Skip to main content
×
×
Home

THE LEPIDOPTERA OF BERMUDA: THEIR FOOD PLANTS, BIOGEOGRAPHY, AND MEANS OF DISPERSAL

  • D.C. Ferguson, D.J. Hilburn and B. Wright
Abstract

The 183 species of Lepidoptera recorded from Bermuda are discussed with respect to their world distribution, origin, long-range dispersal capability, host plants, nomenclature, and the circumstances of their occurrence in Bermuda; most are illustrated. Fifty-nine species are reported from Bermuda for the first time; Oenobotys invinacealis Ferguson (Pyralidae) and Tetanolita mynesalis inaequalis Ferguson (Noctuidae) are described as new. Four new genus–species combinations and four new synonymies are proposed.The Bermuda islands have a distressed fauna dominated by introduced pest species and migrants from the North American mainland and Caribbean Region. About 125 of the 183 recorded species are thought to be established residents; the remainder are assumed to be vagrants. Of approximately 50 resident species identified as probably indigenous, 11 species and three subspecies are endemic, and one of these, Semiothisa ochrifascia (Warren), is believed extinct.All Bermudian Lepidoptera are of American origin except the few introduced Old World species that are nearly cosmopolitan. Like Norfolk Island, Australia, Bermuda has a supersaturated lepidopterous fauna — more recorded species than its land area might support, which can be explained only by a high incidence of migrants and transients. This migratory component is explained relative to long-range movements of the same or congeneric species elsewhere; and hypotheses are proposed concerning the natural history of long-range dispersal in eastern North America and the ability of these moths to reach Bermuda. From a list of 113 species of Lepidoptera identified as frequent south–north migrants on the mainland, 76 are recorded from Bermuda. These include 38 of the 40 best-known cutworm moths of the eastern United States. It is argued that such moths reach Bermuda repeatedly without man's assistance and must regularly travel similar distances in North America.

Les 183 espèces de Lépidoptères rapportées des Bermudes ont été discutées par rapport à leur distribution mondiale, leurs origines, leurs pouvoirs de dispersion étendue, leurs plantes-hôtes, leur nomenclature, et les circonstances de leurs présences aux Bermudes; la plupart sont ornées de dessins. Cinquante-neuf espèces ont été signalées des Bermudes pour la première fois; Oenobotys invinacealis Ferguson (Pyralidae) et Tetanolita mynesalis inaequalis Ferguson (Noctuidae) ont été décrites comme espèces nouvelles. Quatre combinaisons nouvelles de genres–espèces et quatre synonymies ont été proposées.

Les Bermudes ont une faune affligée, dominée par les espèces nuisibles introduites et migratrices du continent nord-américain et de la région des Antilles. Presque 125 des 183 espèces rapportées sont considérées comme résidentes établies; le reste est supposé d'être migrateur. Parmi les 50 espèces résidentes approximatives, pensées probablement d'être indigènes, 11 espèces et trois sous-espèces sont endémiques, et une de ces dernières, Semiothisa ochrifascia (Warren) est pensée d'être disparue.

Tous les Lépidoptères des Bermudes sont d'origine américaine, sauf quelques espèces introduites de l'ancien monde qui se trouvent presque cosmopolites. Comme pour l'île de Norfolk, Australie, les Bermudes ont une faune sursaturée de Lépidoptères — plus d'espèces rapportées qu'il serait possible pour la superficie terrestre à soutenir, qui pourrait s'expliquer par l'incidence élevée d'espèces migratrices et transitoires. Cette partie migratrice s'explique par rapport à des déplacements de longues distances des mêmes espèces ou d'espèces congénères; et l'on propose des hypothèses en ce qui concerne l'histoire naturelle de déplacements de longues distances à l'est d'Amérique du nord et le pouvoir de ces Lépidoptères d'atteindre les Bermudes. Parmi une list de 113 espèces de Lépidoptères signalées comme migratrices sud–nord très répandues sur le continent, 76 d'elles sont rapportées des Bermudes. Comprises aux dernières sont 38 des 40 vers-gris les mieux connus de l'est des états-Unis. On prétend que de tels vers-gris atteignent les Bermudes à maintes reprises sans l'aide de l'homme et doivent voyager régulièrement à travers des distances semblables en Amérique du nord. [Traduit par la rédaction]

Copyright
References
Hide All
Affleck, T. 1846. Destruction of the cotton crop by insects. Am. Agric. 5: 341343.
