Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Sub-Ångstrom Atomic-Resolution Imaging from Heavy Atoms to Light Atoms

  • Michael A. O'Keefe (a1) and Yang Shao-Horn (a2)
Abstract

John Cowley and his group at Arizona State University pioneered the use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for high-resolution imaging. Three decades ago they achieved images showing the crystal unit cell content at better than 4 Å resolution. Over the years, this achievement has inspired improvements in resolution that have enabled researchers to pinpoint the positions of heavy atom columns within the cell. More recently, this ability has been extended to light atoms as resolution has improved. Sub-Ångstrom resolution has enabled researchers to image the columns of light atoms (carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen) that are present in many complex structures. By using sub-Ångstrom focal-series reconstruction of the specimen exit surface wave to image columns of cobalt, oxygen, and lithium atoms in a transition metal oxide structure commonly used as positive electrodes in lithium rechargeable batteries, we show that the range of detectable light atoms extends to lithium. HRTEM at sub-Ångstrom resolution will provide the essential role of experimental verification for the emergent nanotech revolution. Our results foreshadow those to be expected from next-generation TEMs with CS-corrected lenses and monochromated electron beams.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Corresponding author. E-mail: maok@lbl.gov
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

Allpress, J.G., Hewat, E.A., Moodie, A.F., & Sanders, J.V. (1972). n-beam lattice images, I. Experimental and computed images from W4Nb26O77. Acta Cryst A28, 528535.

Anstis, G.R., Lynch, D.F., Moodie, A.F., & O'Keefe, M.A. (1973). n-beam lattice images, III. Upper limits of ionicity in W4Nb26O77. Acta Cryst A29, 138147.

Bakker, H., Bleeker, A., & Mul, P. (1996). Design and performance of an ultra-high-resolution 300 kV microscope. Ultramicroscopy64, 1734.

Coene, W.M.J., Thust, A., Op de Beeck, M., & Van Dyck, D. (1996). Maximum-likelihood method for focus-variation image reconstruction in high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Ultramicroscopy64, 109135.

Cook, J.M., O'Keefe, M.A., Smith, D.J., & Stobbs, W.M. (1983). The high resolution electron microscopy of stacking defects in Cu-Zn-Al shape-memory alloy. J Microsc129, 295306.

Cowley, J.M. & Moodie, A.F. (1957a). Fourier images. I. The point source. Proc Phys Soc B70, 486496.

Cowley, J.M. & Moodie, A.F. (1957b). The scattering of electrons by atoms and crystals. I. A new theoretical approach. Acta Cryst10, 609623.

den Dekker, A.J. & van den Bos, A. (1997). Resolution: A survey. J Opt Soc Am A14, 547557.

Downing, K.H., Meisheng, H., Wenk, H.-R., & O'Keefe, M.A. (1990). Resolution of oxygen atoms in staurolite by three-dimensional transmission electron microscopy. Nature348, 525528.

Horiuchi, S., Matsui, Y., Kitami, Y., Yokoyama, M., Suehara, S., Wu, X.J., Matsui, I., & Katsuta, T. (1991). Ultra-high-resolution HVEM (H-1500) newly constructed at NIRIM. II. Application to materials. Ultramicroscopy39, 231237.

Iijima, S. (1971). High resolution electron microscopy of crystal lattice of titanium-niobium oxide. J Appl Phys42, 58915893.

Iijima, S. & O'Keefe, M.A. (1979). Determination of defocus values using ‘Fourier images’ for high resolution electron microscopy. J Microsc117, 347354.

Jia, C.L., Lentzen, M., & Urban, K. (2003). Atomic-resolution imaging of oxygen in perovskite ceramics. Science299, 870873.

Jia, C.L. & Thust, A. (1999). Investigation of atomic displacements at a Σ3 {111} twin boundary in BaTiO3 by means of phase-retrieval electron microscopy. Phys Rev Lett82, 50525055.

Kisielowski, C., Hetherington, C.J.D., Wang, Y.C., Kilaas, R., O'Keefe, M.A., & Thust, A. (2001). Imaging columns of the light elements carbon, nitrogen and oxygen at sub-Ångstrom resolution. Ultramicroscopy89, 243263.

Lichte, H. (1991). Optimum focus for taking electron holograms. Ultramicroscopy38, 1322.

Lynch, D.F., Moodie, A.F., & O'Keefe, M.A. (1975). n-beam lattice images, V. Use of the charge-density approximation in the interpretation of lattice images. Acta Cryst A31, 300307.

Lynch, D.F. & O'Keefe, M.A. (1972). n-beam lattice images, II. Methods of calculation. Acta Cryst A28, 536548.

O'Keefe, M.A. (1973). n-beam lattice images, IV. Computed two-dimensional images. Acta Cryst A29, 389401.

O'Keefe, M.A., Buseck, P.R., & Iijima, S. (1978). Computed crystal structure images for high resolution electron microscopy. Nature274, 322324.

O'Keefe, M.A., Hetherington, C.J.D., Wang, Y.C., Nelson, E.C., Turner, J.H., Kisielow-ski, C., Malm, J.-O., Mueller, R., Ringnalda, J., Pan, M., & Thust, A. (2001a). Sub-Ångstrom high-resolution transmission electron microscopy at 300 keV. Ultramicroscopy89, 215241.

O'Keefe, M.A., Nelson, E.C., Wang, Y.C., & Thust, A. (2001b). Sub-Ångstrom resolution of atomistic structures below 0.8Å. Phil Mag B81, 18611878.

O'Keefe, M.A. & Sanders, J.V. (1975). n-beam lattice images, VI. Degradation of image resolution by a combination of incident-beam divergence and spherical aberration. Acta Cryst A31, 307310.

Scherzer, O. (1949). The theoretical resolution limit of the electron microscope. J Appl Phys20, 2029.

Shao-Horn, Y., Croguennec, L., & Delmas, C., Nelson, E.C., O'Keefe, M.A. (2003). Atomic resolution of lithium ions in LiCoO2 battery material. Nat Mater2, 464467.

Thust, A., Coene, W.M.J., Op de Beeck, M., & Van Dyck, D. (1996). Focal-series reconstruction in HRTEM: Simulation studies on non-periodic objects. Ultramicroscopy64, 211230.

Wenk, H.-R., Downing, K.H., Meisheng, H., & O'Keefe, M.A. (1992). 3d structure determination from electron-microscope images: Electron crystallography of staurolite. Acta Cryst A48, 700716.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Microscopy and Microanalysis
  • ISSN: 1431-9276
  • EISSN: 1435-8115
  • URL: /core/journals/microscopy-and-microanalysis
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: