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On Difficult New Terms: The business of lexicography in Mao Era China*

  • JENNIFER E. ALTEHENGER (a1)

Abstract

Entries in Mao Era reference works today serve as windows into the world of words and meanings of a bygone era. Dictionaries and encyclopaedias, though, did not speak with one voice, even under Communist Party control. Lexicography and the question of who would get to publish on and explain the meaning of the ‘new terms’ and ‘new knowledge’ of ‘New China’ were subject to constant debates. Lexicographers, editors, and publishers specialized in the business of setting up categories and, together with readers and state censors, they policed them. Following on their heels, this article examines four moments in Mao Era lexicography, ranging from the early years of transition to Chinese Communist Party rule to the height of the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution. Internal reports and letter exchanges on the production and circulation of single-volume encyclopaedic dictionaries show who contributed to encyclopaedic work, how it was controlled, and why control and censorship were often far from simple. Taking lexicography seriously as a component of the socialist information economy after 1949 sheds light on complex processes of knowledge transmission that defy simple models of socialist state propaganda.

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I am most grateful to Felix Boecking, Robert Culp, Feng Xiaocai, Karl Gerth, Henrietta Harrison, Jonathan Howlett, Miriam Kingsberg, Rachel Leow, Tehyun Ma, Rana Mitter, Barbara Mittler, Christopher Reed, Nicolai Volland, participants at workshops in York, London, and Shanghai, as well as two anonymous reviewers for wonderful suggestions and comments. A special thank you to Michael Schoenhals for reading two different drafts and helping me turn this into a better article. The Universities China Committee London, King's College London, and the Robert Bosch Foundation very generously provided funding.

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1 ‘Qing kuai chuban youguan zhengzhi lilun de mingci cidian’ [‘Please quickly publish a dictionary on political and theoretical terms’], Dushu Yuebao, vol. 6, 1956, p. 19.

2 For similar examples of early People's Republic of China readers’ letters and the issue of ‘criticism from below’, see Gerth, K., ‘Compromising with consumerism in socialist China: transnational flows and internal tensions in “socialist advertising”’, Past and Present, vol. 218, Supp. 8, 2013, pp. 221–2.

3 Darnton, R., The Great Cat Massacre and Other Episodes in French Cultural History, Basic Books, New York, 1984 , p. 193.

4 Elman, B., On Their Own Terms: Science in China, 1550–1900, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2009 , p. 3, discusses the ‘conceptual grid’ during imperial times.

5 Doleželová-Velingerová, M. and Wagner, R., ‘Introduction’, in Chinese Encyclopaedias of New Global Knowledge, 1870–1930: Changing Ways of Thought, Doleželová-Velingerová, M. and Wagner, R. (eds), Springer, Heidelberg, 2014 , p. 5.

6 This article's use of terms such as ‘information’ and ‘knowledge’ follows Ann M. Blair, who differentiates between data, information, and knowledge. Data, she writes, ‘requires further processing before it can be meaningful’, whereas knowledge ‘implies an individual knower’. ‘Information’, conversely, ‘typically takes the form of discrete and small-sized items that have been removed from their original contexts and made available as “morsels” ready to be rearticulated’. Cf. Blair, A. M., Too Much to Know: Managing Scholarly Information before the Modern Age, Yale University Press, New Haven, 2011 , p. 2.

7 The changing political climate of cultural production and publishing in the early 1950s is discussed in Volland, N., ‘Cultural entrepreneurship in the twilight: the Shanghai Book Trade Association, 1945–57’, in The Business of Culture: Cultural Entrepreneurs in China and Southeast Asia, 1900–65, Rea, C. and Volland, N. (eds), University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver, 2015, pp. 234–58. For an institutional history of People's Republic of China private publishing, see Jinping, Zhu, 1949–1956 Zhongguo gongchandang dui siying chubanye de gaizao [The CCP's Transformation of the Private Publishing Industry, 1949–1956], Zhongyang dangxiao chubanshe, Beijing, 2008 .

8 ‘Conceptual history’ here is understood according to the definition provided by Koselleck, R., Begriffsgeschichten: Studien zur Semantik und Pragmatik der politischen und sozialen Sprache, Suhrkamp, Frankfurt/M., 2006, pp. 9102 . On language politics in the People's Republic of China, see Link, P., An Anatomy of Chinese: Rhythm, Metaphor, Politics, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2013 ; Perry, E. J. and Xun, Li, ‘Revolutionary rudeness: the language of Red Guards and rebel workers in China's cultural revolution’, in Twentieth Century China: New Approaches, Wasserstrom, J. (ed.), Routledge, London, 2003, pp. 221–36; Peterson, G., The Power of Words: Literacy and Revolution in South China, 1949–95, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 1997 ; Schoenhals, M., Doing Things with Words in Chinese Politics: Five Case Studies, University of British Columbia, Berkeley, 1992 ; Schoenhals, M., Talk about a Revolution: Red Guards, Government Cadres and the Language of Political Discourse, Working Paper Series on Language and Politics in Modern China No. 1, East Asian Studies Center Indiana University, Bloomington, 1993 ; Schoenhals, M., ‘Demonizing discourse in Mao Zedong's China: people vs non-people’, Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions, vol. 8, no. 3–4, 2007, pp. 465–82; N. Volland, ‘The control of the media in the People's Republic of China’, Ph.D. thesis, University of Heidelberg, 2003; Wagner, R., Inside a Service Trade: Studies in Contemporary Chinese Prose, Harvard University Asia Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1992 ; Fengyuan, Ji, Linguistic Engineering, Language and Politics in Mao's China, University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, 2003 .

9 A similar point has been made by Lee, Siu-yao, ‘Defining correctness: the tale of the contemporary Chinese dictionary’, Modern China, vol. 40, 2014, pp. 426–50. Following an insightful introduction to the dictionary's post-49 history, Lee focuses mostly on its post-1978 development.

10 Shaohua, Hong, Renlei zhishi de xin gongju: Zhong Ri jindai baike quanshu yanjiu [A New Tool of Human Knowledge: A Study of Early Modern Encyclopaedias in China and Japan], Beijing Tushuguan Chubanshe, Beijing, 1996 ; Lackner, M., Amelung, I., and Kurtz, J. (eds), New Terms for New Ideas: Western Knowledge and Lexical Change in Late Imperial China, Brill, Leiden, 2001 .

11 For a study of Republican Era publishing, see Lee, Leo Ou-fan, Shanghai Modern: The Flowering of a New Urban Culture in China, 1930–1945, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1999 ; Reed, C., Gutenberg in Shanghai: Chinese Print Capitalism, University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, 2004 .

12 B. Mittler, ‘China's “new” encyclopaedias and their readers’, in Doleželová-Velingerová and Wagner, Chinese Encyclopaedias; Mittler, B., ‘Useful new knowledge for everyone to digest: the Xin wenhua cishu, 1923’, in Hidden Grammars of Transculturality: Shifting Powers of Encyclopedic Writing, Mittler, B. and Herren-Oesch, M. (eds), Springer, Heidelberg, forthcoming.

13 Pingyuan, Chen and Doleželová-Velingerová, M. M. (eds), Jindai Zhongguo de baike cishu [Early Modern Chinese Encyclopaedias], Beijing Daxue, Beijing, 2007 ; also Brokaw, C. J., Commerce in Culture: The Sibao Book Trade in the Qing and Republican Periods, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2007 , p. 411; Elman, B., ‘Collecting and classifying: Ming dynasty compendia and encyclopedias (Leishu)’, in Qu’était-ce qu’écrire une encyclopédie en Chine?, Bretelle-Establet, F. and Chemla, K. (eds), Presses Universitaires de Vincennes, Paris, 2007 .

14 Mittler, ‘China's “new” encyclopaedias and their readers’, p. 11, fn. 27.

15 See for example Darnton, R., The Business of Enlightenment: A Publishing History of the Encyclopédie, 1770–1800, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1979 ; Prodöhl, I., Die Politik des Wissens: Allgemeine deutsche Enzyklopädien zwischen 1928 und 1958, de Gruyter, Berlin, 2011 .

16 Doleželová-Velingerová and Wagner, ‘Introduction’, pp. 15–16.

17 The takeover of the municipal publishing industry is discussed in Volland, ‘Cultural entrepreneurship’.

18 Beixin Press during the Republican Era is discussed in Shuliu, Cai, ‘Beixin shuju jianshi’ [‘A concise history of Beixin Press’], Chuban Shiliao [Historical Materials on Publishing], vol. 2, 1991, pp. 91–2; Shiao, Ling, ‘Culture, commerce and connections: the inner dynamics of new culture publishing in the post-May fourth period’, in From Woodblocks to the Internet: Chinese Publishing and Print Culture in Transition, circa 1800 to 2008, Brokaw, C. and Reed, C. A. (eds), Brill, Leiden, 2010, pp. 213–48.

19 Hu Yuzhi, ‘Guanyu chuli Beixin shuju chuban “Xin zhishi cidian” yi shu de zhishi’, 15 March 1950, Shanghai Municipal Archives (SMA hereafter), B1-1-1904-2 to 3. The directive is also reprinted in Zhongguo chuban kexue yanjiusuo and Zhongyang dang'anguan (eds), Chuban shiliao [Historical Materials on Publishing], vol. 2, Zhongguo Shuji Chubanshe, Beijing, 1996, p. 100. The reprint states that the report was lost, but it can be found in the SMA archival file.

20 SMA B1-1-1904-004 and ‘Fu: Guanyu “Xin zhishi cidian” yi shu de yanjiu baogao’, March 1950, SMA B1-1-1904-4. Xin zhishi cidian [New Knowledge Dictionary], Beixin Shuju, Shanghai, 1949, p. 425.

21 SMA B1-1-1904-004. Xin zhishi cidian (1949), p. 571.

22 Ibid.

23 Hu Yuzhi, ‘Guanyu chuli Beixin shuju chuban “Xin zhishi cidian” yi shu de zhishi’.

24 Ibid.

25 SMA B1-1-1904-4.

26 ‘Guanyu “Xin zhishi de baogao”’, 10 March 1950, SMA B1-1-1904-15 to 19.

27 Renmin ribao, 5 April 1950, p. 5.

28 The wide availability of this dictionary online today would indicate at least that censorship mostly worked for copies in bookstores, but not those already sold, and that quite a few copies were already sold by then.

29 ‘Guanyu chuli Beixin shuju chuban “Xin zhishi cidian” yi shu de zhishi’, 15 March 1950, SMA B1-1-1904-2.

30 Shuxiang, and Dexi, Zhu, Yufa xiuci jianghua [Lectures on Grammar and Rhetoric], Kaiming Shudian, Shanghai, 1951 ; on national attempts to purify the Chinese language, see Wagner, R., ‘Zhonggong 1940–1953 jianli zhengyu, zhengwen de zhengce dalüe’, in Wenyi lilun yu tongsu wenhua, Xiaoyan, Peng (ed.), Zhongyang yanjiuyuan Zhongguo wenzhi yanjiusuo choubeichu, Taipei, 1999 ; Volland, N., ‘A linguistic enclave: translation and language policies in the early People's Republic of China’, Modern China, vol. 35, 2009 , p. 470.

31 Renmin ribao, 16 August 1951, p. 3, and 25 June 1951, p. 6.

32 Renmin ribao, 25 August 1951, p. 3.

33 Ibid.

34 Renmin ribao, 11 March 1951, p. 5.

35 Renmin ribao, 25 June 1951, p. 6.

36 Based on information provided in copies of the dictionary's last edition, Chunming issued the following print-runs between 1949 and 1955: 1st edn, first published September 1949, printed five times with a total of 32,000 copies; 2nd edn, first published June 1950, printed 14 times with a total of 95,200 copies; 3rd edn, first published June 1951, printed three times with a total of 38,000 copies; 4th edn, first published January 1952, printed nine times with a total of 29,800 copies; 5th edn, first published April 1953, printed seven times with a total of 120,000 copies; 6th edn, first published November 1954, printed six times with a total of 50,000 copies. Each volume had around 600–700 pages and approximately 1,900,000 characters in total. Cf. Xin mingci cidian [Dictionary of New Terms], Chunming Chubanshe, Shanghai, 1954.

37 ‘Gaiban xuyan’ [‘Preface to the revised edition’], Xin mingci cidian (1954), pp. 1–2. The precise statistics as provided in the preface are: 1. Dissemination of the dictionary calculated by origin of readers’ letters: East China, 35.1 per cent; South China, 23.7 per cent; North China, 13 per cent; North-West China, 8.1 per cent; South-West China, 5.8 per cent; North-East China, 5 per cent; Inner Mongolia and Tibet, 0.7 per cent; Korean frontline, 0.7 per cent; percentage of letters that did not specify: 7.9 per cent. 2. Class status of readers writing letters: State officials, 26.6 per cent; Military service and army, 19.3 per cent; School teachers and students, 19 per cent; Industry workers, 4.2 per cent; Peasants, bank/hospital/mass organization workers, 30.09 per cent. The evident problem with these statistics is that the editors do neither specify how many letters were submitted nor when exactly they were received. This information can thus only serve as a rough estimate and also as an indication of how the editors wished readers to perceive of the dictionary's circulation.

38 Zilin, Yu, ‘Wo suo zhidao de Chunming shudian’ [‘The Chunming Bookstore I knew’], Chuban shiliao, vol. 4, 2011, pp. 34–8.

39 Ibid., p. 34.

40 Ibid. The series was called ‘Collected Works on Contemporary Writers’ and included works by Lu Xun, Guo Moruo, Mao Dun, Ding Ling, Ba Jin, Lao She, and Hu Feng.

41 Yu, ‘Wo suo zhidao de Chunming shudian’, p. 36.

42 Chen Zhaochun remained in the city but declined to take over management operations. He is listed as sole shareholder on the Chunming Bookstore's registration documents with the Shanghai Book Trade Association between 1950 and 1951, ‘Shanghai shi shuye tongye gonghui choubeihui huiyuan dengji diaocha biao’, 1 August 1950 and October 1951, SMA S313-4-5-29 to 33.

43 Yu, ‘Wo suo zhidao de Chunming shudian’, p. 37.

44 Chunming Bookstore was registered as a publisher of ‘popular reading matters’, cf. ‘Huadong diqu gong-si ying tushu chubanye minglu’ [‘List of public and private book publishers in the East China Region’], in Zhongguo chuban kexue yanjiusuo and Zhongyang dang'anguan, Chuban shiliao [Historical Materials on Publishing], vol. 3, Zhongguo Shuji Chubanshe, Beijing, 1996, p. 522.

45 ‘Chunming Bookstore/Press’ [‘Chunming Shudian/Chubanshe’], in Jinxiandai Shanghai chubanye yinxiang ji [Collection of Impressions of Modern and Contemporary Shanghai's Publishing Industry], Xuelin Chubanshe, Shanghai, 1993, pp. 286–7; see also, Yu, ‘Wo suo zhidao de Chunming shudian’, p. 38.

46 Renmin ribao, 5 April 1950, p. 5.

47 Ibid.

48 Renmin ribao, 6 May 1950, p. 4.

49 ‘Wei tigao chubanwu de zhiliang er douzheng’ [‘Struggle to raise the quality of published materials’], in Zhongguo chuban kexue yanjiusuo and Zhongyang dang'anguan, Chuban shiliao, p. 227.

50 Chunming shudian baogao, 6 June 1951, SMA B1-1-1904-35 to 36.

51 Chunming shudian baogao, 2 June 1951, SMA B1-1-1904-37 to 40.

52 Letter to Kong Lingjing dated 5 August 1951, Zikai Shuxin (xia) [Zikai's Letters], vol. 3, Haitun Chubanshe, Beijing, 2013, pp. 254–5.

53 Ibid.

54 Letter dated 31 August 1951, Zikai Shuxin (xia), pp. 256–7.

55 ‘Bianji dayi’ [‘Guiding principles of the edition’], Xin mingci cidian, Chunming Shudian, Shanghai, 1949, and ‘Bianji dayi’ [‘Guiding principles of the edition’], Xin mingci cidian, Chunming Chubanshe, Shanghai, 1952, p. 2.

56 Ibid. Kong took over the precise wording from Hu for this section and changed one term in the third category of ‘old terms’. Hu had called those old terms included in the dictionary ‘original’ (yuanyou) whereas Kong used the phrase ‘often seen’ (chang jian).

57 Both dictionaries were divided into ten sections. In 1949, these ten sections were entitled: ‘international’, ‘politics’, ‘economics’, ‘society’, ‘philosophy’, ‘science’, ‘arts’, ‘geography’, ‘people’, and ‘commonly used terms’. In 1952, the order of sections had been slightly rearranged: ‘international’, ‘politics’, ‘economics’, ‘history’, ‘geography’, ‘society’, ‘philosophy’, ‘science’, ‘literature and arts’, and ‘people’.

58 Szonyi, M., Cold War Island: Quemoy on the Front Line, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2008, pp. 112 .

59 Harrison, H., ‘Popular responses to the atomic bomb in China, 1945–55’, Past and Present, vol. 218, Supp. 8, 2013, pp. 106–10.

60 Xin mingci cidian (1952), p. 9.

61 Xin mingci cidian (1949), p. 1002. The pages of the 1949 edition were not consecutively numbered; every new section began with a page 1. I have adopted the numbering system of the 1952 dictionary, which means that a page number ‘1002’ refers to section 1 of the dictionary and then the relevant page number within that section, here page 2.

62 Xin mingci cidian (1952), pp. 1001–3.

63 Xin mingci cidian (1949), pp. 4001–3.

64 Xin mingci cidian (1952), pp. 5001–2.

65 Ibid.

66 An analysis of how the phrase was incorporated into the campaign is provided in Strauss, J., ‘Morality, coercion and state building by campaign in the early PRC: regime consolidation and after, 1949–1956’, in The History of the PRC (1949–1976), Strauss, J. (ed.), The China Quarterly Special Issues New Series No. 7, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2007, pp. 50–1.

67 Ibid., p. 51.

68 Xin mingci cidian (1949), p. 9001.

69 Xin mingci cidian (1953), p. 9004.

70 Most European dictionaries avoided this problem of dealing with ‘live biographies’. As Madeleine Herren notes, ‘Generally speaking, in European encyclopaedias, the admission price for a biographical article is death’. Cf. Herren, M., ‘General knowledge and society: an accurate and popular view of the present improved state of human knowledge’, in Allgemeinwissen und Gesellschaft: Akten des internationalen Kongresses über Wissenstransfer und enzyklopädische Ordnungssysteme, vom 18. bis 21. September 2003 in Prangins, Michel, P., Herren, M., and Rüesch, M. (eds), Shaker, Aachen, 2007 , 492, fn. 12.

71 Letter from the East China Military Commission's News and Publishing Bureau, 10 June 1950, SMA B1-1-1904-30.

72 In 1955 alone, 45,000 copies were printed in five print-runs between January and July. Xin mingci cidian, Chunming Chubanshe, Shanghai, 1955, front matter.

73 Xin mingci cidian (1954), p. 6096.

74 ‘Qingshi dui Chunming ban “Xin mingci cidian” de chuli yijian’, 12 November 1955, SMA B167-1-148-7.

75 ‘Fu “Xin mingci cidian” kefou xiuzheng zai ban wenti’, March 1956, SMA B167-1-148-13.