Baker, R.R. 1982. Migration, Paths through Time and Space. Hodder and Stoughton Educational Ltd., Sevenoaks, Kent, England. 248 pp.
Barnes, W., and Lindsey, A.W.. 1921. The Pterophoridae of America north of Mexico. Contrib. Nat. Hist. Lepid. N. Am. 4: 279483.
Beirne, B.P. 1952. British Pyralid and Plume Moths. F. Warne & Co., Ltd., London and New York, NY. 208 pp., illus.
Bennett, F.D., Cock, M.J.W., Hughes, I.W., Simmonds, F.J., and Yaseen, M.. 1985. Biological Control in Bermuda. pp. 119142 in Cock, M.J.W. (Ed.), A Review of Biological Control of Pests in the Commonwealth Caribbean and Bermuda up to 1982. Commonwealth Inst. Biol. Cont. Tech. Comm. 9.
Bretz, J.H. 1960. Bermuda: A partially drowned, late mature, Pleistocene karst. Bull. geol. Soc. Am. 71: 17291754.
Britton, N.L. 1918. Flora of Bermuda. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, NY. 585 pp. [Reprinted in 1965 as a facsimile edition for The New York Botanical Garden; Hafner Publishing Co., New York and London.]
Brower, A.E. 1974. A list of the Lepidoptera of Maine — Pt. 1, the Macrolepidoptera. Life Sci. Agric. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bull. 66. 136 pp., fold. map. University of Maine, Orono, ME.
Burnett, W.I. 1854. [Untitled communication read at meeting March 17, 1853]. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 4: 316319.
Butler, A.G. 1884. The Lepidoptera collected during the recent expedition of H.M.S. Challenger — Part II. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5)13: 183189.
Challinor, D., and Wingate, D.B.. 1971. The struggle for survival of the Bermuda cedar. Biol. Conserv. 3: 220222.
Clarke, J.F.G. 1958. Catalogue of the Type Specimens of Microlepidoptera in the British Museum (Natural History) described by Edward Meyrick. Vol. 3: 1600, pls. 1–298. Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History), London.
Clarke, J.F.G. 1965. Catalogue of the Type Specimens of Microlepidoptera in the British Museum (Natural History) described by Edward Meyrick. Vol. 5: 1581, pls. 1–263.
Clarke, J.F.G. 1969. Catalogue of the Type Specimens of Microlepidoptera in the British Museum (Natural History) described by Edward Meyrick. Vol. 6: 1537, pls. 1–267.
Clarke, J.F.G. 1971. The Lepidoptera of Rapa Island. Smithsonian Contrib. Zool. 56. iv + 282 pp.
Clarke, J.F.G. 1986. Pyralidae and Microlepidoptera of the Marquesas Archipelago. Smithsonian Contrib. Zool. 416. 485 pp.
Covell, C.V. Jr., 1984. A Field Guide to the Moths of Eastern North America. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, MA. xvi + 496 pp., 64 pls.
Crumb, S.E. 1956. The larvae of the Phalaenidae. U.S.D.A. Tech. Bull. 1135. 356 pp.
Darlington, P.J. 1957. Zoogeography: The Geographical Distribution of Animals. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY. xi + 675 pp.
Deitz, L.L., Duyn, J.W. van, Bradley, J.R., Rabb, R.L., Brooks, W.M., and Stinner, R.E.. 1976 (reprinted 1980). A Guide to the Identification and Biology of Soybean Arthropods in North Carolina. North Carolina Agric. Res. Serv. Tech. Bull. 238. 264 pp. North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC.
Dugdale, J.S. 1988. Lepidoptera — Annotated Catalogue, and Keys to Family Group Taxa. Fauna of New Zealand, No. 14. 262 pp. D.I. Science Information Publishing Centre, Wellington.
Dyar, H.G. 1900. The larva of Eustixia pupula, Hubn. Can. Ent. 32: 155156.
