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Indonesian Islamic Socialism and its South Asian Roots

  • KEVIN W. FOGG (a1)

Abstract

Islamic socialism was a major intellectual and political movement in Indonesia in the twentieth century, with ongoing influences until today. However, this movement did not follow the most common narratives of Indonesian intellectual history, which trace religious influences to the Middle East and political movements to anti-colonial reaction in terms framed by the Dutch. Rather, the first major Indonesian proponent of Islamic socialism, H. O. S. Tjokroaminoto, took his thinking on Islamic socialism directly from the English-language work of a South Asian itinerant scholar, Mushir Hosein Kidwai, in a process that most likely had the minority Ahmadiyyah community as intermediaries. Future Islamic socialist thought, much of it influenced by Tjokroaminoto, continued to echo through Indonesian secular nationalism, political Islam, and even Islamism. Studying the intellectual origins of Islamic socialism in Indonesia, then, shows not only the roots of an important strand of Southeast Asian politics in the last century, but also the importance of alternative currents of thought (South Asian, outside the mainstream, Anglophone) in Southeast Asian Islam.

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The author would like to thank Faizah Zakaria, Syahrul Hidayat, Rémy Madinier, Adeel Malik, Ibrahim Amin, Megan Robb, Fouzia Farooq, Francis Robinson, and Michael Feener; audiences at the Annual International Conference of Islamic Studies in Mataram (2013), Universitas Darussalam-Gontor, the Yale Council on Southeast Asia Studies, Metropolitan University Prague, and the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies; and the two anonymous reviewers for their contributions to improving this article. All faults remain with the author.

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1 Walton, M. J., Buddhism, Politics, and Political Thought in Myanmar, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2016, Chapter 2; Turner, A., Saving Buddhism: The Impermanence of Religion in Colonial Burma, Honolulu, University of Hawai'i Press, 2014; Maung, Maung, From Sangha to Laity: Nationalist Movements of Burma, 1920–1940, New Delhi, Manohar, 1980; Hansen, A. R., How to Behave: Buddhism and Modernity in Colonial Cambodia, 1860–1930, Honolulu, University of Hawai'i Press, 2007; McHale, S. F., Print and Power: Confucianism, Communism, and Buddhism in the Making of Modern Vietnam, Honolulu, University of Hawai'i Press, 2004, Chapter 5.

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3 Laffan, M. F., Islamic Nationhood and Colonial Indonesia: The Umma Below the Winds, London, Routledge, 2003; Kessler, C. S., Islam and Politics in a Malay State: Kelantan, 1838–1969, Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 1978.

4 McHale, Print and Power, Chapter 4; McVey, R. T., The Rise of Indonesian Communism, Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 1965; Huynh, Kim Khan, Vietnamese Communism, 1925–1945, Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 1982.

5 Alfian, Hasil Pemilihan Umum 1955 untuk Dewan Perwakilan Rakjat (D.P.R.), Jakarta, LEKNAS, 1971.

6 Fealy, G. and Platzdasch, B., ‘The Masjumi legacy: between Islamist idealism and political exigency’, Studia Islamika, vol. 12, no. 1, 2005, pp. 73100. The Gerindra is run by Prabowo Subianto, whose father, Sumitro Djojohadikusumo, was a politician with the Indonesian Socialist Party in the 1950s and a close ally of the Islamic Socialists in Masjumi.

7 Noor, F. A., The Malaysian Islamic Party PAS 1951–2013: Islamism in a Mottled Nation, Amsterdam, Amsterdam University Press, 2014, pp. 4763.

8 Robson, J., ‘Abū Ḏh̲harr’, in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Bearman, P., Bianquis, Th., Bosworth, C. E., van Donzel, E., and Heinrichs, W. P. (eds.), Leiden, Brill, 2012, http://referenceworks.brillonline.com/entries/encyclopaedia-of-islam-2/abu-dharr-SIM_0173 [accessed 1 January 2016]; Hasan, A., ‘Social justice in Islam’, Islamic Studies, vol. 10, no. 3, 1971, pp. 210211.

9 Rasjidi, M., Islam dan Socialisme, Jakarta, Jajasan Islam Studi Club Indonesia, 1966, pp. 6070. Cf. Rodinson, M., ‘Relationships between Islam and communism’, in Marxism and the Muslim World, Rodinson, M. (ed.), London, Zed Press, 1979, pp. 3459.

10 On this group, see Ansari, K. H., ‘Pan-Islam and the making of the early Indian Muslim socialists’, Modern Asian Studies, vol. 20, no. 3, July 1986, pp. 509537.

11 M. Rodinson, ‘Problems facing the communist parties in Syria and Egypt’, in Rodinson, Marxism and the Muslim World, pp. 60–75.

12 Chengappa, B. M., ‘Pakistan: impact of Islamic socialism’, Strategic Analysis, vol. 26, no. 1, 2002, p. 27.

13 An analysis of al-Siba'i and a translation of key points of his seminal work can be found in Gardner, G. H. and Hanna, S. A., ‘Islamic socialism’, The Muslim World, vol. 56, no. 2, April 1966, pp. 7186.

14 Shakry, O. El, ‘“History without documents”: the vexed archives of decolonization in the Middle East’, American Historical Review, vol. 120, no. 3, June 2015, p. 931, n. 55.

15 Cosroe Chaqueri, ‘Eskandarī, Solaymān (Moḥsen) Mīrzā’, in Encyclopædia Iranica, Ehsan Yarshater et al. (eds.), http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/eskandari-solayman-mohsen-mirza [accessed 2 May 2017].

16 Azimi, F., The Quest for Democracy in Iran: A Century of Struggle against Authoritarian Rule, Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 2008, pp. 127131.

17 For a normative indigenous view of the Middle East as the source for Islamic intellectual developments in twentieth-century Indonesia, see Fogg, K. W. (ed. and trans.), ‘The influence of Muhammad Abduh in Indonesia: speech given by Hamka (Haji Abdul Malik Karim Amrullah) when receiving a doctorate Honoris Causa from al-Azhar University, Cairo’, Afkaruna: Indonesian Interdisciplinary Journal of Islamic Studies, vol. 11, no. 2, December 2015, pp. 125156. For a more recent case, see Bruinessen, M. van, ‘Ghazwul Fikri or Arabization? Indonesian Muslim responses to globalization’, in Southeast Asian Muslims in the Era of Globalization, Miichi, K. and Farouk, O. (eds.), Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, pp. 6185.

18 On an earlier era of South Asian influence on Southeast Asian Islam, see the special issue of Indonesia and the Malay World about ‘Global conjunctions in the Indian Ocean—Malay world textual trajectories’, vol. 41, no. 120, July 2013. On the modern era, see Feener, R. M. and Sevea, T. (eds.), Islamic Connections: Muslim Societies in South and Southeast Asia, Singapore, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2009.

19 Jawed, N. A., ‘Islamic socialism: an ideological trend in Pakistan in the 1960s’, The Muslim World, vol. 65, no. 3, July 1975, p. 207.

20 Al-Ghazali, M., The Socio-political Thought of Shah Wali Allah, Islamabad, International Institute of Islamic Thought, 2001, p. 25; Jawed, ‘Islamic socialism’, p. 196; Al-Faruque, M., ‘Some aspects of Islamic revivalist movements in India during the 18th century: the activities of Shah Wali-Allah of Delhi’, Islamic Culture, vol. 63, no. 3, July 1989, p. 29.

21 F. Robinson, lecture on ‘Maulana Jamal Mian Farangi Mahalli and Pakistan’, Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies, Oxford, 6 November 2013.

22 Kidwai, Shaikh Mushir Husain (1878–1937)’, in Muslims in India: A Biographical Dictionary, vol. II, Jain, N. K. (ed.), New Delhi, Manohar, 1983, p. 22; Wasti, S. T., ‘Mushir Hosain Kidwai and the Ottoman cause’, Middle Eastern Studies, vol. 30, no. 2, 1994, p. 253.

23 Green, N., ‘Spacetime and the Muslim journey west: industrial communications in the making of the “Muslim world”’, American Historical Review, vol. 118, no. 2, April 2013, pp. 409411.

24 Wasti, ‘Mushir Hosain Kidwai and the Ottoman cause’, p. 254.

25 ‘Kidwai, Shaikh Mushir Husain’, p. 23.

26 Kidwai, S. M. H., Islam and Socialism, London, Luzac & Co., [1912], un-numbered copyright page.

27 Ibid., p. v.

28 ‘Kidwai, Shaikh Mushir Husain’, p. 23.

29 Kidwai, Islam and Socialism, p. vii.

30 Kidwai, M. H., Pan-Islamism and Bolshevism, London, Luzac and Co. [1937?].

31 For more information on Tjokroaminoto, see the recent study of his impact on national life and legacy today, Tjokroaminoto: Guru Para Pendiri Bangsa, Jakarta KPG bekerjasama dengan Majalah Tempo, 2011, a re-printing of the special commemorative issue of the leading newsmagazine Tempo. For more on Sarekat Islam in general, see Korver, A. P. E., Sarekat Islam, 1912–1916: Opkomst, Bloei en Structuur van Indonesie's Eerste Massabeweging, Amsterdam, Historisch Semenarium van de Universiteit van Amsterdam, 1982.

32 Hasnul Arifin Melayu, ‘Islam and politics in the thought of Tjokroaminoto (1882–1934)’, MA Thesis, McGill University, 2000, pp. 9–10.

33 Oral history with Harsono Tjokroaminoto, interviewed by Wardiningsih Surjohardjo, Arsip Nasional Republik Indonesia, Koleksi Sejarah Lisan, 1982 #60 tapes 7, 8, and 9.

34 Shiraishi, T., An Age in Motion: Popular Radicalism in Java, 1912–1926, Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 1990, p. 77; Noer, D., The Modernist Muslim Movement in Indonesia, 1900–1942, Singapore, Oxford University Press, 1973, p. 320.

35 PSII dari Tahun ke Tahun (with English Translation), [Jakarta?], Departemen Penerangan dan Propaganda PSII, [1952], p. 5.

36 Azra, Azyumardi, ‘The Indies Chinese and the Sarekat Islam: an account of the anti-Chinese riots in colonial Indonesia’, Studia Islamika, vol. 1, no. 1, 1994, p. 42.

37 Melayu, ‘Islam and politics’, p. 15.

38 PSII dari Tahun ke Tahun, pp. 6–7.

39 Elson, R. E., ‘Disunity, distance, disregard: the political failure of Islamism in late colonial Indonesia’, Studia Islamika, vol. 16, no. 1, 2009, pp. 56.

40 This article cites a recent reprint in current Indonesian spelling: H. O. S. Cokroaminoto, Islam dan Sosialisme, Jakarta, Penerbit Tride, 2003. The original publication does not seem to be extant.

41 Melayu's thesis includes only an oblique reference to the influence of Kidwai; furthermore, it cites Howard Federspiel's position that Tjokroaminoto's book is a key encapsulation of Islamic political thought in Indonesia at the time, showing no room for this to be a translation (p. 64, n. 7). Valina Singka Subekti, author of Partai Syarikat Islam Indonesia: Kontestasi Politik hingga Konflik Kekuasaan Elite, Jakarta, Yayasan Pustaka Obor Indonesia, 2014, and a descendant from a prominent PSII family, was entirely unaware of Kidwai's text or any foreign influence on Tjokroaminoto. Valina Singka Subekti, meeting with the author, 23 December 2015, Depok, West Java. The only acknowledgement that Tjokroaminoto used Kidwai as a model (although still short of recognizing the nature of the translation) can be found in Wibisono, Jusuf, Islam dan Sosialisme, 2nd edition, Jakarta, Pustaka Islam, 2 volumes, 1950, vol. I, p. 3.

42 Cokroaminoto, Islam dan Sosialisme, p. 82.

43 Ibid., p. 119.

44 Ibid., pp. 52–60. Similar situations are apparent in Chapter 7 (pp. 105–115), which inserts two short sections to make the discussion of religion and socialism more theological and devotional, and Chapter 9 (pp. 134–139), which is addressing a different world situation and so discusses more the Turkish legacy rather than Ottoman glories.

45 Cokroaminoto, Islam dan Sosialisme, p. 149.

46 Kidwai, Islam and Socialism, p. iii.

47 Cokroaminoto, Islam dan Sosialisme, p. 10.

48 For example, the omission of the block quote from Gibbon in Chapter 2 (Kidwai, Islam and Socialism, p. 13); the inclusion of Cornellie Huygens (Cokroaminoto, Islam dan Sosialisme, pp. 21–22); and Dutch translations of keywords (ibid., p. 33).