76 ‘Shanghai shi renmin weiyuanhui chuban shiye guanlichu baogao’ (n.d.), SMA B167-1-148-17.

77 SMA B167-1-148-17 to 18.

78 On translations of Soviet encyclopaedic knowledge, see N. Volland, ‘Globalizing knowledge in socialist China: a transnational perspective on knowledge production in the PRC, 1949–1960’, unpublished paper, cited with the author's permission.

79 The Cihai was first published by Commercial Press in 1936. This article cannot discuss how the wide circulation of the Cihai affected popular interpretation of terms after 1949, but it is highly likely that plenty of people and even libraries continued to own copies and that these were consulted for reference. Robert Culp has worked extensively on the history of the Cihai in Republican China and on the institutional dynamics of the Cihai’s compilation process in the late 1950s and early 1960s: R. Culp, ‘Culture work: industrial capitalism and socialist cultural production in Mao-Era China’, unpublished paper presented at the Association for Asian Studies (AAS) annual meeting 2014, cited with the author's permission.

80 ‘Zonggong Shanghai shiwei guanyu xiugai Cihai wenti de yijian he qingshi’ [‘An opinion and request for instructions by the Chinese Communist Party Shanghai municipal committee on the subject of Cihai revisions’], in Zhongguo chuban kexue yanjiusuo and Zhongyang dang'anguan, Chuban shiliao, pp. 420–1.

81 The Central Publishing Administration classified the New Knowledge Press as a ‘local publisher’ (difang chubanshe). Cf. ‘Quanguo chubanshe mingdan (neibu ziliao)’ [‘List of publishers nationwide (internal materials)’], in Zhongguo chuban kexue yanjiusuo and Zhongyang dang'anguan, Chuban shiliao, p. 320.

82 ‘Qianyan’ [‘Foreword’], Xin zhishi cidian, Xin zhishi chuban she, Shanghai, 1958.

83 Ibid.

84 Madeleine Herren has called for studies of failed encyclopaedia projects. These are as important to our understanding of reference work compilation as those volumes that were successfully published. Michel and Herren, ‘Unvorgreifliche Gedanken zu einer Theorie des Enzyklopädischen’, p. 54.

85 Letter from Hang Wei to the Publishing Office's Party Cell, 17 February 1962, SMA B167-1-550-2 to 3, and Letter from Hang Wei to the Publishing Office's Party Cell, copied to the Municipal Party Propaganda Bureau (n.d.) 1962, SMA B167-1-550-8.

86 SMA B167-1-550-2 to 3.

87 On such slogans, see also Li, Kwok-sing (ed.), A Glossary of Political Terms of the People's Republic of China, Chinese University Press, Hong Kong, 1995 .

88 SMA B167-1-550-8.

89 Letter from Hang Wei to the Publishing Office's Party Cell, copied to the Municipal Party Propaganda Bureau, 21 November 1962, SMA B167-1-550-15 to 16.

90 Lexikon in Zwei Bänden A-Z, Volkseigener Verlag Enzyklopädie, Leipzig, 1958.

91 SMA B167-1-550-15 to 16.

92 Ibid.

93 Herren, ‘General knowledge and society’, p. 492.

94 SMA B167-1-762.

95 Letter from Hang Wei to the Publishing Office's Party Cell, copied to the Municipal Party Propaganda Bureau, 25 December 1962, SMA B167-1-550-24 to 25.

96 On Cihai revisions, see Kang Sheng, ‘Zhou Yang tongzhi jiejian “Cihai” zhengqiu yijian gongzuo zu de tanhua jilu’ (n.d.), January 1962, SMA B167-1-550 and the file SMA B167-1-762.

97 ‘Jidian shuoming’ [‘A few explanations’], 30 May 1969, Dubao Shouce [Newspaper Readers’ Handbook], 3rd edn, 1969, p. 1011.

98 The production history of the Quotations, more commonly known as the ‘Little Red Book’, is discussed in Leese, D., ‘A single spark: origins and spread of the Little Red Book in China’, in Mao's Little Red Book: A Global History, Cook, A. C. (ed.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2014, pp. 2342 .

99 The stamp ‘internal reference only’ is not added to the front matter of the handbook until the 1968 version, but the early volumes contained no back matter indicating price or circulation, which suggests that they were not circulated for open sale.

100 bianjisuo, Guangming Ribao [Guangming Daily Editorial Office], Dubao Shouce [Newspaper Readers’ Handbook], Guangming Ribao She, Beijing, 1951 ; She, Changjiang Ribao [Changjiang Daily Agency], Dubao Shouce [Newspaper Readers’ Handbook], Xinhua Shudian Zhongnan Zongfendian, Wuhan, 1950 .

101 Chubanshe, Zhejiang Renmin [Zhejiang People's Press], Dubao Shouce [Newspaper Readers’ Handbook], Zhejiang Renmin Chubanshe, Hangzhou, 1957 .

102 Reprints were clearly marked. They, moreover, replicated the foreword of the original edition but omitted the invitation to send in letters with revision suggestions.

103 Hongdaihui Nanjing daxue weiyuanhui (ed.), Dubao Shouce [Newspaper Readers’ Handbook], 2nd edn, 26 December 1968 (n.p.).

104 ‘Zaiban qianyan’ [‘Foreword to the second edition’], in Dubao Shouce, Hongdaihui Nanjing daxue weiyuanhui (ed.).

105 On the formation of ‘sub-cults’ see Leese, D., Mao Cult, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2011 , p. 179.

106 Letter from the Zhejiang Province Mao Zedong Works Publishing Office to the Shanghai Revolutionary Committee's Mao Zedong Works Print and Distribution Office, 25 September 1969, SMA B244-3-151-218.

107 ‘Jiangnan zaochuanchang geming weiyuanhui—fanyin “dubao shouce” jiancha shu’, 7 October 1969, SMA B244-3-151-219.

108 Ibid. Selfishness as the antonym to loyalty is discussed in Leese, Mao Cult, p. 187.

109 SMA B244-151-219, and ‘Youguan “dubao shouce” fanyin de jingguo qingkuang’, 7 October 1969, SMA B244-151-221.

110 Letter from the Shanghai Revolutionary Committee's Mao Zedong Works Print and Distribution Office to the Municipal Revolutionary Committee, 4 November 1969, SMA B244-3-151-212 to 213.

111 SMA B244-3-151-218.

112 ‘Guanyu woju suoshu sange danwei zai Zhejiang “dubao shouce” deng diaocha qingkuang he chuli yijian’, 25 October 1969, SMA B244-3-151-224.

113 SMA B244-3-151-212 to 213.

114 Hongweibing xin Hangzhou daxue [Red Guards of the New Hangzhou University] (ed.), Dubao Shouce [Newspaper Readers’ Handbook], n.p., Hangzhou, 1969.

115 Yueming, He, ‘Jianchi qiu suo zhenli de xinsheng jilu’, Dushu zhaji, vol. 9, 1989 , p. 33.

116 Volland, ‘The control of the media’, pp. 227–86.

117 Kassof, B., ‘A book of socialism: Stalinist culture and the first edition of the “Bol’-shaia sovetskaia entsiklopediia”’, Kritika, vol. 6, 2004, pp. 5595 .

* I am most grateful to Felix Boecking, Robert Culp, Feng Xiaocai, Karl Gerth, Henrietta Harrison, Jonathan Howlett, Miriam Kingsberg, Rachel Leow, Tehyun Ma, Rana Mitter, Barbara Mittler, Christopher Reed, Nicolai Volland, participants at workshops in York, London, and Shanghai, as well as two anonymous reviewers for wonderful suggestions and comments. A special thank you to Michael Schoenhals for reading two different drafts and helping me turn this into a better article. The Universities China Committee London, King's College London, and the Robert Bosch Foundation very generously provided funding.

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