Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 16
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Jing, Shi-Pei Zhang, Can Pu, Jie Jiang, Hong-Yan Xia, Hui-Hao Wang, Fang Wang, Xu Wang, Jian-Qiang and Jin, Chan 2016. 3D microstructures of nuclear graphite: IG-110, NBG-18 and NG-CT-10. Nuclear Science and Techniques, Vol. 27, Issue. 3,

    Lian, Pengfei Song, Jinliang Liu, Zhanjun Zhang, Junpeng Zhao, Yanling Gao, Yantao Tao, Zechao He, Zhoutong Gao, Lina Xia, Huihao Guo, Quangui Huai, Ping and Zhou, Xingtai 2016. Preparation of ultrafine-grain graphite by liquid dispersion technique for inhibiting the liquid fluoride salt infiltration. Carbon, Vol. 102, p. 208.

    Marrow, T.J. Liu, D. Barhli, S.M. Saucedo Mora, L. Vertyagina, Ye. Collins, D.M. Reinhard, C. Kabra, S. Flewitt, P.E.J. and Smith, D.J. 2016. In situ measurement of the strains within a mechanically loaded polygranular graphite. Carbon, Vol. 96, p. 285.

    Sarkar, Apu Eapen, Jacob Raj, Anant Murty, K.L. and Burchell, T.D. 2016. Modeling irradiation creep of graphite using rate theory. Journal of Nuclear Materials, Vol. 473, p. 197.

    Spicer, James B. Olasov, Lauren R. Zeng, Fan W. Han, Karen Gallego, Nidia C. and Contescu, Cristian I. 2016. Laser ultrasonic assessment of the effects of porosity and microcracking on the elastic moduli of nuclear graphites. Journal of Nuclear Materials, Vol. 471, p. 80.

    Zhou, Zhou Bouwman, Wim G. Schut, Henk Desert, Sylvain Jestin, Jacques Hartmann, Stefan and Pappas, Catherine 2016. From nanopores to macropores: Fractal morphology of graphite. Carbon, Vol. 96, p. 541.

    Karthik, Chinnathambi Kane, Joshua Butt, Darryl P. Windes, William E. and Ubic, Rick 2015. Neutron irradiation induced microstructural changes in NBG-18 and IG-110 nuclear graphites. Carbon, Vol. 86, p. 124.

    Song, Jinliang Zhao, Yanling He, Xiujie Zhang, Baoliang Xu, Li He, Zhoutong Zhang, DongSheng Gao, Lina Xia, Huihao Zhou, Xingtai Huai, Ping and Bai, Shuo 2015. Preparation of pyrolytic carbon coating on graphite for inhibiting liquid fluoride salt and Xe135 penetration for molten salt breeder reactor. Journal of Nuclear Materials, Vol. 456, p. 33.

    Eapen, J. Krishna, R. Burchell, T. D. and Murty, K. L. 2014. Early Damage Mechanisms in Nuclear Grade Graphite under Irradiation. Materials Research Letters, Vol. 2, Issue. 1, p. 43.

    Eastman, Micah Hedinger, Daniel Qian, Wen Hudson, Walter Jiang, Bin and Jiao, Jun 2014. Raman spectroscopy and band structure of Pd-hybridized multilayer graphene. Carbon, Vol. 68, p. 687.

    Korkut, Turgay 2014. A molecular dynamics study about graphite and boron coated graphite at reactor temperatures. Annals of Nuclear Energy, Vol. 63, p. 100.

    Song, Jinliang Zhao, Yanling Zhang, Junpeng He, Xiujie Zhang, Baoliang Lian, Pengfei Liu, Zhanjun Zhang, Dongsheng He, Zhoutong Gao, Lina Xia, Huihao Zhou, Xingtai Huai, Ping Guo, Quangui and Liu, Lang 2014. Preparation of binderless nanopore-isotropic graphite for inhibiting the liquid fluoride salt and Xe135 penetration for molten salt nuclear reactor. Carbon, Vol. 79, p. 36.

    Zheng, Guiqiu Xu, Peng Sridharan, Kumar and Allen, Todd 2014. Characterization of structural defects in nuclear graphite IG-110 and NBG-18. Journal of Nuclear Materials, Vol. 446, Issue. 1-3, p. 193.

    Guo, Zhangpeng Zhou, Jianjun Zhang, Dalin Chaudri, Khurrum Saleem Tian, Wenxi Su, Guanghui and Qiu, Suizheng 2013. Coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics for analysis of molten salt reactor. Nuclear Engineering and Design, Vol. 258, p. 144.

    Guo, Zhangpeng Wang, Chenglong Zhang, Dalin Chaudri, Khurrum Saleem Tian, Wenxi Su, Guanghui and Qiu, Suizheng 2013. The effects of core zoning on optimization of design analysis of molten salt reactor. Nuclear Engineering and Design, Vol. 265, p. 967.

    Kane, Joshua J. Karthik, Chinnathambi Ubic, Rick Windes, William E. and Butt, Darryl P. 2013. An oxygen transfer model for high purity graphite oxidation. Carbon, Vol. 59, p. 49.


Microstructural Characterization of Next Generation Nuclear Graphites

  • Chinnathambi Karthik (a1) (a2), Joshua Kane (a1) (a2), Darryl P. Butt (a1) (a2), William E. Windes (a2) (a3) and Rick Ubic (a1) (a2)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 23 January 2012

This article reports the microstructural characteristics of various petroleum and pitch based nuclear graphites (IG-110, NBG-18, and PCEA) that are of interest to the next generation nuclear plant program. Bright-field transmission electron microscopy imaging was used to identify and understand the different features constituting the microstructure of nuclear graphite such as the filler particles, microcracks, binder phase, rosette-shaped quinoline insoluble (QI) particles, chaotic structures, and turbostratic graphite phase. The dimensions of microcracks were found to vary from a few nanometers to tens of microns. Furthermore, the microcracks were found to be filled with amorphous carbon of unknown origin. The pitch coke based graphite (NBG-18) was found to contain higher concentration of binder phase constituting QI particles as well as chaotic structures. The turbostratic graphite, present in all of the grades, was identified through their elliptical diffraction patterns. The difference in the microstructure has been analyzed in view of their processing conditions.

Corresponding author
Corresponding author. E-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

M.W. Barsoum , A. Murugaiah , S.R. Kalidindi , T. Zhen & Y. Gogotsi (2004). Kink bands, nonlinear elasticity and nanoindentations in graphite. Carbon 42, 14351445.

W. Bollmann (1961). Electron microscope study of radiation damage in graphite. J Appl Phys 32, 869877.

M.R. Bradford & A.G. Steer (2008). A structurally-based model of irradiated graphite properties. J Nucl Mater 381, 137144.

J.E. Brocklehurst & B.T. Kelly (1993). The dimensional changes of highly-oriented pyrolytic graphite irradiated with fast neutrons at 430°C and 600°C. Carbon 31, 179183.

G. Hall , B.J. Marsden & S.L. Fok (2006). The microstructural modelling of nuclear grade graphite. J Nucl Mater 353, 1218.

M. Heerschap & E. Schüller (1969). Vacancy and interstitial loops in graphite single crystals reactor-irradiated at 900° and 1200°C. Carbon 7, 624625.

A.N. Jones , G.N. Hall , M. Joyce , A. Hodgkins , K. Wen , T.J. Marrow & B.J. Marsden (2008). Microstructural characterisation of nuclear grade graphite. J Nucl Mater 381, 152157.

I. Mochida , K. Maeda & K. Takeshita (1978). Comparative study of the chemical structure of the disk-like components in the quinoline insolubles. Carbon 16, 459467.

M.S. Morgan , W.H. Schlag & M.H. Wilt (1960). Surface properties of the quinoline-insoluble fraction of coal-tar pitch. J Chem Eng Data 5, 8184.

P.A. Peaden , M.L. Lee , Y. Hirata & M. Novotny (1980). High-performance liquid chromatographic separation of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic compounds in carbon black. Anal Chem 52, 22682271.

F. Salver-Disma , J.M. Tarascon , C. Clinard & J.N. Rouzaud (1999). Transmission electron microscopy studies on carbon materials prepared by mechanical milling. Carbon 37, 19411959.

J.W.H. Simmons (1965). Irradiation Damage in Graphite. New York: Pergamon Press.

K.Y. Wen , J. Marrow & B. Marsden (2008a). Microcracks in nuclear graphite and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). J Nucl Mater 381, 199203.

K.Y. Wen , T.J. Marrow & B.J. Marsden (2008b). The microstructure of nuclear graphite binders. Carbon 46, 6271.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Microscopy and Microanalysis
  • ISSN: 1431-9276
  • EISSN: 1435-8115
  • URL: /core/journals/microscopy-and-microanalysis
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *