Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 3
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Linkov, Pavel Artemyev, Mikhail Efimov, Anton E. and Nabiev, Igor 2013. Comparative advantages and limitations of the basic metrology methods applied to the characterization of nanomaterials. Nanoscale, Vol. 5, Issue. 19, p. 8781.

    Gorman, Brian P. Norman, Andrew G. and Yan, Yanfa 2007. Atom Probe Analysis of III–V and Si-Based Semiconductor Photovoltaic Structures. Microscopy and Microanalysis, Vol. 13, Issue. 06, p. 493.

    O'Keefe, M. A. Allard, L. F. and Blom, D. A. 2005. HRTEM imaging of atoms at sub-Angstrom resolution. Journal of Electron Microscopy, Vol. 54, Issue. 3, p. 169.


Sub-Ångstrom Atomic-Resolution Imaging from Heavy Atoms to Light Atoms

  • Michael A. O'Keefe (a1) and Yang Shao-Horn (a2)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 January 2004

John Cowley and his group at Arizona State University pioneered the use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for high-resolution imaging. Three decades ago they achieved images showing the crystal unit cell content at better than 4 Å resolution. Over the years, this achievement has inspired improvements in resolution that have enabled researchers to pinpoint the positions of heavy atom columns within the cell. More recently, this ability has been extended to light atoms as resolution has improved. Sub-Ångstrom resolution has enabled researchers to image the columns of light atoms (carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen) that are present in many complex structures. By using sub-Ångstrom focal-series reconstruction of the specimen exit surface wave to image columns of cobalt, oxygen, and lithium atoms in a transition metal oxide structure commonly used as positive electrodes in lithium rechargeable batteries, we show that the range of detectable light atoms extends to lithium. HRTEM at sub-Ångstrom resolution will provide the essential role of experimental verification for the emergent nanotech revolution. Our results foreshadow those to be expected from next-generation TEMs with CS-corrected lenses and monochromated electron beams.

Corresponding author
Corresponding author. E-mail:
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Microscopy and Microanalysis
  • ISSN: 1431-9276
  • EISSN: 1435-8115
  • URL: /core/journals/microscopy-and-microanalysis
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *