Skip to main content
×
Home

Graphene applications in electronics and photonics

  • Phaedon Avouris (a1) and Fengnian Xia (a2)
Abstract
Abstract

Graphene is a material with outstanding properties that make it an excellent candidate for advanced applications in future electronics and photonics. The potential of graphene in high-speed analog electronics is currently being explored extensively because of its high carrier mobility, its high carrier saturation velocity, and the insensitivity of its electrical-transport behavior to temperature variations. Herein, we review some of the key material and carrier-transport physics of graphene, then focus on high-frequency graphene field-effect transistors, and finally discuss graphene monolithically integrated circuits (ICs). These high-frequency graphene transistors and ICs could become essential elements in the blossoming fields of wireless communications, sensing, and imaging. After discussing graphene electronics, we describe the impressive photonic properties of graphene. Graphene interacts strongly with light over a very wide spectral range from microwaves to ultraviolet radiation. Most importantly, the light–graphene interaction can be adjusted using an electric field or chemical dopant, making graphene-based photonic devices tunable. Single-particle interband transitions lead to a universal optical absorption of about 2% per layer, whereas intraband free-carrier transitions dominate in the microwave and terahertz wavelength range. The tunable plasmonic absorption of patterned graphene adds yet another dimension to graphene photonics. We show that these unique photonic properties of graphene over a broad wavelength range make it promising for many photonic applications such as fast photodetectors, optical modulators, far-infrared filters, polarizers, and electromagnetic wave shields. These graphene photonic devices could find various applications in optical communications, infrared imaging, and national security.

Copyright
References
Hide All
1.Bolotin K.I., Sikes K.J., Jiang Z., Klima D.M., Fudenberg G., Hone J., Kim P., Stormer H.L., Solid State Commun. 146, 351 (2008).
2.Du X., Skachko I., Barker A., Andrei E.Y., Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 491 (2008).
3.Schwierz F., Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 487 (2010).
4.Balandin A., Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 569 (2011).
5.Adam S., Hwang E.H., Galitski V.M., Das Sarma S., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 18392 (2007).
6.Chen J.-H., Jang C., Ishigami M., Xiao S., Gullen W.G., Williams E.D., Fuhrer M.S., Solid State Commun. 149, 1080 (2009).
7.Chen J.-H., Chaun C., Jang C., Xiao S., Ishigami M., Fuhrer M.S., Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 206 (2008).
8.Nomura K., MacDonald A.H., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 256602 (2006).
9.Zhu W., Perebeinos V., Freitag M., Avouris Ph., Phys. Rev. B 80, 235402 (2009).
10.Katsnelson M.I., Geim A.K., Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A 366, 195 (2008).
11.Farmer D.B., Perebeinos V., Lin Y.-M., Dimitrakopoulos C., Avouris Ph., Phys. Rev. B 84, 205417 (2011).
12.Chen J.-H., Cullen W.G., Jang C., Fuhrer M.S., Williams E.D., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 236805 (2009).
13.Ando T., J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 75, 074716 (2006).
14.Chen J.-H., Jang C., Ishigami M., Xiao S., Cullen W.G., Williams E.D., Fuhrer M.S., Solid State Commun. 149, 1080 (2009).
15.Wu Y., Perebeinos V., Lin Y.-M., Low T., Xia F., Avouris Ph., Nano Lett. 12, 1417 (2012).
16.Tan Y.-W., Zhang Y., Bolotin K., Zhao Y., Adam S., Hwang E.H., Das Sarma S., Stormer H.L., Kim P., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 246803 (2007).
17.Wu Y., Jerkins K.A., Valdes-Garcia A., Farmer D.B., Zhu Y., Bol A.A., Dimitrakopoulos C., Zhu W., Xia F., Avouris Ph., Lin Y.-M., Nano Lett. 12, 3062 (2012).
18.Giovannetti G., Khomyakov P.A., Brocks G., Karpan V.M., van den Brink J., Kelly P.J., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 026803 (2008).
19.Khomyakov P.A., Giovannetti G., Rusu P.C., Brocks G., van den Brink J., Kelly P.J., Phys. Rev. B 79, 195425 (2009).
20.Xia F., Perebeinos V., Lin Y.-M., Wu Y., Avouris Ph., Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 179 (2011).
21.Huard B., Stander N., Sulpizio J.A., Goldhaber-Gordon D., Phys. Rev. B 78, 121402 (2008).
22.Cayssol J., Huard B., Goldhaber-Gordon D., Phys. Rev. B 79, 075428 (2009).
23.Novoselov K.S., Geim A.K., Morozov S.V., Jiang D., Zhang Y., Dubonos S.V., Grigorieva I., Firsov A.A., Science 306, 666 (2004).
24.Badami D.V., Nature 193, 569 (1962).
25.van Bommel A.J., Crombeen J.E., van Tooren A., Surf. Sci. 48, 463 (1975).
26.Forbeaux I., Themlin J.-M., Charrier A., Thibaudau F., Debever J.-M., Appl. Surf. Sci. 162163, 406 (2000).
27.Berger C., Song Z., Li T., Li X., Ogbazghi A.Y., Feng R., Dai Z., Marchenkov A.N., Conrad E.H., First P.N., de Heer W.A., J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 19912 (2004).
28.Avouris Ph., Dimitrakopoulos C., Mater. Today 15, 86 (2012).
29.May J.W., Surf. Sci. 17, 267 (1969).
30.Reina A., Jia X., Ho J., Nezich D., Son H., Bulovic V., Dresselhaus M.S., Kong J., Nano Lett. 9, 30 (2009).
31.Li X., Cai W., An J., Kim S., Nah J., Yang D., Piner R.D., Velamakanni A., Jung I., Tutuc E., Banerjee S.K., Colombo L., Ruoff R.S., Science 324, 1312 (2009).
32.Chen S., Cai W., Piner R.D., Suk J.W., Wu Y., Ren Y., Kang J., Ruoff R.S., Nano Lett. 11, 3519 (2011).
33.Farmer D.B., Chiu H.-Y., Lin Y.-M., Jenkins K., Xia F., Avouris Ph., Nano Lett. 9, 4474 (2009).
34.Zhu W., Neumayer D., Perebeinos V., Avouris Ph., Nano Lett. 10, 3572 (2010).
35.Kim S., Nah J., Jo I., Shahrjerdi D., Colombo L., Yao Z., Tutuc E., Banerjee S.K., Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 062107 (2009).
36.Wu Y., Farmer D.B., Valdes-Garcia A., Zhu W., Jenkins K.A., Dimitrakopoulos C., Avouris Ph., Lin Y.-M., Tech. Dig.–Int. Electron Devices Meet. 6131601 (2011).
37.Wu Y., Lin Y.-M., Bol A.A., Jenkins K.A., Xia F., Farmer D.B., Zhu Y., Avouris Ph., Nature 472, 74 (2011).
38.Lemme M.C., Echtermeyer T.J., Baus M., Kurz J., IEEE Electron Device Lett. 28, 282 (2007).
39.Kedzierski J., Hsu P.L., Healey P., Wyatt P.W., Keast C.L., Sprinkle M., Berger C., de Heer W.A., IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 55, 2078 (2008).
40.Meric I., Baklitskaya N., Kim P., Shepard K.L., Tech. Dig.–Int. Electron Devices Meet. 4796738 (2008).
41.Moon J.S., Curtis D., Hu M., Wong D., McGuire C., Campbell P.M., Jernigan G., Tedesco J.L., VanMil B., Myers-Ward R., Eddy C., Gaskill D.K., IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30, 650 (2009).
42.Lin Y.-M., Jenkins K.A., Valdes-Garcia A., Small J.P., Farmer D.B., Avouris Ph., Nano Lett. 9, 422 (2009).
43.Lin Y.-M., Chiu C.-Y., Jenkins K.A., Farmer D.B., Avouris Ph., IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31, 68 (2010).
44.Lin Y.-M., Dimitrakopoulos C., Jenkins K.A., Farmer D.B., Chiu H.-Y., Grill A., Avouris Ph., Science 327, 662 (2010).
45.Liao L., Lin Y., Bao M., Cheng R., Bai J., Liu Y., Qu Y., Wang K.L., Huang Y., Duan X., Nature 467, 305 (2010).
46.Lin Y.-M., Valdes-Garcia A., Han S.-J., Farmer D.B., Meric I., Sun Y., Wu Y., Dimitrakopoulos C., Grill A., Avouris Ph., Jenkins K.A., Science 332, 1294 (2011).
47.Dean C.R., Young A.F., Meric I., Lee C., Wang L., Sorgenfrei S., Watanabe K., Taniguchi T., Kim P., Shepard K.L., Hone J., Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 722 (2010).
48.Britnell L., Gorbachev R.V., Jalil R., Belle B.D., Schedin F., Mishchenko A., Georgiou T., Katsnelson M.I., Eaves L., Morozov S.V., Peres N.M. R., Leist J., Geim A.K., Novoselov K.S., Ponomarenko L.A., Science 335, 947 (2012).
49.Xue J., Sanchez-Yamagishi J., Bulmash D., Jacquod P., Deshpande A., Watanabe K., Taniguchi T., Jarillo-Herrero P., LeRoy B.J., Nat. Mater. 10, 282 (2011).
50.Decker R., Wang Y., Brar V.W., Regan W., Tsai H., Wu Q., Gannett W., Zettl A., Crommie M.F., Nano Lett. 11, 2291 (2011).
51.Liu Z., Song L., Zhao S., Huang J., Ma L., Zhang J., Lou J., Ajayan P.M., Nano Lett. 11, 2032 (2011).
52.Han W., Hsu A., Wu J., Kong J., Palacios T., IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31, 906 (2010).
53.Guerriero E., Polloni L., Giorgi Rizzi L., Bianchi M., Mondello G., Sordan R., Small 357 (2012).
54.Han S.-J., Jenkins K.A., Valdes-Garcia A., Franklin A.D., Bol A.A., Haensch W., Nano Lett. 11, 3690 (2011).
55.Nair R.R., Blake P., Grigorenko A.N., Novoselov K.S., Booth T.J., Stauber T., Peres N.M.R., Geim A.K., Science 320, 1308 (2008).
56.Kuzmenko A.B., Van Heumen E., Carbone F., van der Marel D., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 117401 (2008).
57.Mak K.F., Sfeir M.Y., Wu Y., Lui C., Misewich J.A., Heinz T.F., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 196405 (2008).
58.Wang F., Zhang Y., Tian C., Girit C., Zettl A., Crommie M., Shen Y.R., Science 320, 206 (2008).
59.Mak K.F., Shan J., Heinz T.F., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 046401 (2011).
60.Chae D.H., Utikal T., Weisenburger S., Giessen H., Klitzing K.v., Lippitz M., Smet J., Nano Lett. 11, 1379 (2011).
61.Yang L., Cohen M.L., Louie S.G., Nano Lett. 7, 3112 (2007).
62.Malic E., Winzer T., Bobkin E., Knorr A., Phys. Rev. B 84, 205406 (2011).
63.Kim R., Perebeinos V., Avouris Ph., Phys. Rev. B 84, 075449 (2011).
64.Bistritzer R., MacDonald A.H., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 206410 (2009).
65.Farmer D.B., Golizadeh-Mojarad R., Perebeinos V., Lin Y.-M., Tulevski G.S., Tsang J.C., Avouris Ph., Nano Lett. 9, 388 (2009).
66.Williams J.R., DiCarlo L., Marcus C.M., Science 317, 638 (2007).
67.Lee E.J.H., Balasubramanian K., Weitz R.T., Burghard M., Kern K., Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 486 (2008).
68.Park J., Ahn Y.H., Ruiz-Vargas C., Nano Lett. 9, 1742 (2009).
69.Xia F., Mueller T., Golizadeh-Mojarad R., Freitag M., Lin Y.-M., Tsang J.C., Perebeinos V., Avouris Ph., Nano Lett. 9, 1039 (2009).
70.Mueller T., Xia F., Freitag M., Tsang J.C., Avouris Ph., Phys. Rev. B 79, 245430 (2009).
71.Xu X., Gabor N.M., Alden J.S., van der Zande A.M., McEuen P.L., Nano Lett. 10, 562 (2010).
72.Song J.C., Rudner M.S., Marcus C.M., Levitov L.S., Nano Lett. 11, 4688 (2011).
73.Gabor N.M., Song J.C.W., Ma Q., Nair N.L., Taychatanapwat T., Watanabe K., Taniguchi T., Levitov L.S., Jarillo-Herrero P., Science 334, 648 (2011).
74.Yan H., Xia F., Zhu W., Freitag M., Dimitrakopoulos C., Bol A.A., Tulevski G., Avouris Ph., ACS Nano 5, 9854 (2011).
75.Yan H., Li X., Chandra B., Tulevski G., Wu Y., Freitag M., Zhu W., Avouris Ph., Xia F., Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 330 (2012).
76.Koppens F.H.L., Chang D.E., García de Abajo F.J., Nano Lett. 11, 3370 (2011).
77.Ju L., Geng B., Horng J., Girit C., Martin M., Hao Z., Bechtel H.A., Liang X., Zettl A., Shen Y.R., Wang F., Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 630 (2011).
78.Halas N., Lal N.S., Chang W.-S., Link S., Nordlander P., Chem. Rev. 111, 3913 (2011).
79.Yan H., Li Z., Li X., Zhu W., Avouris Ph., Xia F., Nano Lett. 12, 3766 (2012).
80.Xia F., Mueller T., Lin Y.-M., Valdes-Garcia A., Avouris Ph., Nat. Nanotechnol. 4, 839 (2009).
81.Mueller T., Xia F., Avouris Ph., Nat. Photonics 4, 297 (2010).
82.Echtermeyer T.J., Britnell L., Jasnos P.K., Lombardo A., Gorbachev R.V., Grigorenko A.N., Geim A.K., Ferrari A.C., Novoselov K.S., Nat. Commun. 2, 458 (2011).
83.Engel M., Steiner M., Lombardo A., Ferrari A.C., Loehneysen H.v., Avouris Ph., Krupke R., Nat. Commun. 3, 906 (2011).
84.Furchi M., Urich A., Pospischil A., Lilley G., Unterrainer K., Detz H., Klang P., Andrews A.M., Schrenk W., Strasser G., Mueller T., Nano Lett. 12, 2773 (2012).
85.Konstantatos G., Badioli M., Gaudreau L., Osmond J., Bernechea M., de Arquer P.G., Gatti F., Koppens F.H.L., Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 363 (2012).
86.Liu M., Yin X., Ulin-Avila E., Geng B., Zentgraf T., Ju L., Wang F., Zhang X., Nature 474, 64 (2011).
87.Liu M., Yin X., Zhang X., Nano Lett. 12, 1482 (2012).
88.Bao Q.L., Zhang H., Wang Y., Ni Z., Yan Y., Shen Z., Loh K., Tang D., Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077 (2009).
89.Sun Z., Hasan T., Torrisi F., Popa D., Privitera G., Wang F., Bonaccorso F., Basko D.M., Ferrari A.C., ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

MRS Bulletin
  • ISSN: 0883-7694
  • EISSN: 1938-1425
  • URL: /core/journals/mrs-bulletin
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 25
Total number of PDF views: 204 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 858 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 21st November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.