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Metal nanogrids, nanowires, and nanofibers for transparent electrodes

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 October 2011

Liangbing Hu
Affiliation:
Department of Materials Science and Engineering at the University of Maryland at College Park, MD 20742, USA; binghu@umd.edu
Hui Wu
Affiliation:
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, CA 94305, USA; wuhui@stanford.edu
Yi Cui
Affiliation:
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, CA 94305, USA; yicui@stanford.edu
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Abstract

Metals possess the highest conductivity among all room-temperature materials; however, ultrathin metal films demonstrate decent optical transparency but poor sheet conductance due to electron scattering from the surface and grain boundaries. This article discusses engineered metal nanostructures in the form of nanogrids, nanowires, or continuous nanofibers as efficient transparent and conductive electrodes. Metal nanogrids are discussed, as they represent an excellent platform for understanding the fundamental science. Progress toward low-cost, nano-ink-based printed silver nanowire electrodes, including silver nanowire synthesis, film fabrication, wire-wire junction resistance, optoelectronic properties, and stability, are also discussed. Another important factor for low-cost application is to use earth-abundant materials. Copper-based nanowires and nanofibers are discussed in this context. Examples of device integrations of these materials are also given. Such metal nanostructure-based transparent electrodes are particularly attractive for solar cell applications.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Materials Research Society 2011

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