Skip to main content
×
×
Home

‘Shell shock’ Revisited: An Examination of the Case Records of the National Hospital in London

  • Stefanie Caroline Linden (a1) and Edgar Jones (a2)
Abstract

During the First World War the National Hospital for the Paralysed and Epileptic, in Queen Square, London, then Britain’s leading centre for neurology, took a key role in the treatment and understanding of shell shock. This paper explores the case notes of all 462 servicemen who were admitted with functional neurological disorders between 1914 and 1919. Many of these were severe or chronic cases referred to the National Hospital because of its acknowledged expertise and the resources it could call upon. Biographical data was collected together with accounts of the patient’s military experience, his symptoms, diagnostic interpretations and treatment outcomes. Analysis of the notes showed that motor syndromes (loss of function or hyperkinesias), often combined with somato-sensory loss, were common presentations. Anxiety and depression as well as vegetative symptoms such as sweating, dizziness and palpitations were also prevalent among this patient population. Conversely, psychogenic seizures were reported much less frequently than in comparable accounts from German tertiary referral centres. As the war unfolded the number of physicians who believed that shell shock was primarily an organic disorder fell as research failed to find a pathological basis for its symptoms. However, little agreement existed among the Queen Square doctors about the fundamental nature of the disorder and it was increasingly categorised as functional disorder or hysteria.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      ‘Shell shock’ Revisited: An Examination of the Case Records of the National Hospital in London
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      ‘Shell shock’ Revisited: An Examination of the Case Records of the National Hospital in London
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      ‘Shell shock’ Revisited: An Examination of the Case Records of the National Hospital in London
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Corresponding author
*Email address for correspondence: LindenS@cardiff.ac.uk
References
Hide All

1. Turner, William Aldren, ‘Remarks on Cases of Nervous and Mental Shock’, BMJ, 1, 2837 (1915), 833835.

2. Ibid., 833; From a Special Correspondent in Northern France, ‘Medical Arrangements of the British Expeditionary Force’, BMJ, 2, 2815 (1914), 1037–8.

3. Medical Society of London, ‘Surgical Experiences of the Present War: Functional Blindness’, BMJ, 2, 2813 (1914), 938–42; 2nd Eastern General Hospital, ‘Home Hospitals and the War: Complete Loss of Memory’, BMJ, 2, 2814 (1914), 992.

4. Saturday, September 4, 1915, ‘Insanity and the War’, The Lancet, 186, 4801 (1915), 553–4. Author cites Eighty-fifth Annual Report of the Belfast District Lunatic Asylum.

5. Elliott, T.R., ‘Transient Paraplegia from Shell Explosions’, BMJ, 2, 2815 (1914), 10051006: 1006.

6. Turner, op. cit.(note 1), 833–5.

7. Charles Samuel Myers, ‘A Contribution to the Study of Shell Shock’, The Lancet, 185, 4772 (1915), 316–20. On the introduction of the term ‘shell shock’ see also Edgar Jones and Simon Wessely, Shell Shock to PTSD: Military Psychiatry from 1900 to the Gulf War(Hove: Psychology Press, 2005), 21.

8. Charles Samuel Myers, Shell Shock in France, 1914–1918(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011, 1940), 98.

9. Hurst, Arthur Frederick, ‘Observations on the Aetiology and Treatment of War Neuroses’, BMJ, 2, 2961 (1917), 409414.

10. Meyer, Jessica, ‘Separating the Men from the Boys: Masculinity and Maturity in Understandings of Shell Shock in Britain’, Twentieth Century British History, 20, 1 (2009), 122.

11. Loughran, Tracey, ‘Shell Shock, Trauma, and the First World War: The Making of a Diagnosis and its Histories’, Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, 67, 1 (2012), 94119.

12. Loughran, Tracey, ‘Shell Shock and British Psychological Medicine’, Social History of Medicine, 22 (2009), 7995.

13. Shephard, Ben, A War of Nerves: Soldiers and Psychiatrists in the Twentieth Century (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001).

14. Barham, Peter, Forgotten Lunatics of the Great War (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2004), 23: 26.

15. Reid, Fiona, Broken Men: Shell Shock, Treatment and Recovery in Britain 1914–1930 (London: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2010), 4161 [Paperback version, 2011].

16. Leese, Peter, Shell Shock: Traumatic Neurosis and the British Soldiers of the First World War (New York: Palgrave, 2002), 60; Hans Binneveld, From Shell Shock to Combat Stress: A Comparative History of Military Psychiatry (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 1997), 86–7; Shephard, op. cit. (note 13), 31.

17. Binneveld, op. cit.(note 16), 84–5; Binneveld cites Myers’s case histories published in the Lancet: Charles Samuel Myers, ‘Contributions to the Study of Shell Shock: Being an Account of Certain Cases Treated by Hypnosis’, The Lancet, 190, 4819 (1916), 65–9; for the First World War case reports also see Shephard, op. cit. (note 13), eg. the chapter ‘Psychiatry at the Front, 1917–18’, 53–71.

18. Peckl, Petra, ‘What the patient records reveal: reassuring the treatment of “war neurotics” in Germany (1914–1918)’, in Hofer, Hans-Georg, Pruell, Cay-Ruediger and Eckart, Wolfgang U. (eds), War, Trauma and Medicine in Germany and Central Europe (1914–1939) (Freiburg: Centaurus, 2011), 148.

19. Leese, op. cit.(note 16), 76–80, 90, 108–12.

20. Ibid., 91.

21. Humphries, Mark Osborne and Kurchinski, Kellen, ‘Rest, Relax and Get Well: A Re-Conceptualisation of Great War Shell Shock Treatment’, War & Society, 27, 2 (2008), 89110.

22. Ibid., 95.

23. Linden, Stefanie Caroline, Jones, Edgar and Lees, Andrew J., ‘Shell Shock at Queen Square: Lewis Yealland 100 Years On’, Brain, 136, 6 (2013), 19761988.

24. Linden, Stefanie Caroline and Jones, Edgar, ‘German Battle Casualties: The Treatment of Functional Somatic Disorders During World War One’, Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, 68 (2013), 627658.

25. Jones, Edgar et al. , ‘Post-Combat Syndromes from the Boer War to the Gulf War: A Cluster Analysis of Their Nature and Attribution’, BMJ, 324, 7333 (2002), 321324.

26. Linden, Jones and Lees, op. cit.(note 23).

27. Showalter, Elaine, The Female Malady: Women, Madness and English Culture 1830–1980 (London: Virago, 1987), 178; Pat Barker, Regeneration (London: Penguin, 2008).

28. Linden, Jones and Lees, op. cit.(note 23).

29. Showalter, op. cit.(note 27), 176–8.

30. Winter, Jay and Robert, Jean-Louis, Capital Cities at War: Paris, London, Berlin 1914–1919 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997).

31. Mark S. Micale and Paul Frederick Lerner, Traumatic Pasts: History, Psychiatry, and Trauma in the Modern Age, 1870–1930, Cambridge Studies in the History of Medicine (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001); Edgar Jones, ‘Shell Shock at Maghull and the Maudsley: Models of Psychological Medicine in the UK’, Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, 65, 3 (2010), 368–95.

32. Ibid., 213–14.

33. For a detailed account of the treatment at Maghull during World War One see Jones, op. cit.(note 31). Patient statistics and the number of military beds can be found in The National Hospital, Report for the year ending 31 December 1914, Queen Square Archive.

34. Maloney, W.J.M.A., ‘Obituary: “The National” and Dr F.E. Batten’, Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 49 (1919), 9194.

35. Leese, op. cit.(note 16), 77.

36. Leese, op. cit.(note 16), 75; also: Micale and Lerner, op. cit. (note 31), 217.

37. Shephard, op. cit.(note 13), XXIII.

38. Holmes, Gordon, The National Hospital, Queen Square, 1860–1948 (Edinburgh: E. & S. Livingstone, 1954).

39. Lord Knutsford, ‘To the editor of the Daily Mail’, Daily Mail(exact date unknown), newspaper cutting appended to the Minutes from the Board of Management meeting, 10 November 1914, Queen Square Archive (see Figure 1).

40. Minutes from the Board of Management meeting, 10 November 1914, Queen Square Archive (see Figure 1).

41. Steward B., Queen Square Records, Dr Batten, 1915, Queen Square Archive; the pain medication was ‘aspirin’.

42. Ibid.

43. Minutes from the Board of Management meeting, 12 January 1915 and 9 November 1915, Queen Square Archive.

44. Holmes, op. cit.(note 38), 58–9.

45. Minutes from the Board of Management meeting, 10 November 1914, Queen Square Archive: Howard Henry Tooth (1856–1925), consultant neurologist at Queen Square since 1887, informed the Board in writing that he had taken command of a military hospital and would not be able to attend to his duties at the National Hospital for some time. Also: Minutes from the Board of Management meeting, 12 January 1915, Queen Square Archive: Absence of W. Aldren Turner (1864–1945): ‘A letter was read from Dr Aldren Turner that he had been called away to France for a period of about two months …’.

46. Minutes from the Board of Management meeting, 10 November 1914, Queen Square Archive: Frederick Eustace Batten (1866–1918), Dean of the National’s Medical School who had resigned from his clinical duties in 1909, took responsibility for Tooth’s patients in his absence.

47. Holmes, op. cit.(note 38), 59.

48. The term ‘traumatic neurosis’ is closely linked to Hermann Oppenheim’s trauma concept where organic microlesions caused by shell explosions were in the heart of the aetiological illness model; this was very similar to Mott’s organic illness model, as cited in Frederick Walker Mott, War Neuroses and Shell Shock(London: Oxford University Press, 1919), 41. Queen Square neurologists used the term in cases they believed to have an organic origin.

49. For a detailed account of Yealland’s life and work at Queen Square, see Linden, Jones and Lees, op. cit.(note 23).

50. Holmes, op. cit.(note 38), 62.

51. Martin, James Purdon, ‘Reminiscences of Queen Square’, BMJ (Clinical Research Edn), 283, 6307 (1981), 16401642.

52. Ibid., 1641.

53. O’Connor, Walter John, British Physiologists, 1885–1914: A Biographical Dictionary (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1991), 493.

54. Martin, op. cit.(note 51), 1641.

55. Myers, op. cit.(note 8), 20.

56. Martin, op. cit.(note 51), 1641.

57. McDonald, Ian, ‘Gordon Holmes Lecture: Gordon Holmes and the Neurological Heritage’, Brain, 130, 1 (2007), 288298: 295. Holmes openly admitted that he had mainly seen the ‘psychoneuroses’ as a source of income in peace-times, as cited in Myers, op. cit. (note 8), 20.

58. Ibid.

59. Holmes, Gordon, ‘The Goulstonian Lectures on Spinal Injuries of Warfare: Delivered before the Royal College of Physicians of London’, BMJ, 2, 2867 (1915), 855861; Gordon Holmes, ‘Disturbances of Vision by Cerebral Lesions’, British Journal of Ophthalmology, 2, 7 (1918), 353–84; Gordon Holmes and W.T. Lister, ‘Disturbances of Vision from Cerebral Lesions, with Special Reference to the Cortical Representation of the Macula’, Brain, 39, (1916), 34–73, Percy Sargent and Gordon Holmes, ‘Preliminary Notes on the Treatment of the Cranial Injuries of Warfare’, BMJ, 1, 2830 (1915), 537–41.

60. Holmes, op. cit.(note 38), 51.

61. Batten, Frederick Eustace, ‘Some Functional Nervous Affections Produced by the War’, The Quarterly Journal of Medicine, 9, 34 (1916), 7382. We were able to identify all case histories Batten chose for his article among the Queen Square case records. Batten provided the patients’ initials and he literally cited whole passages from the case record. Most of his cases had been treated by his colleague Tooth.

62. Yealland, Lewis Ralph, Hysterical Disorders of Warfare (London: MacMillan, 1918). For a more detailed description of Yealland’s work see Linden, Jones, and Lees, op. cit. (note 23). Yealland’s cases were admitted between May 1916 and January 1918.

63. Batten, op. cit.(note 61), 73.

64. Maloney, W.J.M.A., ‘Obituary: “The National” and Dr F.E. Batten’, Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 49, 1 (1919), 9194: 92–3.

65. Turner, op. cit.(note 1); William Aldren Turner, ‘Nervous and Mental Shock’, BMJ, 1, 2893 (1916), 830–2; William Aldren Turner, ‘The Bradshaw Lecture on Neuroses and Psychoses of War: Delivered before the Royal College of Physicians of London on November 7th, 1918’, The Lancet, 192, 4967 (1918), 613–17.

66. Holmes, op. cit.(note 38), 64.

67. Jones, Edgar, Thomas, Adam and Ironside, Stephen, ‘Shell Shock: An Outcome Study of a First World War “PIE” Unit’, Psychological Medicine, 37, 2 (2007), 215223.

68. Linden, Stefanie Caroline, Hess, Volker and Jones, Edgar, ‘The Neurological Manifestations of Trauma: Lessons from World War I’, European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 262, 3 (2012), 253264.

69. George C., Queen Square Records, Dr Tooth, 1915, Queen Square Archive; patient’s handwritten account attached to case record.

70. ‘An epitome of current medical literature, “Big Belly” In Soldiers’, BMJ, 2, 2961 (1917), 9.

71. Harford, Charles F., ‘Visual Neuroses of Miners in their Relation to Military Service’, BMJ, 1, 2879 (1916), 340342.

72. Myers, op. cit.(note 8), 70–1.

73. MacCurdy, John Thomson, War Neuroses (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1918), V.

74. Mott, Frederick Walker, ‘The Chadwick Lecture on Mental Hygiene and Shell Shock During and after the War’, BMJ, 2, 2950 (1917), 3942: 39.

75. Silvertown in West Ham, Essex, now part of the London Borough of Newham.

76. Edward C., Queen Square Records, Dr Tooth, 1917, Queen Square Archive.

77. George H., Queen Square Records, Dr Russell, 1915, Queen Square Archive.

78. John L., Queen Square Records, Dr Collier, 1919, Queen Square Archive; correspondence between the National Hospital and the London War Pensions Committee, as attached to the clinical record.

79. Frank D., Queen Square Records, Dr Tooth, 1915, Queen Square Archive.

80. Henry M., Queen Square Records, Dr Tooth, 1915, Queen Square Archive.

81. Hurst, Arthur Frederick, Medical Diseases of the War, 2nd edn. (London: Edward Arnold, 1918), 2829. Other physicians who emphasised that cases of malingering were exceptional were Mott and Myers: Mott, op. cit. (note 48), 123. Myers, op. cit. (note 8), 40.

82. Myers, op. cit.(note 8), 132.

83. Frederick Walker Mott, ‘The Lettsomian Lectures on the Effects of High Explosives upon the Central Nervous System: Delivered before the Medical Society of London: Lecture III, delivered on March 6th,’ The Lancet, 187, 4828 (1916), 545–53: 552.

84. Jones, Edgar, ‘War Neuroses and Arthur Hurst: A Pioneering Medical Film About the Treatment of Psychiatric Battle Casualties’, Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, 67, 3 (2012), 345373.

85. Harry C., Queen Square Records, Dr Collier, 1917, Queen Square Archive.

86. Frederick M., Queen Square Records, Dr Buzzard, 1919, Queen Square Archive.

87. Frederick S.M., Queen Square Records, Dr Tooth, 1919, Queen Square Archive.

88. George C., Queen Square Records, Dr Collier, 1916, Queen Square Archive.

89. Charles S., Queen Square Records, Dr Steward, 1916, Queen Square Archive.

90. Jones et al., op. cit.(note 25).

91. Mott, op. cit.(note 48), 99.

92. Ibid., 71, 159, 121.

93. William Charles L., Queen Square Records, Dr Tooth, 1919, Queen Square Archive.

94. Rohde, Max, ‘Neurologische Betrachtungen eines Truppenarztes im Felde’, Zeitschrift für die gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie, 29 (1915), 379415.

95. Jones, Dudley William Carmalt, ‘War-Neurasthenia, Acute and Chronic’, Brain, 42 (1919), 171213.

96. Hurst, op. cit.(note 81), 122.

97. Janet, Pierre, The Major Symptoms of Hysteria: Fifteen Lectures Given in the Medical School of Harvard University, 2nd edn. (New York: Macmillan, 1920); also discussed in Linden, Jones, and Lees, op. cit. (note 23).

98. Rivers, W.H.R., ‘An Address on the Repression of War Experience’, The Lancet, 191, 4927 (1918), 173177.

99. Myers, Charles Samuel, ‘Contributions to the Study of Shell Shock: Being an Account of Certain Disorders of Speech, with Special Reference to their Causation and their Relation to Malingering’, The Lancet, 188, 4854 (1916), 461468.

100. Albert R., Queen Square Records, Dr Turner, 1916, Queen Square Archive.

101. Jones, Edgar et al. , ‘Psychological Effects of Chemical Weapons: A Follow-up Study of First World War Veterans’, Psychological Medicine, 38, 10 (2008), 14191426.

102. Harry M., Queen Square Records, Dr Tooth, 1915, Queen Square Archive.

103. Hurst, op. cit.(note 81), 41.

104. Smith, Grafton Elliot and Pear, Tom Hatherley, Shell Shock and Its Lessons, 2nd edn. (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1917), 1213.

105. Turner, ‘Nervous and Mental Shock’, op. cit.(note 1); for a contemporary analysis of patient populations at specialised mental institutions see R. Eager, ‘A Record of Admissions to the Mental Section of the Lord Derby War Hospital, Warrington, from June 17th, 1916, to June 16th, 1917’, The Journal of Mental Science, 64 (1918), 272–95 and D.K. Henderson, ‘War Psychoses: An Analysis of 202 Cases of Mental Disorder Occurring in Home Troops’, The Journal of Mental Science, 64 (1918), 165–89, both for the mental section of the Lord Derby War Hospital near Warrington in Lancashire; for the Dykebar Hospital for mental diseases in Paisley in Scotland, see R.D. Hotchkis, ‘Renfrew District Asylum as a War Hospital for Mental Invalids: Some Contrasts in Administration. With an Analysis of Cases Admitted During the First Year’, The Journal of Mental Science, 63 (1917), 238–49.

106. Harold D., Queen Square Records, Dr Turner, 1916, Queen Square Archive.

107. Saturday, May 1, 1915, ‘Nerves and War: The Mental Treatment Bill’, The Lancet, 185, 4783 (1915), 919–20.

108. For example by Mott in Mott, op. cit.(note 74) and Mott, op. cit. (note 48), 113, where he calls these states ‘hallucinatory mental confusion’; also by Turner in Turner, op. cit. (note 1).

109. Kleist, Karl, ‘Schreckpsychosen’, Allgemeine Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie und psychisch-gerichtliche Medizin, 74 (1918), 432510.

110. Mott, op. cit.(note 48), 47–8.

111. Myers, op. cit.(note 8), 70.

112. Mott, op. cit.(note 48), 71.

113. Turner, ‘The Bradshaw Lecture’, op. cit.(note 65), 613.

114. Harry D., Queen Square Records, Dr Russell, 1916, Queen Square Archive.

115. Leese, op. cit.(note 16), 97.

116. German case records from the Department for Psychiatric and Nervous disorders of the Charité in Berlin and the Jena Military Hospital, for more details see Linden, Hess, and Jones, op. cit.(note 68); Linden and Jones, op. cit. (note 24).

117. Bonhoeffer, Karl, ‘Erfahrungen über Epilepsie und Verwandtes im Feldzuge’, Monatsschrift für Psychiatrie und Neurologie, 38 (1915), 6172.

118. Jones, Edgar and Wessely, Simon, ‘War Syndromes: The Impact of Culture on Medically Unexplained Symptoms’, Medical History, 49, 1 (2005), 5578: 56.

119. Jolowicz, Ernst, ‘Statistik über 5455 organische und funktionelle Nervenerkrankungen im Kriege: Gesichtet nach Truppenteilen, Dienstgraden, Alter, Dienstzeit, Nationalität und Berufen’, Zeitschrift für die gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie, 52 (1919), 145162.

120. Yealland, Lewis Ralph, ‘Hysterical Fits, with some Reference to their Treatment’, Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, 16 (1923), 8594.

121. Linden, Hess, and Jones, op. cit.(note 68).

122. Mott, op. cit.(note 48), 148.

123. Jones, op. cit.(note 95).

124. Myers, op. cit.(note 8), 126.

125. Jones and Wessely, op. cit.(note 118).

126. Killen, Andreas, Berlin Electropolis: Shock, Nerves and German Modernity (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2006).

127. Winter and Robert, op. cit.(note 30), 34.

128. Temkin, Owsei, The Falling Sickness: The History of Epilepsy from the Greeks to the Beginnings of Modern Neurology (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1945), 283.

129. Reynolds, Edward H., ‘Jackson, Todd, and the Concept of “Discharge” in Epilepsy’, Epilepsia, 48, 11 (2007), 20162022.

130. Grzybowski, Andrzej and Pietrzak, Krzysztof, ‘Napoleon Cybulski (1854–1919)’, Journal of Neurology, 260 (2013), 29422943.

131. Loughran, op. cit.(note 11).

132. Köhne, Julia Barbara, Kriegshysteriker: Strategische Bilder und mediale Techniken militärpsychiatrischen Wissens (1914–1920) (Husum: Matthiesen, 2009).

133. Linden, Jones, and Lees, op. cit.(note 23).

134. Smith and Pear, op. cit.(note 104), 24: ‘For shell shock has brought us no new symptoms …’; Harold Wiltshire, ‘A Contribution to the Aetiology of Shell Shock’, The Lancet, 187, 4842 (1916), 1207–12: 1207; Judson S. Bury, ‘Pathology of War Neuroses’, The Lancet, 192 (1918), 97–9: 97; MacCurdy, op. cit. (note 73), 87: ‘no symptoms described in the war cases …which have not been well known in times of peace’.

135. Bury, op. cit.(note 134), 97.

136. Hotchkis, op. cit.(note 105), 244; Mott, op. cit. (note 48), 111–12.

137. Linden, Hess, and Jones, op. cit.(note 68).

138. Mott, op. cit.(note 48), 144. Hurst, op. cit. (note 82), 64. ‘A man who has once had a mental breakdown is very unlikely to be able to stand the strain of active service without relapsing … . [S]uch men should never be allowed to return to military duty.’; also Jones, op. cit. (note 95): ‘I doubt if anyone who has once developed it will ever be fit for front-line soldiering within the time limit of any war’.

139. Jones et al., op. cit.(note 25).

The authors are grateful to the library and archives staff at Queen Square, in particular Louise Shepherd, Kate Brunskill and Jackie Cheshire. This work was supported by the Wellcome Trust (PhD Studentship, Centre for the Humanities and Health, King’s College London).

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Medical History
  • ISSN: 0025-7273
  • EISSN: 2048-8343
  • URL: /core/journals/medical-history
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed