Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 509
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Abdullah-Al-Galib, Mir Hou, Bo Shahriad, Tahmeed Zivanovic, Sandra and Radadia, Adarsh D. 2016. Stability of few layer graphene films doped with gold (III) chloride. Applied Surface Science, Vol. 366, p. 78.

    Albar, Arwa Wang, Zhenwei Alshareef, Husam Niman and Schwingenschlögl, Udo 2016. Formation of Metallic States between Insulating SnO and SnO2. Advanced Materials Interfaces, Vol. 3, Issue. 9, p. 1500334.

    Besse, Rafael Sabino, Fernando P. and Da Silva, Juarez L. F. 2016. Electronic structure of layered quaternary chalcogenide materials for band-gap engineering: The example ofCs2MIIM3IVQ8. Physical Review B, Vol. 93, Issue. 16,

    Cavallo, Pablo Frontera, Evelina Acevedo, Diego F. Olejnik, Robert Slobodian, Petr Saha, Petr and Barbero, Cesar A. 2016. Functionalized polyanilines made by nucleophilic addition reaction, applied in gas sensors field. Synthetic Metals, Vol. 215, p. 127.

    Emery, Jonathan D. Schlepütz, Christian M. Guo, Peijun Chang, Robert P. H. and Martinson, Alex B. F. 2016. Epitaxial Atomic Layer Deposition of Sn-Doped Indium Oxide. Crystal Growth & Design, Vol. 16, Issue. 2, p. 640.

    Fallahzadeh, Ali Saghaei, Jaber and Saghaei, Tayebeh 2016. Ultra-smooth poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) films for flexible indium tin oxide-free organic light-emitting diodes. Journal of Luminescence, Vol. 169, p. 251.

    Fan, Rundong Huang, Yuan Wang, Ligang Li, Liang Zheng, Guanhaojie and Zhou, Huanping 2016. The Progress of Interface Design in Perovskite-Based Solar Cells. Advanced Energy Materials, p. 1600460.

    Ganose, Alex M. and Scanlon, David O. 2016. Band gap and work function tailoring of SnO2for improved transparent conducting ability in photovoltaics. J. Mater. Chem. C, Vol. 4, Issue. 7, p. 1467.

    Li, Bing Liu, Qinzhuang Zhang, Yongxing Liu, Zhongliang and Geng, Lei 2016. Highly conductive Nb doped BaSnO3 thin films on MgO substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Vol. 680, p. 343.

    Luo, B.C. Cao, X.S. Jin, K.X. and Chen, C.L. 2016. Determination of the effective mass and nanoscale electrical transport in La-doped BaSnO3 thin films. Current Applied Physics, Vol. 16, Issue. 1, p. 20.

    Nengduo, Zhang Xuesong, Yin and Hao, Gong 2016. Highly conductive and flexible transparent films based on silver nanowire/chitosan composite. RSC Adv., Vol. 6, Issue. 53, p. 47552.

    Park, Hyun Sung Jang, Jaewon and Lin, Liwei 2016. 2016 IEEE 29th International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS). p. 565.

    Räisänen, Antti V. Lioubtchenko, Dmitri V. Anoshkin, Ilya V. Nasibulin, Albert G. Nefedova, Irina I. and Nefedov, Igor S. 2016. Resistivity and optical transmittance dependence on length and diameter of nanowires in silver nanowire layers in application to transparent conductive coatings. Micro & Nano Letters, Vol. 11, Issue. 7, p. 343.

    Sugimoto, Yukiko Igarashi, Kanae Shirasaki, Shinya and Kikuchi, Akihiko 2016. Thermal durability of AZO/Ag(Al)/AZO transparent conductive films. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 55, Issue. 4S, p. 04EJ15.

    Suzaki, Haruka Kuwae, Hiroyuki Okada, Akiko Bo Ma, Shoji, Shuichi and Mizuno, Jun 2016. 2016 International Conference on Electronics Packaging (ICEP). p. 443.

    Taş, Mahmut İşlek Cin, Zeynep Sam Parmak, Ebru Devrim and Çelik Bedeloğlu, Ayşe 2016. Fabrication of unilateral conductive and transparent polymer thin films decorated with nanomaterials for flexible electrodes. Polymer Composites,

    Thirumoorthi, M. and Thomas Joseph Prakash, J. 2016. Structure, optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide ultra thin films prepared by jet nebulizer spray pyrolysis technique. Journal of Asian Ceramic Societies, Vol. 4, Issue. 1, p. 124.

    Tong, Chong Yun, Juhyung Chen, Yen-Jen Ji, Dengxin Gan, Qiaoqiang and Anderson, Wayne A. 2016. Thermally Diffused Al:ZnO Thin Films for Broadband Transparent Conductor. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, Vol. 8, Issue. 6, p. 3985.

    Trenque, I. Gaudon, M. Duguet, E. and Mornet, S. 2016. Visible-transparent and UV/IR-opaque colloidal dispersions of Ga-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles. New J. Chem.,

    Tsai, Wen-Chi Thomas, Stuart R. Hsu, Cheng-Hung Huang, Yu-Chen Tseng, Jiun-Yi Wu, Tsung-Ta Chang, Chia-ho Wang, Zhiming M. Shieh, Jia-Min Shen, Chang-Hong and Chueh, Yu-Lun 2016. Flexible high performance hybrid AZO/Ag-nanowire/AZO sandwich structured transparent conductors for flexible Cu(In,Ga)Se2solar cell applications. J. Mater. Chem. A, Vol. 4, Issue. 18, p. 6980.


Applications and Processing of Transparent Conducting Oxides


The first report of a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) was published in 1907, when Badeker reported that thin films of Cd metal deposited in a glow discharge chamber could be oxidized to become transparent while remaining electrically conducting. Since then, the commercial value of these thin films has been recognized, and the list of potential TCO materials has expanded to include, for example, Al-doped ZnO, GdInOx, SnO2, F-doped In2O3, and many others. Since the 1960s, the most widely used TCO for optoelectronic device applications has been tin-doped indium oxide (ITO). At present, and likely well into the future, this material offers the best available performance in terms of conductivity and transmissivity, combined with excellent environmental stability, reproducibility, and good surface morphology. The use of other TCOs in large quantities is application-specific. For example, tin oxide is now widely used in architectural glass applications.

Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

2.I. Hamberg and C.G. Granqvist , J. Appl. Phys. 60 (11) (1986) p. R123.

3.P.K. Song , Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 37 (4A) (1998) p. 1870.

4.D.C. Paine , T. Whitson , D. Janiac , R. Beresford , C.W. Ow-Yang , and B. Lewis , J. Appl. Phys. 85 (12) (1999) p. 8445.

9.B.L. Gehman , S. Jonsson , T. Rudolph , M. Scherer , M. Weigert , and R. Werner , Thin Solid Films 220 (1992) p. 333.

10.E. Nishimura , M. Ando , K. Onisawa , M. Takabatake , and T. Minemura , Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 35 (5A) (1996) p. 2788.

14.C. Xirouhaki , G. Kiriakidis , and H. Fritzsche , J. Appl. Phys. 79 (12) (1996) p. 9349.

15.S. Pissadakis , S. Mailis , S.L. Reekie , J.S. Wilkinson , R.W. Eason , N.A. Vainos , K. Moschovis , and G. Kiriakidis , Appl. Phys. A 69 (3) (1999) p. 333.

16.S. Mailis , L. Boutsikaris , N.A. Vainos , C. Xirouhaki , G. Vasiliou , N. Garawal , G. Kiriakidis , and H. Fritzsche , Appl. Phys. Lett. 69 (1996) p. 2459.

18.K. Moschovis , E. Gagaoudakis , E. Chatzitheodoridis , G. Kiriakidis , S. Mailis , E. Tzamali , N.A. Vainos , and H. Fritzsche , Appl. Phys. A 66 (1998) p. 651.

19.D.R. Cairns , R.P. Witte , D.K. Sparacin , S.M. Sachsman , D.C. Paine , G.P. Crawford , and R. Newton Appl. Phys. Lett. 76 (11) (2000) p. 1425.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

MRS Bulletin
  • ISSN: 0883-7694
  • EISSN: 1938-1425
  • URL: /core/journals/mrs-bulletin
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *