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Correlated SEM, FIB-SEM, TEM, and NanoSIMS Imaging of Microbes from the Hindgut of a Lower Termite: Methods for In Situ Functional and Ecological Studies of Uncultivable Microbes

  • Kevin J. Carpenter (a1), Peter K. Weber (a1), M. Lee Davisson (a1), Jennifer Pett-Ridge (a1), Michael I. Haverty (a2) and Patrick J. Keeling (a3)...
Abstract

The hindguts of lower termites harbor highly diverse, endemic communities of symbiotic protists, bacteria, and archaea essential to the termite's ability to digest wood. Despite over a century of experimental studies, ecological roles of many of these microbes are unknown, partly because almost none can be cultivated. Many of the protists associate with bacterial symbionts, but hypotheses for their respective roles in nutrient exchange are based on genomes of only two such bacteria. To show how the ecological roles of protists and nutrient transfer with symbiotic bacteria can be elucidated by direct imaging, we combined stable isotope labeling (13C-cellulose) of live termites with analysis of fixed hindgut microbes using correlated scanning electron microscopy, focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM), transmission electron microscopy, and high resolution imaging mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). We developed methods to prepare whole labeled cells on solid substrates, whole labeled cells milled with a FIB-SEM instrument to reveal cell interiors, and ultramicrotome sections of labeled cells for NanoSIMS imaging of 13C enrichment in protists and associated bacteria. Our results show these methods have the potential to provide direct evidence for nutrient flow and suggest the oxymonad protist Oxymonas dimorpha phagocytoses and enzymatically degrades ingested wood fragments, and may transfer carbon derived from this to its surface bacterial symbionts.

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Corresponding author
* Corresponding author. weber21@llnl.gov
** Corresponding author. kjcarpenter@lbl.gov; kevin@kevinjcarpenter.com
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Current address: Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Mail Stop Donner, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA

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Microscopy and Microanalysis
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