Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 21
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Ghosh, Devleena 2016. Burma–Bengal Crossings: Intercolonial Connections in Pre-Independence India. Asian Studies Review, Vol. 40, Issue. 2, p. 156.

    Karrar, Hasan H. 2016. Kyrgyzstan’s Dordoi and Kara-Suu Bazaars: Mobility, Globalization and Survival in Two Central Asian Markets. Globalizations, p. 1.

    Bosma, Ulbe and Webster, Anthony 2015. Commodities, Ports and Asian Maritime Trade Since 1750.

    Dejung, Christof 2015. Commodities, Ports and Asian Maritime Trade Since 1750.

    Martin, Marina 2015. Project codification: legal legacies of the British Raj on the Indian mercantile credit institutionhundi. Contemporary South Asia, Vol. 23, Issue. 1, p. 67.

    Bosma, Ulbe 2014. Why Europe Grew Rich and Asia Did Not. International Review of Social History, Vol. 59, Issue. 01, p. 119.

    Park, Hye Jeong 2014. East Asian Odyssey towards One Region: The Problem of East Asia as a Historiographical Category. History Compass, Vol. 12, Issue. 12, p. 889.

    Roy, Tirthankar 2014. Trading Firms in Colonial India. Business History Review, Vol. 88, Issue. 01, p. 9.

    Zangger, A. P. 2014. Chops and Trademarks: Asian Trading Ports and Textile Branding, 1840-1920. Enterprise and Society, Vol. 15, Issue. 4, p. 759.

    Dejung, Christof 2013. Von Käfern, Märkten und Menschen.

    Kumar, Kundan 2012. Indian Migration and Diaspora in the Persian Gulf, 1820–1947: An Inquiry into the British Imperial Context. Diaspora Studies, Vol. 5, Issue. 1, p. 58.

    Osella, Filippo and Osella, Caroline 2011. Migration, Neoliberal Capitalism, and Islamic Reform in Kozhikode (Calicut), South India. International Labor and Working-Class History, Vol. 79, Issue. 01, p. 140.

    WEBSTER, ANTHONY 2011. The Development of British Commercial and Political Networks in the Straits Settlements 1800 to 1868: The Rise of a Colonial and Regional Economic Identity?. Modern Asian Studies, Vol. 45, Issue. 04, p. 899.

    Duara, Prasenjit 2010. Asia Redux: Conceptualizing a Region for Our Times. The Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 69, Issue. 04, p. 963.

    Osella, Filippo and Osella, Caroline 2010. Islam, Politics, Anthropology.

    Osella, Filippo and Osella, Caroline 2009. Muslim entrepreneurs in public life between India and the Gulf: making good and doing good. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, Vol. 15, p. S202.

    Markovits, Claude 2008. Merchants, Traders, Entrepreneurs.

    Hofmeyr, Isabel 2007. The Black Atlantic Meets the Indian Ocean: Forging New Paradigms of Transnationalism for the Global South – Literary and Cultural Perspectives. Social Dynamics, Vol. 33, Issue. 2, p. 3.

    Subramanian, Lakshmi 2001. Arms and the merchant: The making of the Bania Raj in late eighteenth‐century India. South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies, Vol. 24, Issue. 2, p. 1.

    Moore, Mick 1997. Societies, polities and capitalists in developing countries: A literature survey. Journal of Development Studies, Vol. 33, Issue. 3, p. 287.


Asian Capital in the Age of European Domination: The Rise of the Bazaar, 1800–1914

  • Rajat Kanta Ray (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 28 November 2008

There was a time when the economic confrontation between East and West was perceived as a confrontation between Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft. ‘East is East and West is West, and never the twain shall meet,’—thus wrote J. H. Boeke, quoting Rudyard Kipling with warm approval. The notion has since been undermined by deeper explorations into the history of the Chinese and Indian merchant bankers, and the Jews of the Islamic world. Over large parts of Java, with which Boeke was most familiar, there was indeed a sharp contrast between the local communal economy and the sophisticated capitalism of the Dutch colonists. It appeared an inevitable process of history that the Dutch corporations should subjugate the petty Javanese communities of princes, peasants and pedlars. It was also taken for granted that the phenomenon was general and that European gesellschaft did not confront and conquer such petty gemeinschaften in Java alone. But when the individual studies of the Chinese, Indian and Islamic—Jewish long-distance trade and credit networks are seen in over-all perspective, the impression that emerges is one of confrontation, at the higher level, between two gesellschaften: one of European origin, the other Eastern. Nor does it appear to be the sort of outright collision that simply resulted in the latter being broken up and relegated to a corner. The idea nevertheless persists that the ‘bazaar economy’ of the East was a debased, fragmented and marginal sector absorbed and peripheralized within the capitalist world economy of the West.

Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

Lakshmi Subramanian , ‘Capital and Crowd in a Declining Asian Port City: The Surat Riots of 1795,’ Modern Asian Studies, 19, 2 (1985).

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Modern Asian Studies
  • ISSN: 0026-749X
  • EISSN: 1469-8099
  • URL: /core/journals/modern-asian-studies
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *