Three-dimensional (3D) printing represents the direct fabrication of parts layer-by-layer, guided by digital information from a computer-aided design file without any part-specific tooling. Over the past three decades, a variety of 3D printing technologies have evolved that have transformed the idea of direct printing of parts for numerous applications. Three-dimensional printing technology offers significant advantages for biomedical devices and tissue engineering due to its ability to manufacture low-volume or one-of-a-kind parts on-demand based on patient-specific needs, at no additional cost for different designs that can vary from patient to patient, while also offering flexibility in the starting materials. However, many concerns remain for widespread applications of 3D-printed biomaterials, including regulatory issues, a sterile environment for part fabrication, and the achievement of target material properties with the desired architecture. This article offers a broad overview of the field of 3D-printed biomaterials along with a few specific applications to assist the reader in obtaining an understanding of the current state of the art and to encourage future scientific and technical contributions toward expanding the frontiers of 3D-printed biomaterials.
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