Dyar, H.G. 1901. Descriptions of some pyralid larvae from southern Florida. J.N.Y. ent. Soc. 9: 1924.
Dyar, H.G. 1915. Pyralidae of Bermuda. Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus 3: 8689.
Dyar, H.G. 1917. Seven new pyralids from British Guiana. Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus 5: 8892.
Eichlin, T.D., and Cunningham, H.B.. 1969. Characters for identification of some common Plusiinae caterpillars of the southeastern United States. Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 62: 507510.
Eichlin, T.D., and Cunningham, H.B.. 1978. The Plusiinae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) of America north of Mexico, emphasizing genitalia and larval morphology. U.S.D.A. Tech. Bull. 1567. 122 pp.
Ferguson, D.C. 1954. The Lepidoptera of Nova Scotia (Macrolepidoptera). Proc. Nova Scotian Inst. Sci. 23(3): 4 (unnumbered) + 161–375, 16 pls., fold. map.
Ferguson, D.C. in Dominick, R.B. et al. , 19711972. The Moths of America North of Mexico, Fasc. 20.2 A.B. Bombycoidea: Saturniidae. E.W. Classey Ltd. and R.B.D. Publications Inc., London. 275 + xxi pp, 22 col. pls.
Ferguson, D.C. 1975. Host records for Lepidoptera reared in eastern North America. U.S.D.A. Tech. Bull. 1521. 49 pp.
Ferguson, D.C. in Dominick, R.B. et al. , 1978. The Moths of America North of Mexico, Fasc. 22.2, Noctuoidea: Lymantriidae. E.W. Classey Ltd. and The Wedge Entomological Research Foundation, London. 110 + x pp., 8 col. pls.
Ferguson, D.C. in Dominick, R.B. et al. , 1985. The Moths of America North of Mexico, Fasc. 18.1, Geometroidea: Geometridae, Geometrinae. The Wedge Entomological Research Foundation, Washington, DC. 12 (unnumbered) + 137 pp., 4 col. pls.
Fletcher, D.S. 1979. In Nye, I.W.B. (Ed.), The Generic Names of Moths of the World, Vol. 3, Geometroidea. Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History), London. 243 pp.
Forbes, W.T.M. 1923. Lepidoptera of New York and neighboring states [Pt. 1], Primitive Forms, microlepidoptera, pyraloids, bombyces. Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta. Mem. 68. 729 pp.
Forbes, W.T.M. 1930. Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands 12(1). Heterocera or Moths (excepting Noctuidae, Geometridae and Pyralidae). New York Academy of Science, New York, NY. 171 pp., 2 pls.
Forbes, W.T.M. 1931. Supplementary report on the Heterocera or moths of Porto Rico. J. Porto Rico Dept. Agric. 4(4): 339394.
Forbes, W.T.M. 1954. The Lepidoptera of New York and neighboring states, Part 3, Noctuidae. Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta. Mem. 329. 433 pp.
Ford, E.B. 1945. Butterflies. New Naturalist Series, Collins, London. 368 pp.
Ford, E.B. 1955. Moths. New Naturalist Series, Collins, London. 266 pp.
Franclemont, J.G. 1951. The species of the Leucania unipuncta group, with a discussion of the generic names for the various segregates of Leucania in North America. Proc. ent. Soc. Washington 53: 5785.
Frank, K.D. 1988. Impact of outdoor lighting on moths: An assessment. J. Lepid. Soc. 42: 6393.
Gaskin, D.E. 1966. The Butterflies and Common Moths of New Zealand. Whitcombe and Tombs Ltd., Christchurch. 219 pp., illus.
Geddes, G. 1895. Insects collected in Bermuda during the winter of 1894. A. Rep. ent. Soc. Ont. 25: 2527.
Gibbs, G.W. 1980. New Zealand Butterflies, Identification and Natural History. Collins, Auckland, Sydney, London. 207 pp., 197 col. figs.
Godfrey, G.L. 1981. An Oxalis (Oxalidaceae) feeding larva, Galgula partita (Noctuidae). J. Lepid. Soc. 35: 132136.
Greenbank, D.O., Schaefer, G.W., and Rainey, R.C.. 1980. Spruce budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) moth flight and dispersal: New understanding from canopy observations, radar, and aircraft. Mem. ent. Soc. Can. 110. 49 pp.
