sociales. Las habilidades sociales basadas en xin impactan las interacciones efectivas que implican al yo individuo, al yo organizacional y sus interacciones. Las contribuciones teóricas y las implicaciones prácticas de los hallazgos son discutidos.

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Corresponding author: Hongguo Wei (hxw243@case.edu)
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