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MARCEL MAUSS AND THE FRENCH “UNCONSCIOUS”

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 October 2014

JEFFREY MEHLMAN*
Affiliation:
Department of Romance Studies, Boston University E-mail: jmehlman@bu.edu

Extract

In 2008, just prior to his hundredth birthday, an immortality of sorts was conferred on the anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss when his Oeuvres were published—leather-bound, gold-embossed, on Bible paper—in Gallimard's Pléiade collection. He died the following year and we are now beginning to see, for the first time, assessments of his achievement—including the two volumes under review—in a world without Lévi-Strauss. Patrick Wilcken's stylishly written biography is considerably shorter than Denis Bertholet's French biography of 2003, but is nonetheless the first in a position to take in the entire arc of the anthropologist's career—from his nineteenth-century-style expeditions to the Brazilian interior in the 1930s, via his wartime exile in New York, where the twin influences of the linguist Roman Jakobson and assorted surrealists led to the writing of a groundbreaking thesis, to the vanguard structuralist project, the international celebrity, the eventual disillusionment with modernism, the unexpected late references to Gobineau (from an antiracist ideologue), and the final years, when he claimed to feel like a “shattered hologram” and received the visit of a notoriously philistine president of France on his hundredth birthday. Wilcken steers his biography skillfully between the pitfalls of reverence and dismissiveness. It is useful, for instance, to be reminded by a skeptical John Updike that “with such a hunting license granted, parallels and homologies are easy to bag—child's play for a brain as agile as M. Lévi-Strauss” (quoted at 299). But it is equally good to learn of the frequency with which what Wilcken calls Lévi-Strauss's “hit-and-run tactics” would pay off, generating fresh perspectives (75).

Type
Review Essays
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2014 

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References

1 Mehlman, J., A Structural Study of Autobiography: Proust, Leiris, Sartre, Lévi-Strauss (Ithaca, NY, 1974)Google Scholar.

2 Lévi-Strauss, Claude, Tristes tropiques (Paris, 1955)Google Scholar.

3 Lévi-Strauss, Claude, Introduction à l’oeuvre de Marcel Mauss (Paris, 2012), 39Google Scholar.

4 Durkheim, Emile, Lettres à Marcel Mauss (Paris, 1998), 544Google Scholar.

5 Griaule, Marcel, Le flambeurs d’hommes (Paris, 1934), 126Google Scholar.

6 Stendhal, , The Charterhouse of Parma, translated by Shaw, Margaret (London, 1958), 403Google Scholar.

7 Mauss, Marcel, “Lettre à Roger Caillois” (1938), Actes de la recherche en sciences sociales, 84 (Sept. 1990), 87Google Scholar.

8 Unpublished letter of 28 May 1938, quoted in Adorno, Theodor W. and Benjamin, Walter, The Complete Correspondence (Cambridge, MA, 1999), 275Google Scholar.

9 Caillois, Roger, “Illusion à rebours,” La nouvelle revue française, 24 (Dec. 1954), 1010–24, 25 (Jan. 1955), 5870Google Scholar.

10 Claude Lévi-Strauss, “Diogène couché,” Les temps modernes, 110 (1955), 1214.