Hardwick, D.F. 1965. The corn earworm complex. Mem. ent. Soc. Can. 40. 247 pp.
Hayes, A.H. 1975. The larger moths of the Galapagos Islands (Geometroidea, Sphingoidea and Noctuoidea). Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. (4) 40: 145208 + i, 176 figs.
Heath, J. (Ed). 1976. The Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland, Vol. 1. Blackwell Scientific Publications and the Curwen Press, Oxford and London. 343 pp., 13 pls.
Heath, J., and Emmet, A.M. (Eds.). 1979. The Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland, Vol. 9. Curwen Books, London. 288 pp., 13 col. pls.
Heinrich, C. 1956. American moths of the subfamily Phycitinae. Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 207: i–viii, 1581.
Heppner, J.B. (Ed.). 1984. Atlas of Neotropical Lepidoptera. Checklist: Pt. 1, Micropterigoidea-Immoidea. W. Junk Publishers, The Hague, xxvii + 112 pp.
Heppner, J.B., and Habeck, D.H.. 1976. Insects associated with Polygonum (Polygonaceae) in north central Florida. Florida Ent. 59: 231239.
Heppner, J.B., Pena, J.E., and Glenn, H.. 1987. The banana moth, Opogona sacchari (Bojer) (Lepidoptera: Tineidae), in Florida. Florida Dept. Agric., Div. Plant Industry Ent. Circ. 293. 4 pp.
Higgins, L.G., and Riley, N.D.. 1970. A Field Guide to the Butterflies of Britain and Europe. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, MA. 380 pp., 60 pls.
Hilburn, D.J. 1989. A non-migratory, non-diapausing population of the Monarch Butterfly, Danaus plexippus (Lepidoptera: Danaidae), in Bermuda. Florida Ent. 72: 494499.
Hinton, H.E. 1956. The larvae of the species of Tineidae of economic importance. Bull. ent. Res. 47: 251346.
Hodges, R.W. 1966. Review of the New World species of Batrachedra with description of three new genera (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea). Trans. Am. ent. Soc. 92: 585651.
Hodges, R.W. in Dominick, R.B. et al. , 1971. The Moths of America North of Mexico. Fasc. 21, Sphingoidea. E.W. Classey Ltd. and R.B.D. Publications Inc., London. 158 + xii pp., 14 col. pls.
Hodges, R.W. in Dominick, R.B. et al. , 1978. The Moths of America North of Mexico. Fasc. 6.1, Gelechioidea (in part): Cosmopterigidae. E.W. Classey Ltd. and The Wedge Entomological Research Foundation, London. 166 + x pp., 6 col. pls.
Hodges, R.W. et al. , (Eds.). 1983. Check List of the Lepidoptera of America North of Mexico. E.W. Classey Ltd. and The Wedge Entomological Research Foundation, London, xxiv + 284 pp.
Holloway, J.D. 1977. The Lepidoptera of Norfolk Island, their Biogeography and Ecology. Series Entomologica, Dr. W. Junk Publishers, The Hague. 291 pp.
Holloway, J.D. 1983. The biogeography of the macrolepidoptera of south-eastern Polynesia. Geo Journal 7.6: 517525.
Hurdis, J.L. 1897 [posthumous]. Rough Notes and Memoranda relating to the Natural History of the Bermudas (edit. Hurdis, H.J.). R.H. Porter, London, viii + 408 pp.
Janzen, D.H. 1984. Two ways to be a tropical big moth: Santa Rosa saturniids and sphingids. Oxford Surveys evol. Biol. 1: 85140.
Johnson, C.G. 1969. Migration and Dispersal of Insects by Flight. Methuen & Co., Ltd., London. 763 pp.
Jones, F.M. 1910. The macrolepidoptera of the Bermudas. Ent. News 20: 165168.
Jones, F.M., and Kimball, C.P.. 1943. The Lepidoptera of Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard Islands, Massachusetts. Publ. Nantucket Maria Mitchell Assoc. 4. 217 pp.
Jones, J.M. (assisted by Wedderburn, J.W. and Hurdis, J.L.). 1859. The Naturalist in Bermuda: A Sketch of the Geology, Zoology, and Botany of that Remarkable Group of Islands; together with Meteorological Observations. Reeves & Turner, London, xii + 200 pp., 1 fold. map.
Jones, J.M. 1875. On an immense flight of small butterflies (Terias lisa) in the Bermudas. Psyche 1: 121125.
Jones, J.M. 1876. The Visitor's Guide to Bermuda, with a Sketch of its Natural History. Reeves & Turner, London. pp. 112; 10–156.
Kettlewell, H.B.D. 1973. The Evolution of Melanism. Oxford University Press, xv + 423 pp., 39 pls.
Kevan, D.K. McE. 1981. The terrestrial arthropods of the Bermudas: An historical review of our knowledge. Arch. Nat. Hist. 10: 129.
Kimball, C.P. 1965. Lepidoptera of Florida. Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas 1. 365 pp. Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture, Gainesville, FL.
Land, L.S., MacKenzie, F.T., and Gould, S.J.. 1967. The Pleistocene history of Bermuda. Bull. geol. Soc. Am. 28: 9931006.
Lefroy, J.H. 18771879. Memorials of the discovery and early settlement of the Bermudas or Somers Islands, 1515–1685. Longmans, Green, and Co., London. Vol. 1, 760 pp.; Vol. 2, 771 pp.
Lefroy, J.H. 1884. The botany of Bermuda. Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 25: 31141.
Leraut, P. 1980. Liste systématique et synonymique des Lépidoptères de France, Belgique et Corse. Suppl. Alexanor et au Bull. Soc. Ent. France. 334 pp.
Linsley, E.G., and Usinger, R.L.. 1966. Insects of the Galapagos Islands. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., ser. 4, 33: 113196.
MacArthur, R.H., and Wilson, E.O.. 1967. The Theory of Island Biogeography. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. 203 pp.
MacKay, M.R. 1972. The larva of Nomophila noctuella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Can. Ent. 104: 14791481.
Matthews, D.L., Habeck, D.H., and Hall, D.W.. 1990. An annotated preliminary checklist of the Pterophoridae (Lepidoptera) of Florida and their larval hosts. Florida Ent. 73: 613621.
McDermott, F.A. 1963. Frank Morton Jones (1869–1962) [biographical obituary]. Ent. News 74: 2936, portrait.
Meyrick, E. 1924 a. Exotic Microlepidoptera 3: 132.
Meyrick, E. 1924 b. Exotic Microlepidoptera 3: 113128.
Meyrick, E. 1926 a. Exotic Microlepidoptera 3: 257272.
Meyrick, E. 1926 b. Exotic Microlepidoptera 3: 273288.
Meyrick, E. 1927. Exotic Microlepidoptera 3: 321352.
Mikkola, K., and Salmensuu, P.. 1965. Migration of Laphygma exigua Hb. (Lep., Noctuidae) in northwestern Europe in 1964. Ann. Zool. Fennici 2: 124139.
Munroe, E.G. 1959. New species and a new subspecies of Palpita (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Can. Ent. 91: 641650.
Munroe, E.G. 1966. Revision of North American species of Udea Guenée (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Mem. ent. Soc. Can. 49. 57 pp.
Munroe, E.G. 1973. A supposedly cosmopolitan insect: The celery webworm and allies, genus Nomophila Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Pyraustinae). Can. Ent. 105: 177216.
Munroe, E.G. in Dominick, R.B. et al. , 19721973. The Moths of America North of Mexico. Fasc. 13.1, Pyraloidea: Pyralidae (in part). E.W. Classey Ltd. and R.B.D. Publications Inc., London, xx + 304 pp., 23 pls. (13 col.).
Munroe, E.G. 1976. The Moths of America North of Mexico. Fasc. 13.2, Pyraloidea: Pyralidae (in part). E.W. Classey Ltd. and The Wedge Entomological Research Foundation, London. 150 + xvii pp., 20 pls. (9 col.).
Munroe, E.G. 1989. Changes in classification and names of Hawaiian Pyraloidea since the publication of Insects of Hawaii, Volume 8, by E.C. Zimmerman (1958) (Lepidoptera). Bishop Mus. Occ. Papers 29: 199212.
Ogilvie, L. 1928. The Insects of Bermuda: A Preliminary Check List. Bermuda Department of Agriculture [Hamilton]. 52 pp.
Parrella, M.P., and Kok, L.T.. 1978. Bionomics of Oidaematophorus monodactylus on hedge bindweed in southern Virginia, U.A. Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 71: 14.
Poole, R.W. 1989. Lepidopterorum Catalogus, new series, Fasc. 118, Noctuidae. E.J. Brill/Flora and Fauna Publications, Leiden, New York, Copenhagen, Cologne. 1314 pp. in 3 vols.
Rabb, R.L., and Kennedy, G.G. (Eds.). 1979. Movement of Highly Mobile Insects: Concepts and Methodology in Research. Department of Entomology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC. 456 pp.
Riley, N.D. 1975. A Field Guide to Butterflies of the West Indies. Demeter Press, Boston, MA. 224 pp., 24 col. pls.
Rindge, F.H. 1973. The Geometridae (Lepidoptera) of the Galápagos Islands. Am. Mus. Nov. 2510. 31 pp.
Riotte, J.C.E. 1991. Reassessment of the Noctuoidea of the Hawaiian Islands. Bishop Mus. Oce. Papers 32. In press.
Robbins, R.K., and Henson, P.M.. 1986. Why Pieris rapae is a better name than Artogeia rapae (Pieridae). J. Lepid. Soc. 40: 7992.
Robinson, G.S. 1975. Macrolepidoptera of Fiji and Rotuma. E.W. Classey Ltd., Faringdon, Oxon. 362 pp., illus., maps., index.
Robinson, G.S. 1983. Darwin's moth from St. Paul's Rocks: A new species of Erechthias (Tineidae). Syst. Ent. 8: 303311.
Robinson, G.S. 1986. Edward Meyrick: An unpublished essay on phylogeny. J. Nat. Hist. 20: 359367.
Robinson, G.S., and Kirke, C.M.St.G.. 1990. Lepidoptera of Ascension Island — A review. J. Nat. Hist. 24: 117.
Robinson, H.S. 1951. The effect of light on night-flying insects. Trans. S. London ent. nat. Hist. Soc. 1950–1951: 112123.
Robinson, H.S. 1952. On the behaviour of night-flying insects in the neighbourhood of a bright source of light. Proc. R. ent. Soc. London A 27: 1321.
Rockburne, E.W., and Lafontaine, J.D.. 1976. The cutworm moths of Ontario and Quebec. Canada Dept. Agric. Res. Br. Publ. 1593. 164 pp.
Sattler, K. 1981. The identity of Alucita parvella Fabricius, 1794 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Ent. Scand. 12: 173176.
Schaus, W. 1940 a. Insects of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands — Moths of the family Noctuidae. pp. 175290 in Vol. 12(2) of Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands. New York Academy of Science, New York, NY.
Schaus, W. 1940 b. Insects of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands—Moths of the families Geometridae and Pyralidae. pp. 289417 in Vol. 12(3) of Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands. New York Academy of Science, New York, NY.
Scott, J.A. 1986. The Butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA. 583 pp., 64 col. pls.
Shapiro, A.M. 1968. Eustixia pupula (Pyralidae) on Cruciferae. J. Lepid. Soc. 22: 157158.
Shetler, S.G., and Skog, L.E. (Eds.). 1978. A provisional checklist of species for Flora North America (revised). Missouri Botanical Garden Monogr. syst. Bot. 1. xix + 186 pp.
Smith, L.H. 1969. Bermuda's “Oldest Inhabitants”; Tales of Plant Life. J. Salmon Ltd., Sevenoaks, Kent. 85 pp.
Tietz, H.M. 1972 [posthumous]. An index to the described life histories, early stages and hosts of the macrolepidoptera of the continental United States and Canada. Allyn Mus. Ent., Sarasota, FL. 1041 pp. in 2 vols.
Travassos, L. 1946. Contribuição ao Conhecimento dos “Arctiidae.” XI. Genero “Utetheisa” Hübner, 1819. Verificação de “U. pulchella” (L. 1758) Kirby, 1892, no Nordeste do Brasil. Rev. Brasil. Biol. 6: 343354.
United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National List of Scientific Plant Names. Tech. Bull. 159. Vol. 1: v + 416 pp.; Vol. 2: 438 pp.
Vacher, H.L. 1971. Late Pleistocene sea-level history: Bermuda evidence. Ph.D. dissertation, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL. 153 pp.
Verrill, A.E. 1902. The Bermuda Islands. An Account of their Scenery, Climate, Productions, Physiography, Natural History, and Geology, with Sketches of their Discovery and Early History and the Changes in their Flora and Fauna due to man (parts 1–3). Trans. Connecticut Acad. Arts Sci. 11: 413896, pls. 65–104. [Note additional pages under Verrill 1903a.]
Verrill, A.E. 1903 a. The Bermuda Islands: List of figures in the text; explanation of plates; index; contents. Trans. Connecticut Acad. Arts Sci. 11: 897957, v–x. [Note: these pages complete Verrill 1902, but they were not published until February 1903.]
Verrill, A.E. 1903 b. The Bermuda Islands. An Account of their Scenery, Climate, Productions, Physiography, Natural History and Geology, with Sketches of their Discovery and Early History and the Changes in their Flora and Fauna due to Man (Author's Special Edition). A.E. Verrill, New Haven, CT. x + 548 pp., pls. 65–104. [An exact reissue of Verrill 1902 + Verrill 1903a, except that it bears additionally its own page numbers beginning at 1.]
Verrill, A.E. 1907. The Bermuda Islands, Vol. 1, Second Edition. A.E. Verrill, New Haven, CT. x + 576 pp., pls. 65–155 + 1 pl. 95–100 + pl. 37. [A reissue of Verrill 1903b, except for pp. 549 ff. and the extra plates from the Second Edition Supplement, which appeared in Trans. Connecticut Acad. Arts Sci. 12 (1905–1906), but these are of no concern to the present work.]
Viette, P.E.L. 1952. In Results of the Norwegian Scientific Expedition to Tristan da Cunha, 1937–1938, No. 23. Lepidoptera. Det Norske Videnskaps-Akademi, Oslo. 19 pp., 3 pls.
Walker, T.J. 1985. Butterfly migration in the boundary layer, pp. 704723 in Migrations: Mechanisms and Adaptive Significance. Contrib. Mar. Sci. 27, suppl.
Waterston, J.M. 1940. Supplementary List of Bermuda Insects. Bermuda Department of Agriculture [Hamilton]. 10 pp.
Watson, A., and Whalley, P.E.S.. 1983. The Dictionary of Butterflies and Moths in Color. Exeter Books, New York, NY. 296 pp., 405 col. figs.
Weigel, C.A., Broadbent, B.M., Busck, A., and Heinrich, C.. 1925. The greenhouse leaf-tyer, Phlyctaenia rubigalis (Guenée). J. Agric. Res. 29: 137158.
Williams, C.B. 1930. The Migration of Butterflies. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh and London. 473 pp.
Williams, C.B. 1950. American moths in Britain. Lepidopterists' News 4: 62.
Williams, C.B. 1958. Insect Migration. New Naturalist Series, Collins, London. 235 pp.
Wolff, N.L. 1971. Lepidoptera. In The Zoology of Iceland, Vol. 3, Pt. 45. Ejnar Munksgaard, Copenhagen and Reykjavik. 193 pp., 15 pls.
Wollaston, V.T. 1879. Notes on the Lepidoptera of St. Helena, with descriptions of new species. A. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5)3: xxvii, 219233; xxxvii, 329–343; xlvii, 415–441.
Zimmerman, E.C. 1958 a. Insects of Hawaii, Vol. 7, Macrolepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, HI. ix + 542 pp.
Zimmerman, E.C. 1958 b. Insects of Hawaii, Vol. 8, Lepidoptera: Pyraloidea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, HI. 456 pp.
Zimmerman, E.C. 1978. Insects of Hawaii, Vol. 9, Microlepidoptera: Part 1, pp. 1881, 8 col. pls.; Part 2, pp. 882–1903.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada
  • ISSN: 0071-075X
  • EISSN: 1920-3047
  • URL: /core/journals/memoirs-of-the-entomological-society-of-canada
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed