This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
U.P. Agarwal (2006). Raman imaging to investigate ultrastructure and composition of plant cell walls: Distribution of lignin and cellulose in black spruce wood (Picea mariana). Planta 224, 1141–1153.
U.P. Agarwal & S.A. Ralph (1997). FT-Raman spectroscopy of wood: Identifying contributions of lignin and carbohydrate polymers in the spectrum of black spruce (Picea mariana). Appl Spectrosc 51, 1648–1655.
P. Alvira , E. Tomas-pejo , M. Ballesteros & M. Negro (2010). Pretreatment technologies for an efficient bioethanol production process based on enzymatic hydrolysis: A review. Bioresour Technol 101, 4851–4861.
A. Berlin , N. Gilkes , A. Kurabi , R. Bura , M. Tu , D. Kilburn & J. Saddler (2005). Weak lignin-binding enzymes. In Twenty-Sixth Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals, Brian, H.D., Barbara, E., Mark, F. & James, D.M. (Eds.), pp 163–170. Totowa: Humana Press Inc.
H.M. Bui , M. Lennieger , A.P. Manian , M. Abu-Rous , C.B. Schimper , K.C. Schuster & T. Bechtold (2008). Treatment in swelling solutions modifying cellulose fiber reactivity–Part 2: Accessibility and reactivity. In Macromolecular Symposia, Heinze, T., Janura, M. & Koschella, A. (Eds.), pp 50–64. UK: John Wiley and Sons.
K.K. Cheng , J.A. Zhang , W.X. Ping , J.P. Ge , Y.J. Zhou , H.Z. Ling & J.M. Xu (2008). Sugarcane bagasse mild alkaline/oxidative pretreatment for ethanol production by alkaline recycle process. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 151, 43–50.
S.P.S. Chundawat , B.S. Donohoe , L.C. Sousa , T. Elder , U.P. Agarwal , F. LU , J. Ralph , M.E. Himmel , V. Balan & B.E. Dale (2011). Multi-scale visualization and characterization of lignocellulosic plant cell wall deconstruction during thermochemical pretreatment. Energy Environ Sci 4, 973–984.
L. Clesceri , A. Sinitsyn , A. Saunders & H. Bungay (1985). Recycle of the cellulase–enzyme complex after hydrolysis of steam-exploded wood. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 11, 433–443.
S.Y. Ding & M.E. Himmel (2006). The maize primary cell wall microfibril: A new model derived from direct visualization. J Agric Food Chem 54, 597–606.
S.Y. Ding , Y.S. Liu , Y. Zeng , M.E. Himmel , J.O. Baker & E.A. Bayer (2012). How does plant cell wall nanoscale architecture correlate with enzymatic digestibility? Science 338, 1055–1060.
L.A. Donaldson (2001). Lignification and lignin topochemistry—An ultrastructural view. Phytochemistry 57, 859–873.
R. Eklund , M. Galbe & G. Zacchi (1990). Optimization of temperature and enzyme concentration in the enzymatic saccharification of steam-pretreated willow. Enzyme Microb Technol 12, 225–228.
P. Eronen , M. Österberg & A.S. Jaaskelainen (2009). Effect of alkaline treatment on cellulose supramolecular structure studied with combined confocal Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Cellulose 16, 167–178.
S. Fischer , K. Schenzel , K. Fischer & W. Diepenbrock (2005). Applications of FT Raman spectroscopy and micro spectroscopy characterizing cellulose and cellulosic biomaterials. In Macromolecular Symposia, Thomas, H. & Klaus, F. (Eds.), pp. 41–56. UK: John Wiley and Sons.
N. Gierlinger & M. Schwanninger (2006). Chemical imaging of poplar wood cell walls by confocal Raman microscopy. Plant Physiol 140, 1246–1254.
N. Gierlinger & M. Schwanninger (2007). The potential of Raman microscopy and Raman imaging in plant research. Spectrosc Int J 21, 69–89.
H.E. Grethlein (1985). The effect of pore size distribution on the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic substrates. Nat Biotechnol 3, 155–160.
T. Hanninen , E. Kontturi & T. Vuorinen (2011). Distribution of lignin and its coniferyl alcohol and coniferyl aldehyde groups in Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris as observed by Raman imaging. Phytochemistry 72, 1889–1895.
M.E. Himmel , S.Y. Ding , D.K. Johnson , W.S. Adney , M.R. Nimlos , J.W. Brady & T.D. Foust (2007). Biomass recalcitrance: Engineering plants and enzymes for biofuels production. Science 315, 804–807.
C.I. Ishizawa , T. Jeoh , W.S. Adney , M.E. Himmel , D.K. Johnson & M.F. Davis (2009). Can delignification decrease cellulose digestibility in acid pretreated corn stover? Cellulose 16, 677–686.
A. Jahn , M. Schroder , M. Futing , K. Schenzel & W. Diepenbrock (2002). Characterization of alkali treated flax fibres by means of FT Raman spectroscopy and environmental scanning electron microscopy. Spectrochim Acta Part A 58, 2271–2279.
S.D. Mansfield , C. Mooney & J.N. Saddler (1999). Substrate and enzyme characteristics that limit cellulose hydrolysis. Biotechnol Progr 15, 804–816.
S. Mcintosh & T. Vancov (2011). Optimisation of dilute alkaline pretreatment for enzymatic saccharification of wheat straw. Biomass Bioenergy 35, 3094–3103.
C.A. Mooney , S.D. Mansfield , M.G. Touhy & J.N. Saddler (1998). The effect of initial pore volume and lignin content on the enzymatic hydrolysis of softwoods. Bioresour Technol 64, 113–119.
K.C. Nlewem & M.E. Thrash-jr (2010). Comparison of different pretreatment methods based on residual lignin effect on the enzymatic hydrolysis of switchgrass. Bioresour Technol 101, 5426–5430.
T. Persson , J.L. Ren , E. Joelsson & A.S. Jonsson (2009). Fractionation of wheat and barley straw to access high-molecular-mass hemicelluloses prior to ethanol production. Bioresour Technol 100, 3906–3913.
Y. Pu , F. Hu , F. Huang , B.H. Davison & A.J. Ragauskas (2013). Assessing the molecular structure basis for biomass recalcitrance during dilute acid and hydrothermal pretreatments. Biotechnol Biofuels 6, 1–13.
B.C. Saha & M.A. Cotta (2006). Ethanol production from alkaline peroxide pretreated enzymatically saccharified wheat straw. Biotechnol Progr 22, 449–453.
M. Schmidt , A. Schwartzberg , P. Perera , A. Weber-Bargioni , A. Carroll , P. Sarkar , E. Bosneaga , J. Urban , J. Song & M. Balakshin (2009). Label-free in situ imaging of lignification in the cell wall of low lignin transgenic Populus trichocarpa. Planta 230, 589–597.
E.N. Sendich , M. Laser , S. Kim , H. Alizadeh , L. Laureano-Perez , B. Dale & L. Lynd (2008). Recent process improvements for the ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) process and resulting reductions in minimum ethanol selling price. Bioresour Technol 99, 8429–8435.
K. Schenzel , S. Fischer & E. Brendler (2005). New method for determining the degree of cellulose I crystallinity by means of FT Raman spectroscopy. Cellulose 12, 223–231.
I. Shomer , H. Frenkel & C. Polinger (1991). The existence of a diffuse electric double layer at cellulose fibril surfaces and its role in the swelling mechanism of parenchyma plant cell walls. Carbohydr Polym 16, 199–210.
C. Somerville , S. Bauer , G. Brininstool , M. Facette , T. Hamann , J. Milne , E. Osborne , A. Paredez , S. Persson & T. Raab (2004). Toward a systems approach to understanding plant cell walls. Science 306, 2206–2211.
L. Sun , C. Li , Z. Xue , B.A. Simmons & S. Singh (2013). Unveiling high-resolution, tissue specific dynamic changes in corn stover during ionic liquid pretreatment. RSC Advances 3, 2017–2027.
G. Ucar (1990). Pretreatment of poplar by acid and alkali for enzymatic hydrolysis. Wood Sci Technol 24, 171–180.
B. Vian (1982). Organized Microfibril Assembly in Higher Plant Cells. Cellulose and Other Natural Polymer Systems. New York, USA: Plenum Publishing Corp.
Z. Wang , R. Li , J. Xu , J.M. Marita , R.D. Hatfield , R. Qu & J.J. Cheng (2012). Sodium hydroxide pretreatment of genetically modified switchgrass for improved enzymatic release of sugars. Bioresour Technol 110, 364–370.
A. Wardrop & R. PRESTON (1947). Organisation of the cell walls of tracheids and wood fibres. Nature 160, 911–913.
J.L. Wen , L.P. Xiao , Y.C. Sun , S.N. Sun , F. Xu , R.C. Sun & X.L. Zhang (2011). Comparative study of alkali-soluble hemicelluloses isolated from bamboo (Bambusa rigida). Carbohydr Res 346, 111–120.
B. Yang , Z. Dai , S.Y. Ding & C.E. Wyman (2011). Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass. Biofuels 2, 421–450.
B. Yang & C.E. Wyman (2006). BSA treatment to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in lignin containing substrates. Biotechnol Bioeng 94, 611–617.
J. Zhang , M. Tang & L. Viikari (2012). Xylans inhibit enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials by cellulases. Bioresour Technol 121, 8–12.