49 Ibid., p. 141. This expression is nonsensical for Indonesian readers who are not familiar with the English idiom.

50 Formichi, C., Islam and the Making of the Nation: Kartosuwirjo and Political Islam in 20th Century Indonesia, Leiden, KITLV Press, 2012, p. 24.

51 Shiraishi, An Age in Motion, Chapter 7, ‘Islamism and communism’.

52 van Nieuwenhuijze, C. A. O., Aspects of Islam in Post-colonial Indonesia: Five Essays, The Hague, W. van Hoeve, 1958, p. 99, n. 2.

53 See, for example, the case of Hamka and his book The Sinking of the van der Wijck, recounted in Rush, James R., Hamka's Great Story: A Master Writer's Vision of Islam for Modern Indonesia, Madison, University of Wisconsin Press, 2016, pp. 136140.

54 Melayu, ‘Islam and politics’, pp. 16, 64, 82.

55 Oral history with Harsono Tjokroaminoto, tapes 5 and 6.

56 Ahmad Najib Burhani, ‘Hating the Ahmadiyya: the place of “heretics” in contemporary Indonesian Muslim society’, Contemporary Islam, vol. 8, 2014, pp. 135–136.

57 Oral history with Harsono Tjokroaminoto, tape 6, around minute 15.

58 Pijper, G. F., ‘De Aḥmadīyah in Indonesia’, in Bingkisan budi: een bundel opstellen aan Dr. Philippus Samuel van Ronkel door vrienden en leerlingen aangeboden op zijn tachtigste verjaardag, 1 Augustus 1950, Leiden, A.W. Sijthoff's uitgeversmaatschappij n.v., 1950, p. 251.

59 Ichwan, Moch Nur, ‘Differing responses to an Ahmadi translation and exegesis: the Holy Qur’ân in Egypt and Indonesia’, Archipel, vol. 62, 2001, p. 147.

60 Formichi, Islam and the Making of the Nation, p. 30.

61 Burhani, ‘Hating the Ahmadiyya’.

62 See, for example, the book on war in Islam published during the revolution by the Ahmadiyyah Qadian representative in Indonesia: M. Rahmat Ali, Djihad dalam Islam, Jakarta, Neratja Trading Company, 1949. For more on Ahmadi print proselytization, see I. S. Sevea, ‘The Ahmadiyya print Jihad in South and Southeast Asia’, in Feener and Sevea, Islamic Connections, pp. 134–148.

63 Moch Nur Ichwan, ‘Differing responses’, p. 148.

64 Laffan, M., The Makings of Indonesian Islam: Orientalism and the Narration of a Sufi Past, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2011, p. 218.

65 Latif, Yudi, Indonesian Muslim Intelligentsia and Power, Singapore, ISEAS, 2008, p. 208.

66 ‘Menjiarkan Agama Islam di Eropah’, Merdeka, 17 January 1946.

67 Moch Nur Ichwan, ‘Differing responses’, p. 144.

68 Alimin, Riwajat Hidup, Jakarta, n.p., 1955.

69 This was especially true from the 1940s. See Ricklefs, M. C., Islamisation and Its Opponents in Java: A Political, Social, Cultural and Religious History, c. 1930 to the Present, Singapore, NUS Press, 2012, Chapter 3.

70 See ibid., Chapter 3.

71 Elson, R. E., ‘Absent at the creation: Islamism's belated, troubled engagement with early Indonesian nationalism’, in Anthony Reid and the Study of the Southeast Asian Past, Wade, G. and Tana, Li (eds.), Singapore, ISEAS, 2012, p. 319.

72 Soekarno, Nationalism, Islam and Marxism, Warouw, K. H. and Weldon, P. D. (trans.), Ithaca, Modern Indonesia Project, Cornell University, 1970, p. 48.

73 Ibid., pp. 50–51; Cokroaminoto, Islam dan Sosialisme, p. 12.

74 Ibid., pp. 22–23.

75 Soekarno, Nationalism, p. 47; Cokroaminoto, Islam dan Sosialisme, 130; Kidwai, Islam and Socialism, p. 67.

76 Soekarno, Nationalism, pp. 36–37. Gandhi is cited again on p. 40.

77 See his Surat-surat dari Endeh’ in Soekarno, Dibawah bandera Revolusi, Yogyakarta: Media Pressindo and Yayasan Bung Karno, 2015, pp. 365384.

78 Friend, T., Indonesian Destinies, Cambridge, MA, Belknap Press, 2003, p. 82.

79 Anderson, B. R. O'G., ‘The Javanese idea of power’, in Language and Power: Exploring Political Cultures in Indonesia, Anderson, B. R. O'G. (ed.), Jakarta, Equinox, 2009, pp. 2930.

80 Partai Sarekat Islam Indonesia, the direct heir of Tjokroaminoto's movement, broke away from Masjumi in 1947 and also carried on the legacy of Islamic socialism in politics, but it was less impactful on the national scene at the time. On the reestablishment of PSII, see Fogg, K. W., ‘The missing Minister of Religion and the PSII: a contextual biography of K. H. Ahmad Azhary’, Studia Islamika, vol. 20, no. 1, 2013, pp. 3557.

81 Kahin, G. McT., ‘The impact of American foreign policy’, in Democracy in Indonesia: 1950s and 1990s, Bourchier, D. and Legge, J. (eds.), Clayton, Victoria, Centre of Southeast Asian Studies, Monash University, 1994, p. 64.

82 Kahin probably coined this phrase in his classic work on the revolution, Kahin, G. McT., Nationalism and Revolution in Indonesia, Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 1952, pp. 156158. It was a title later embraced by the group themselves, as evident in Abu Hanifah, Tales of a Revolution, Sydney, Angus and Robertson, 1972, pp. 161–162.

83 Yudi Latif, Indonesian Muslim Intelligentsia and Power, pp. 204–206.

84 Oral history of Burhanuddin Harahap, interviewed by J. R. Caniago, Arsip Nasional Republik Indonesia, Koleksi Sejarah Lisan, 1980 #1, tape 1; Yudi Latif, Indonesian Muslim Intelligentsia and Power, pp. 207–208.

85 Moch Nur Ichwan, ‘Differing responses’, pp. 156–157.

86 Wibisono, Islam dan Sosialisme.

87 Panitia Mu'tamar Masjumi ke-V, Indonesia dalam Pembangunan, Jakarta, Alvaco, 1951, p. 54, in an advertisement for Penerbit SINAR ILMU Djakarta.

88 Wibisono, Islam dan Sosialisme, vol. I, p. 3.

89 Ibid., pp. 6–9.

90 Oral history with Sjafruddin Prawiranegara, interviewed by J. R. Caniago, Arsip Nasional Republik Indonesia, Koleksi Sejarah Lisan, 1979 #6, tape 3; Abu Hanifah, Tales of a Revolution, pp. 64, 69, 161–162, 188, 213.

91 Prawiranegara, Sjafruddin, Politik dan Revolusi Kita, 2nd edition, Medan, Andalas, [1948?], pp. 1920.

92 Wibisono, Islam dan Sosialisme, vol. II, p. 29.

93 Pedoman Perjuangan Masjumi, 2nd edition, Jakarta, Pimpinan Partai Masjumi Bagian Keuangan, 1955, pp. 6869, 55; Hanifah, Abu, Kita Berdjoang: Goebahan Kultur Politis, Jakarta, Merdeka, 1946, p. 60.

94 Prawiranegara, Politik dan Revolusi Kita, p. 42.

95 Abu Hanifah, Kita Berdjoang, p. 46.

96 Prawiranegara, Sj., Islam dalam Pergolakan Dunia, 2nd edition, Bandung: Al-Ma'arif, 1950, p. 13; Jusuf Wibisono wrote almost exactly the same points in Islam and Sosialisme, vol. II, pp. 23–24.

97 Prawiranegara, Politik dan Revolusi Kita, pp. 10–15, 39–48; Wibisono, Islam dan Sosialisme, vol. II, pp. 22–47; Hanifah, Abu, Soal Agama dalam Negara Modern, 2nd edition, Jakarta, Tintamas, 1950, pp. 2845. This was also a major campaign point for Masjumi in the 1950s; see Madinier, R., ‘Lawan dan Kawan (friends and foes): Indonesian Islam and communism during the Cold War (1945–1960)’, in Connecting Histories: Decolonization and the Cold War in Southeast Asia, 1945–1962, Goscha, C. E. and Ostermann, C. F. (eds.), Stanford, Stanford University Press, 2009, p. 360.

98 Wibisono, Islam dan Sosialisme, vol. II, p. 30.

99 Ibid., p. 11; Abu Hanifah, Kita Berdjoang, pp. 154–155; Prawiranegara, Politik dan Revolusi Kita, p. 10.

100 Prawiranegara, Islam dalam Pergolakan Dunia, p. 10. This was probably not directly from the influence of Tjokroaminoto and Kidwai's work, but rather in the general zeitgeist of the postwar era; similar sentiments were expressed in this era by Kartosuwirjo (Boland, B. J., The Struggle of Islam in Modern Indonesia, The Hague, Nijhoff, 1971, p. 61), and even by the head of the Arab League, Abdurrahman Azzam (Azzam, A., The Eternal Message of Muhammad, trans. Farah, C. E., London, Quartet, 1979, pp. xii, 278279).

101 Kahin, A. R., Islam, Nationalism and Democracy: A Political Biography of Mohammad Natsir, Singapore, NUS Press, 2012, pp. 181182; Roem, Mohamad, ‘Ikut serta dalam peringatan tahun pertama Revolusi Islam Iran yang gemilang’, in Bunga Rampai dari Sejarah, Roem, M. (ed.), Jakarta, Bulan Bintang, 1988, vol. IV, pp. 123133.

102 Fealy and Platzdasch, ‘The Masjumi legacy’.

103 Oral history with Harsono Tjokroaminoto, tape 8.

104 Ibid., tape 12.

105 Formichi, Islam and the Making of the Nation, pp. 40, 43, 46.

106 Ibid., p. 125.

107 Noer, D., Partai Islam di Pentas Nasional 1945–1965, Jakarta, Grafiti Pers, 1987, pp. 100101; Madinier, R., Islam and Politics in Indonesia: The Masyumi Party between Democracy and Integralism, Desmond, J. (trans.), Singapore, NUS Press, 2015, pp. 155179.

108 Dengel, H. H., Darul Islam—NII dan Kartosuwirjo: Langkah Perwujudan Angan-Angan yang Gagal, Jakarta, Pustaka Sinar Harapan, 2011, p. 33, n. 56.

109 Noer, Partai Islam di Pentas Nasional, p. 182.

110 Temby, Q., ‘Imagining an Islamic state in Indonesia: from Darul Islam to Jemaah Islamiyah’, Indonesia, vol. 89, April 2010, pp. 136.

111 Madinier, Islam and Politics in Indonesia, pp. 25–28.

112 Tjokroaminoto, Umar Said, Islam dan Socialisme, Padang Panjang, n.p., 1946.

113 Tjokroaminoto, Umar Said, Islam dan Socialisme, 4th edition, Jakarta, Bulan Bintang, 1950.

114 Tjokroaminoto, Umar Said, Islam dan Socialisme, 5th edition, Jakarta, Bulan Bintang, 1954.

115 Tjokroaminoto, Umar Said, Islam dan Sosialisme, Jakarta, Lembaga Penggali dan Penghimpunan Sedjarah Indonesia, 1963.

116 Cokroaminoto, Islam dan Sosialisme.

117 Tjokroaminoto, Umar Said, Islam dan Sosialisme, Bandung, Sega Asri, 2008.

118 Tjokroaminoto, Umar Said, Islam dan Sosialisme, 2nd edition, Bandung, Sega Asri, 2008.

The author would like to thank Faizah Zakaria, Syahrul Hidayat, Rémy Madinier, Adeel Malik, Ibrahim Amin, Megan Robb, Fouzia Farooq, Francis Robinson, and Michael Feener; audiences at the Annual International Conference of Islamic Studies in Mataram (2013), Universitas Darussalam-Gontor, the Yale Council on Southeast Asia Studies, Metropolitan University Prague, and the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies; and the two anonymous reviewers for their contributions to improving this article. All faults remain with the author.

Indonesian Islamic Socialism and its South Asian Roots

  • KEVIN W. FOGG (a1)

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