Skip to main content
×
Home

Managerial Ties, Market Orientation, and Export Performance: Chinese Firms Experience

  • Hui Yan (a1), Xinming He (a2) and Binwu Cheng (a3)
Abstract
ABSTRACT

Managerial ties (MT) are important for business performance by providing firms access to valuable resources and protecting them from opportunism. Drawing on the resource-based view and the market orientation (MO) literature, we argue that (1) MT can help exporting firms to enhance export performance; and (2) MO will help strengthen the positive effect of MT as MO directs the value of MT for improvement of competitive strategy and customer experience with a market focus on generation, dissemination, and use of market intelligence concerning existing and potential customers and competitors. Using a sample of 230 Chinese exporting firms, we found that MT is linked to superior export performance, and the link is positively moderated by MO. Therefore, this study expands our understanding of how firms can not only improve their export performance through the development of MT, but also use MO to reinforce MT and export performance association.

摘要:

管理联系 (MT) 对经营业绩重要, 它向企业提供对宝贵资源的获取, 并保护它们免于机会主义。借鉴资源基础观和市场导向 (MO) 文献, 我们认为, (1) MT能帮助出口企业提升出口业绩; (2) MO 将有助于增强MT的积极影响, 因为MO指导MT改进竞争策略和客户体验的价值, 对生成、传播及使用有关现有和潜在客户和竞争对手的市场情报给予市场关注。使用230个中国出口企业的样本, 我们发现, MT与卓越的出口业绩有关联, 且该关联受到MO的积极影响。因此, 本研究扩大了我们对企业如何能不仅通过发展MT来改进它们的出口业绩, 而且使用MO来加强MT与出口业绩相关性的认识。

प्रबंधकीय अन्तर्सम्बन्ध, फर्म को महत्वपूर्ण संसाधन प्रदान कर और साथ ही उसे अवसरवाद से बचा कर, व्यावसायिक प्रदर्शन के लिए महत्वपूर्ण होते हैं. संसाधनपरक परिप्रेक्ष्य व बाज़ारपरकता के शोध साहित्य के आधार पर हमारा यह मत है कि (1) प्रबंधकीय अन्तर्सम्बन्ध निर्यातक फर्मों के बेहतर प्रदर्शन में सहायक हैं, और (2) बाज़ारपरकता प्रबंधकीय अन्तर्सम्बन्धों का सकारात्मक प्रभाव सुदृढ़ करेगी क्योंकि बाज़ारपरकता स्पर्धात्मक रणनीति व उपभोक्ता अनुभूति की महत्ता को दिशा देती है जिसका केंद्र-बिंदु संभावित उपभोक्ताओं व प्रतिस्पर्धियों से जुड़ी बाजार आसूचना का विकास, प्रसार व प्रयोग है. हमने 230 चीनी निर्यात फर्मों के आदर्शों के आकलन से यह पाया की प्रबंधकीय अन्तर्सम्बन्धों का श्रेष्ठतर निर्यात परिणाम से सम्बन्ध है जिसमें बाज़ारपरकता सकारात्मक मध्यस्थ है. अतएव यह शोध अध्ययन प्रबंधकीय अन्तर्सम्बन्धों के माध्यम से निर्यात प्रदर्शन सुधरने की हमारी समझ को बढ़ने के साथ ही प्रबंधकीय संबंधों व निर्यात प्रदर्शन में बाज़ारपरकता द्वारा प्रदत्त सुदृढ़ीकरण को भी दिखता है.

Sumário:

Vínculos gerenciais (MT) são importantes para o desempenho dos negócios, proporcionando às empresas acesso a recursos valiosos e protegendo-os do oportunismo. Com base na visão baseada em recursos e na literatura de orientação a mercado (MO), argumentamos que (1) MT podem ajudar as empresas exportadoras a melhorar o desempenho das exportações; e (2) MO ajudarão a fortalecer o efeito positivo da MT, uma vez que MO dirige o valor da MT para melhorar a estratégia competitiva e a experiência do cliente com foco mercadológico na geração, disseminação e uso de inteligência de mercado sobre clientes e concorrentes existentes e potenciais. Usando uma amostra de 230 empresas exportadoras chinesas, descobrimos que a MT está vinculada ao desempenho de exportação superior e o link é positivamente moderado pelo MO. Portanto, este estudo amplia nossa compreensão de como as empresas podem não apenas melhorar seu desempenho de exportação através do desenvolvimento de MT, mas também usar MO para reforçar MT e a associação com o desempenho exportador.

АННОТАЦИЯ:

Управленческие связи (MT) важны для эффективности бизнеса, поскольку они обеспечивают компаниям доступ к ценным ресурсам и защищают их от оппортунизма. На основании ресурсной теории и литературы по рыночной ориентации (МО), мы утверждаем, что (1) управленческие связи (MT) могут способствовать в повышении эффективности экспортной деятельности в компаниях; а также (2) рыночная ориентация (МО) помогает усилить положительный эффект управленческих связей (МТ), поскольку рыночная ориентация (МО) повышает ценность управленческих связей (МТ) для улучшения конкурентной стратегии и работы с клиентами с помощью создания, распространения и использования рыночной информации относительно существующих и потенциальных клиентов и конкурентов. Используя выборку из 230 китайских экспортных компаний, мы обнаружили, что управленческие связи (МТ) влияют на высокую эффективность экспорта, и этот положительный эффект усиливает рыночная ориентация (МО). Таким образом, это исследование способствует более глубокому пониманию того, как компании могут не только улучшить свои экспортные показатели за счет развития управленческих связей (МТ), но и использовать рыночную ориентацию (МО) для укрепления управленческих связей (МТ), а также эффективности экспорта, которая зависит от управленческих связей.

RESUMEN:

Los vínculos gerenciales (MT por sus iniciales en inglés) son importantes para el desempeño exportador al proporcionar a las empresas acceso a recursos valiosos y protegerlas de oportunismo. Basándonos en la literatura de la visión basada en recursos y la orientación de mercado (MO por sus iniciales en inglés), argumentamos que (1) los vínculos gerenciales puede ayudar a las empresas exportadoras a mejorar el desempeño de las exportaciones; y (2) la orientación de mercado ayudará a fortalecer el efecto positivo de los vínculos gerenciales pues que la orientación de mercado dirige el valor de los vínculos gerenciales para mejorar la estrategia competitiva y la experiencia del consumidor con un enfoque de mercado en generación, diseminación y uso de inteligencia de mercado de clientes existentes y potenciales, y competidores. Usando una muestra de 230 empresas chinas exportadoras, encontramos que los vínculos gerenciales están vinculados a un rendimiento superior de exportación, y el vínculo es positivamente moderado por la orientación de mercado. Por lo tanto, este estudio expande nuestro entendimiento de como las firmas no sólo pueden mejorar su desempeño exportador mediante el desarrollo de vínculos empresariales, sino que también usan la orientación de mercado para reforzar los vínculos gerenciales y la asociación de desempeño exportador.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Corresponding author: Xinming He (xinming.he@durham.ac.uk)
Footnotes
Hide All

An addendum to this article immediately follows in print.

Footnotes
References
Hide All
Achrol R. S. 1991. Evolution of the marketing organization: New forms for turbulent environments. Journal of Marketing, 55 (4): 7793.
Acquaah M. 2007. Managerial social capital, strategic orientation, and organizational performance in an emerging economy. Strategic Management Journal, 28 (12): 12351255.
Anderson J. C., & Gerbing D. W. 1988. Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103 (3): 411423.
Armstrong J. S., & Overton T. S. 1977. Estimating nonresponse bias in mail surveys. Journal of Marketing Research, 14 (3): 396402.
Aulakh P. S., Kotabe M., & Teegen H. 2000. Export strategies and performance of firms from emerging economies: Evidence from Brazil, Chile, and Mexico. Academy of Management Journal, 43 (3): 342361.
Barney J. 1991. Firm resources and sustainable competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17 (1): 99120.
Barney J., Wright M., & Ketchen D. J. Jr. 2001. The resource-based view of the firm: Ten years after 1991. Journal of Management, 27 (6): 625641.
Batjargal B. 2007. Network triads: Transitivity, referral and venture capital decisions in China and Russia. Journal of International Business Studies, 38 (6): 9981012.
Boso N., Story V. M., Cadogan J. W., Micevski M., & Kadić-Maglajlić S. 2013. Firm innovativeness and export performance: Environmental, networking, and structural contingencies. Journal of International Marketing, 21 (4): 6287.
Brouthers K. D., Brouthers L. E., & Werner S. 2003. Transaction cost-enhanced entry mode choices and firm performance. Strategic Management Journal, 24 (12): 12391248.
Buckley P. J., Clegg L. J., Cross A. R., Liu X., Voss H., & Zheng P. 2007. The determinants of Chinese outward foreign direct investment. Journal of International Business Studies, 38 (4): 499518.
Burt R. S. 1997. The contingent value of social capital. Administrative Science Quarterly, 42 (2): 339365.
Cadogan J. W., & Diamantopoulos A. 1995. Narver and Slater, Kohli and Jaworski and the market orientation construct: Integration and internationalization. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 3 (1): 4160.
Cadogan J. W., Diamantopoulos A., & Siguaw J. A. 2002. Export market-oriented activities: Their antecedents and performance consequences. Journal of International Business Studies, 33 (3): 615626.
Cadogan J. W., Paul N. J., Salminen R. T., Puumalainen K., & Sundqvist S. 2001. Key antecedents to 'export' market-oriented behaviors: A cross-national empirical examination. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 18 (3): 261282.
Cavusgil S. T., & Zou S. 1994. Marketing strategy-performance relationship: An investigation of the empirical link in export. Journal of Marketing, 58 (1): 122.
Chung H. F. L. 2011. Market orientation, guanxi, and business performance. Industrial Marketing Management, 40 (4): 522533.
Chung H. F. L. 2012. Export market orientation, managerial ties, and performance. International Marketing Review, 29 (4): 403423.
Cohen W. M., & Levinthal D. A. 1990. Absorptive capacity: A new perspective on learning and innovation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35 (1): 128152.
Contractor N. S., Wasserman S., & Faust K. 2006. Testing multitheoretical, multilevel hypotheses about organizational networks: An analytic framework and empirical example. Academy of Management Review, 31 (3): 681703.
Cortina J. M. 1993. Interaction, nonlinearity, and multicollinearity: Implications for multiple regression. Journal of Management, 19 (4): 915922.
Dess G. G., & Robinson R. B. J. 1984. Measuring organizational performance in the absence of objective measures: The case of the privately-held firm and conglomerate business unit. Strategic Management Journal, 5 (3): 265273.
Dyer J. H., & Singh H. 1998. The relational view: Cooperative strategy and sources of interorganizational competitive advantage. Academy of Management Review, 23 (4): 660679.
Elango B., & Pattnaik C. 2007. Building capabilities for international operations through networks: A study of Indian firms. Journal of International Business Studies, 38 (4): 541555.
Ellis P. 2000. Social ties and foreign market entry. Journal of International Business Studies, 31 (3): 443.
Ellis P., & Pecotich A. 2001. Social factors influencing export initiation in small and medium-sized enterprises. Journal of Marketing Research, 38 (1): 119130.
Ellis P. D. 2007. Distance, dependence and diversity of markets: Effects on market orientation. Journal of International Business Studies, 38 (3): 374386.
Ellis P. D. 2010. Is market orientation affected by the size and diversity of customer networks? Management International Review, 50 (3): 325345.
Ellis P. D. 2011. Social ties and international entrepreneurship: Opportunities and constraints affecting firm internationalization. Journal of International Business Studies, 42 (1): 99127.
Fornell C., & Larcker D. F. 1981. Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18 (3): 3950.
Guo H., Xu E., & Jacobs M. 2014. Managerial political ties and firm performance during institutional transitions: An analysis of mediating mechanisms. Journal of Business Research, 67 (2): 116127.
Hair J. F., Black B., Babin B., Anderson R. E., & Tatham R. L. 2006. Multivariate data analysis. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
He X., Brouthers K. D., & Filatotchev I. 2013. Resource-based and institutional perspectives on export channel selection and export performance. Journal of Management, 39 (1): 2747.
Hult G. T. M., Ketchen D. J. Jr., Griffith D. A., Chabowski B. R., Hamman M. K., Dykes B. J., Pollitte W. A., & Cavusgil S. T. 2008. An assessment of the measurement of performance in international business research. Journal of International Business Studies, 39 (6): 10641080.
Hult G. T. M., Ketchen J. D. J., & Slater S. F. 2005. Market orientation and performance: An integration of disparate approaches. Strategic Management Journal, 26 (12): 11731181.
Hunt S. D., & Morgan R. M. 1995. The comparative advantage theory of competition. Journal of Marketing, 59 (2): 115.
Ismail K., Ford D. Jr., Wu Q., & Peng M. 2013. Managerial ties, strategic initiatives, and firm performance in Central Asia and the Caucasus. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 30 (2): 433446.
Jaworski B. J., & Kohli A. K. 1993. Marketing orientation: Antecedents and consequences. Journal of Marketing, 57 (3): 5379.
Johanson J., & Vahlne J.-E. 2009. The Uppsala internationalization process model revisited: From liability of foreignness to liability of outsidership. Journal of International Business Studies, 40 (9): 14111431.
Johnson J., Yin E., & Tsai H. 2009. Persistence and learning: Success factors of Taiwanese firms in international markets. Journal of International Marketing, 17 (3): 3954.
Kaleka A. 2012. Studying resource and capability effects on export venture performance. Journal of World Business, 47 (1): 93105.
Katsikeas C. S., Leonidou L. C., & Morgan N. A. 2000. Firm-level export performance assessment: Review, evaluation, and development. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28 (4): 493511.
Kim T.-Y., Oh H., & Swaminathan A. 2006. Framing interorganizational network change: A network inertia perspective. Academy of Management Review, 31 (3): 704720.
Kirca A. H., Jayachandran S., & Bearden W. O. 2005. Market orientation: A meta-analytic review and assessment of its antecedents and impact on performance. Journal of Marketing, 69 (2): 2441.
Kohli A. K., & Jaworski B. J. 1990. Marketing orientation: The construct, research propositions, and managerial implications. Journal of Marketing, 54 (2): 118.
Kohli A. K., Jaworski B. J., & Kumar A. 1993. MARKOR: A Measure of Market Orientation. Journal of Marketing Research, 30 (4): 467477.
Kwon Y.-C., & Hu M. Y. 2000. Market orientation among small Korean exporters. International Business Review, 9 (1): 6175.
Lages L. F., Silva G., & Styles C. 2009. Relationship capabilities, quality, and innovation as determinants of export performance. Journal of International Marketing, 17 (4): 4770.
Lavie D. 2006. The competitive advantage of interconnected firms: An extension of the resource-based view. Academy of Management Review, 31 (3): 638658.
Lee C., & Griffith D. A. 2004. The marketing strategy-performance relationship in an export-driven developing economy: A Korean illustration. International Marketing Review, 21 (3): 321334.
Lee C., Lee K., & Pennings J. M. 2001. Internal capabilities, external networks, and performance: A study on technology-based ventures. Strategic Management Journal, 22 (6/7): 615640.
Leonidou L. C., Katsikeas C. S., & Samiee S. 2002. Marketing strategy determinants of export performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Business Research, 55 (1): 5167.
Li H., & Zhang Y. 2007. The role of managers' political networking and functional experience in new venture performance: Evidence from China's transition economy. Strategic Management Journal, 28 (8): 791804.
Li J. J., Poppo L., & Zhou K. Z. 2008. Do managerial ties in China always produce value? Competition, uncertainty, and domestic vs. foreign firms. Strategic Management Journal, 29 (4): 383400.
Li J. J., & Zhou K. Z. 2010. How foreign firms achieve competitive advantage in the Chinese emerging economy: Managerial ties and market orientation. Journal of Business Research, 63: 856862.
Li J. J., Zhou K. Z., & Shao A. T. 2009. Competitive position, managerial ties, and profitability of foreign firms in China: An interactive perspective. Journal of International Business Studies, 40 (2): 339352.
Lindell M. K., & Whitney D. J. 2001. Accounting for common method variance in cross-sectional research designs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86 (1): 114121.
Lu Y., Zhou L., Bruton G., & Li W. 2010. Capabilities as a mediator linking resources and the international performance of entrepreneurial firms in an emerging economy. Journal of International Business Studies, 41 (3): 419436.
Luo X., Griffith D. A., Liu S. S., & Shi Y. 2004. The effects of customer relationships and social capital on firm performance: A Chinese business illustration. Journal of International Marketing, 12 (4): 2545.
Luo X., Hsu M. K., & Liu S. S. 2008. The moderating role of institutional networking in the customer orientation-trust/commitment-performance causal chain in China. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 36 (2): 202214.
Luo X., Sivakumar K., & Liu S. S. 2005. Globalization, marketing resources, and performance: Evidence from China. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 33 (1): 5065.
Luo Y. 2000. Guanxi and business. Singapore: World Scientific.
Meyer K. E., & Sinani E. 2009. When and where does foreign direct investment generate positive spillovers[quest] A meta-analysis. Journal of International Business Studies, 40 (7): 10751094.
Mofcom. 2006. Export statistics of China in 2005. Ministry of Commerce of the People's Republic of China.
Moliterno T. P., & Mahony D. M. 2011. Network theory of organization: A multilevel approach. Journal of Management, 37 (2): 443467.
Morgan N. A., Kaleka A., & Katsikeas C. S. 2004. Antecedents of export venture performance: A theoretical model and empirical assessment. Journal of Marketing, 68 (1): 90108.
Morgan N. A., Vorhies D. W., & Mason C. H. 2009. Market orientation, marketing capabilities, and firm performance. Strategic Management Journal, 30 (8): 909920.
Morgan N. A., Zou S., Vorhies D. W., & Katsikeas C. S. 2003. Experiential and informational knowledge, architectural marketing capabilities, and the adaptive performance of export ventures: A cross-national study. Decision Sciences, 34 (2): 287321.
Morgan R. E., & Strong C. A. 2003. Business performance and dimensions of strategic orientation. Journal of Business Research, 56 (3): 163176.
Morgan R. M., & Hunt S. D. 1994. The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing. Journal of Marketing, 58 (3): 2038.
Murray J. Y., Gao G. Y., Kotabe M., & Zhou N. 2007. Assessing measurement invariance of export market orientation: A study of Chinese and non-Chinese firms in China. Journal of International Marketing, 15 (4): 4162.
Narver J. C., & Slater S. F. 1990. The effect of a market orientation on business profitability. Journal of Marketing, 54 (4): 2035.
NBSC. 2009. Market Share of Fujian Export. In China N. B. O. S. O. (Ed.). National Bureau of Statistics of China.
Park S. H., & Luo Y. 2001. Guanxi and organizational dynamics: Organizational networking in Chinese firms. Strategic Management Journal, 22 (5): 455477.
Peng M., Li Y., Xie E., & Su Z. 2010. CEO duality, organizational slack, and firm performance in China. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 27 (4): 611624.
Peng M. W. 2003. Institutional transitions and strategic choices. Academy of Management Review, 28 (2): 275296.
Peng M. W., & Luo Y. 2000. Managerial ties and firm performance in a transition economy: The nature of a micro-macro link. Academy of Management Journal, 43 (3): 486501.
Peng M. W., & Zhou J. Q. 2005. How network strategies and institutional transitions evolve in Asia. Asian Pacific Journal of Management, 22 (4): 321336.
Podsakoff P. M., Mackenzie S. B., Lee J.-Y., & Podsakoff N. P. 2003. Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88 (5): 879903.
Podsakoff P. M., & Organ D. W. 1986. Self-reports in organizational research: Problems and prospects. Journal of Management, 12 (4): 531544.
Provan K. G., Fish A., & Sydow J. 2007. Interorganizational networks at the network level: A review of the empirical literature on whole networks. Journal of Management, 33 (3): 479516.
Sheng S., Zhou K. Z., & Li J. J. 2011. The effects of business and political ties on firm performance: Evidence from China. Journal of Marketing, 75 (1): 115.
Shervani T. A., Frazier G., & Challagalla G. 2007. The moderating influence of firm market power on the transaction cost economics model: An empirical test in a forward channel integration context. Strategic Management Journal, 28 (6): 635652.
Sinkula J. M. 1994. Market information processing and organizational learning. Journal of Marketing, 58 (1): 3545.
Slater S., & Narver J. C. 2000. The positive effect of a market orientation on business profitability: A balanced replication. Journal of Business Research, 48 (1): 6973.
Sousa C. M. P., Martínez-López F. J., & Coelho F. 2008. The determinants of export performance: A review of the research in the literature between 1998 and 2005. International Journal of Management Reviews, 10 (4): 343374.
Stam W., & Elfring T. 2008. Entrepreneurial orientation and new venture performance: The moderating role of intra- and extraindustry social capital. Academy of Management Journal, 51 (1): 97111.
Subramanian R., & Gopalakrishna P. 2001. The market orientation-performance relationship in the context of a developing economy: An empirical analysis. Journal of Business Research, 53 (1): 113.
Sui S., & Baum M. 2014. Internationalization strategy, firm resources and the survival of SMEs in the export market. Journal of International Business Studies, 45 (7): 821841.
Tan J., & Peng M. W. 2004. Organizational slack and firm performance during economic transitions: Two studies from an emerging economy. Strategic Management Journal, 25 (3): 307307.
Tsang E. W. K. 1998. Can guanxi be a source of sustained competitive advantage for doing business in China? Academy of Management Executive, 12 (2): 6473.
Tse A. C. B., Sin L. Y. M., Yau O. H. M., Lee J. S. Y., & Chow R. 2003. Market orientation and business performance in Chinese business environment. Journal of Business Research, 56 (3): 227239.
Uzzi B. 1999. Embeddedness in the making of financial capital: How social relations and networks benefit firms seeking financing. American Sociological Review, 64 (4): 481505.
WB. 2014. World development indicators. http://wdi.worldbank.org/table/4.8. World Bank.
Wei L.-Q., & Lau C.-M. 2008. The impact of market orientation and strategic HRM on firm performance: The case of Chinese enterprises. Journal of International Business Studies, 39 (6): 980995.
Welch L. S., & Luostarinen R. K. 1993. Inward-outward connections in internationalization. Journal of International Marketing, 1 (1): 4456.
Wu F., Sinkovics R. R., Cavusgil S. T., & Roath A. S. 2007. Overcoming export manufacturers' dilemma in international expansion. Journal of International Business Studies, 38 (2): 283302.
Xin K. R., & Pearce J. L. 1996. Guanxi: Connections as substitutes for formal institutional support. Academy of Management Journal, 39 (6): 16411658.
Yiu D. W., Lau C., & Bruton G. D. 2007. International venturing by emerging economy firms: The effects of firm capabilities, home country networks, and corporate entrepreneurship. Journal of International Business Studies, 38 (4): 519540.
Zaheer S. 1995. Overcoming the liability of foreignness. Academy of Management Journal, 38 (2): 341363.
Zhang C., Hu Z., & Gu F. F. 2008. Intra- and interfirm coordination of export manufacturers: A cluster analysis of indigenous Chinese exporters. Journal of International Marketing, 16 (3): 108135.
Zhang J., Tan J., & Wong P. 2014. When does investment in political ties improve firm performance? The contingent effect of innovation activities. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 32 (2): 125.
Zhang Y., Li H., Hitt M. A., & Cui G. 2007. R&D intensity and international joint venture performance in an emerging market: Moderating effects of market focus and ownership structure. Journal of International Business Studies, 38 (6): 944960.
Zhou K. Z., Brown J. R., Dev C. S., & Agarwal S. 2007a. The effects of customer and competitor orientations on performance in global markets: A contingency analysis. Journal of International Business Studies, 38 (2): 303319.
Zhou K. Z., Gao G. Y., Yang Z., & Zhou N. 2005. Developing strategic orientation in China: Antecedents and consequences of market and innovation orientations. Journal of Business Research, 58 (8): 10491058.
Zhou K. Z., Li J. J., Zhou N., & Su C. 2008a. Market orientation, job satisfaction, product quality, and firm performance: Evidence from China. Strategic Management Journal, 29 (9): 9851000.
Zhou K. Z., Poppo L., & Yang Z. 2008b. Relational ties or customized contracts? An examination of alternative governance choices in China. Journal of International Business Studies, 39 (3): 526534.
Zhou L., Wu W.-P., & Luo X. 2007b. Internationalization and the performance of Born-Global SMEs: The mediating role of social networks. Journal of International Business Studies, 38 (4): 673690.
Zou S., & Stan S. 1998. The determinants of export performance: A review of the empirical literature between 1987 and 1997. International Marketing Review, 15 (5): 333356.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Management and Organization Review
  • ISSN: 1740-8776
  • EISSN: 1740-8784
  • URL: /core/journals/management-and-organization-review
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary Materials

Yan et al supplementary material
Yan et al supplementary material 2

 Word (14 KB)
14 KB
WORD
Supplementary Materials

Yan et al supplementary material
Yan et al supplementary material 1

 Word (14 KB)
14 KB
WORD
Supplementary Materials

Yan et al supplementary material
Yan et al supplementary material 3

 Word (28 KB)
28 KB
WORD
Supplementary Materials

Yan et al supplementary material
Yan et al supplementary material 4

 Word (13 KB)
13 KB
WORD
Supplementary Materials

Yan et al supplementary material
Yan et al supplementary material 5

 Word (13 KB)
13 KB

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 6
Total number of PDF views: 58 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 301 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 27th February 2017 - 18th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

An addendum has published for this article: