Skip to main content Accessibility help

Stabilizing the surface of lithium metal

  • J.T. Vaughey (a1), Gao Liu (a2) and Ji-Guang Zhang (a3)


The success of high capacity energy storage systems based on lithium (Li) batteries relies on the realization of the promise of Li-metal anodes. Li metal has many advantageous properties, including an extremely high theoretical specific capacity (3860 mAh g–1), the lowest electrochemical potential (–3.040 V versus standard hydrogen electrode), and low density (0.59 g cm–3), which, all together, make it a very desirable electrode for energy storage devices. However, while primary Li batteries are used for numerous commercial applications, rechargeable Li-metal batteries that utilize Li-metal anodes have not been as successful. This article discusses the properties of Li metal in the absence of surface stabilization, as well as three different approaches currently under investigation for stabilizing the surface of Li metal to control its reactivity within the electrochemical environment of a Li-based battery.



Hide All
1.Yin, Y.X., Xin, S., Guo, Y.G., Wan, L.J., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 52, 13186 (2013).
2.Bresser, D., Passerini, S., Scrosati, B., Chem. Commun. 49, 10545 (2013).
3.Abouimrane, A., Dambournet, D., Chapman, K.W., Chupas, P.J., Weng, W., Amine, K., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 4505 (2012).
4.Yang, C.P., Xin, S., Yin, Y.X., Ye, H., Zhang, J., Guo, Y.G., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 52, 8363 (2013).
5.Thotiyl, M.M.O., Freunberger, S.A., Peng, Z., Bruce, P.G., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 494 (2013).
6.Christensen, J., Albertus, P., Sanchez-Carrera, R.S., Lohmann, T., Kozinsky, B., Liedtke, R., Ahmed, J., Kojic, A., J. Electrochem. Soc. 159, R1 (2012).
7.Whittingham, M.S., Proc. IEEE 100, 1518 (2012).
8.Aurbach, D., Cohen, Y., J. Electrochem. Soc. 143, 3525 (1996).
9.Takeuchi, K., Marschilok, A.C., Davis, S.M., Leising, R.A., Takeuchi, E., Coord. Chem. Rev. 219221, 283 (2001).
10.Aurbach, D., Weissman, I., Yamin, H., Elster, E., J. Electrochem. Soc. 145, 1421 (1998).
11.Chianelli, R.R., J. Cryst. Growth 34, 239 (1976).
12.Xu, W., Wang, J., Ding, F., Chen, X., Nasybulin, E., Zhang, Y., Zhang, J.-G., Energy Environ. Sci. 7, 513 (2014).
13.Aurbach, D., J. Power Sources 89, 206 (2000).
14.Zinigrad, E., Levi, E., Teller, H., Salitra, G., Aurbach, D., Dan, P., J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, A111 (2004).
15.Wu, M., Wen, Z., Liu, Y., Wang, X., Huang, L., J. Power Sources 196, 8091 (2011).
16.Ishikawa, M., Machino, S., Morita, M., Electrochemistry 67, 1200 (1999).
17.López, C.M., Vaughey, J.T., Dees, D.W., J. Electrochem. Soc. 156, A726 (2009).
18.Rendek, L.J., Chottiner, G.S., Scherson, D.A., J. Electrochem. Soc. 149, E408 (2002).
19.Rendek, L.J., Chottiner, G.S., Scherson, D.A., J. Electrochem. Soc. 150, A326 (2003).
20.Rendek, L.J., Chottiner, G.S., Scherson, D.A., Electrochem. Solid State Lett. 5, A77 (2002).
21.Li, L.F., Totir, D.A., Gofer, Y., Wang, K., Chottiner, G.S., Scherson, D.A., J. Electrochem. Soc. 146, 2616 (1999).
22.Hirai, T., Yoshimatsu, I., Yamaki, J., J. Electrochem. Soc. 141, 611 (1994).
23.Schmid, M.J., Bickel, K.R., Novak, P., Schuster, R., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 52, 13233 (2013).
24.López, C.M., Vaughey, J.T., Dees, D.W., J. Electrochem. Soc. 159, A873 (2012).
25.Vorotyntsev, M.A., Levi, M.D., Schechter, A., Aurbach, D., J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 188 (2001).
26.Nishikawa, K., Fukunaka, Y., Sakka, T., Ogata, Y.H., Selman, J., J. Electrochem. Soc. 154, A943 (2007).
27.Wang, Y., Nakamura, S., Ue, M., Balbuena, P.B., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 11708 (2001).
28.Aurbach, D., Zinigrad, E., Teller, H., Dan, P., J. Electrochem. Soc. 147, 1274 (2000).
29.Besenhard, J.O., Gürtler, J., Komenda, P., Paxinos, A., J. Power Sources 20, 253 (1987).
30.Aurbach, D., Weissman, I., Zaban, A., Chusid, O., Electrochim. Acta 39, 51 (1994).
31.Kanamura, K., Tamura, H., Shiraishi, S., Takehara, Z.-I., J. Electroanal. Chem. 394, 49 (1995).
32.Yamaki, J.-I., Tobishima, S.-I., Hayashi, K., Keiichi, S., Nemoto, Y., Arakawa, M., J. Power Sources 74, 219 (1998).
33.Shiraishi, S., Kanamura, K., Takehara, Z.-I., J. Electrochem. Soc. 146, 1633 (1999).
34.Ota, H., Wang, X., Yasukawa, E., J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, A427 (2004).
35.Gireaud, L., Grugeon, S., Laruelle, S., Yrieix, B., Tarascon, J.M., Electrochem. Commun. 8, 1639 (2006).
36.Yoon, H., Howlett, P.C., Best, A.S., Forsyth, M., MacFarlane, D.R., J. Electrochem. Soc. 160, A1629 (2013).
37.Stark, J.K., Ding, Y., Kohl, P.A., J. Electrochem. Soc. 158, A1100 (2011).
38.Aurbach, D., Youngman, O., Gofer, Y., Meitav, A., Electrochim. Acta 35, 625 (1990).
39.Aurbach, D., Youngman, O., Dan, P., Electrochim. Acta 35, 639 (1990).
40.Naoi, K., Mori, M., Naruoka, Y., Lamanna, W.M., Atanasoski, R., J. Electrochem. Soc. 146, 462 (1999).
41.Yang, L., Smith, C., Patrissi, C., Schumacher, C.R., Lucht, B.L., J. Power Sources 185, 1359 (2008).
42.Fujieda, T., Yamamoto, N., Saito, K., Ishibashi, T., Honjo, M., Koike, S., Wakabayashi, N., Higuchi, S., J. Power Sources 52, 197 (1994).
43.Osaka, T., Momma, T., Matsumoto, Y., Uchida, Y., J. Electrochem. Soc. 144, 1709 (1997).
44.Ota, H., Shima, K., Ue, M., Yamaki, J.-I., Electrochim. Acta 49, 565 (2004).
45.Lee, Y.M., Seo, J.E., Lee, Y.-G., Lee, S.H., Cho, K.Y., Park, J.-K., Electrochem. Solid State Lett. 10, A216 (2007).
46.Yoon, S., Lee, J., Kim, S.-O., Sohn, H.-J., Electrochim. Acta 53, 2501 (2008).
47.Liebenow, C., Luhder, K., J. Appl. Electrochem. 26, 689 (1996).
48.Christensen, J., Newman, J., J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, A1977 (2004).
49.Bhattacharyya, R., Key, B., Chen, H., Best, A.S., Hollenkamp, A.F., Grey, C.P., Nat. Mater. 9, 504 (2010).
50.Marchionni, F., Star, K., Menke, E., Buffeteau, T., Servant, L., Dunn, B., Wudl, F., Langmuir 23, 11597 (2007).
51.Thompson, R.S., Schroeder, D.J., López, C.M., Neuhold, S., Vaughey, J.T., Electrochem. Commun. 13, 1369 (2011).
52.Neuhold, S., Schroeder, D.J., Vaughey, J.T.J. Power Sources 206, 295 (2012).
53.Umeda, G.A., Menke, E., Richard, M., Stamm, K.L., Wudl, F., Dunn, B., J. Mater. Chem. 21, 1593 (2010).
54.Fei, D., Xinguo, H., Yuwen, L., Journal of Wuhan University of Technology-Mater. Sci. Ed. 22, 494 (2007).
55.Key, B., Schroeder, D.J., Ingram, B.J., Vaughey, J.T., Chem. Mater. 24, 287 (2012).
56.Hubaud, A.A., Schroeder, D.J., Key, B., Ingram, B.J., Dogan, F., Vaughey, J.T., J. Mater. Chem. A 1, 8813 (2013).
57.Ding, F., Xu, W., Graff, G.L., Zhang, J., Sushko, M., Chen, X., Shao, Y., Engelhard, M.H., Nie, Z., Xiao, J., Liu, X., Sushko, P.V., Liu, J., Zhang, J.-G., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 4450 (2013).
58.Jarvis, C.R., Lain, M.J., Gao, Y., Yakovleva, M., J. Power Sources 146, 331 (2005).
59.Jarvis, C.R., Lain, M.J., Yakovleva, M.V., Gao, Y., J. Power Sources 162, 800 (2006).
60.Xiang, B., Wang, L., Liu, G., Minor, A.M., J. Electrochem. Soc. 160, A415 (2013).
61.Li, Y., Fitch, B., Electrochem. Commun. 13, 664 (2011).
62.Wang, L., Fu, Y., Battaglia, V.S., Liu, G., RSC Adv. 3, 15022 (2013).
63.Wang, Z., Fu, Y., Zhang, Z., Yuan, S., Amine, K., Battaglia, V.S., Liu, G., J. Power Sources 260, 57 (2014).
64.Wachtler, M., Besenhard, J.O., Winter, M., J. Power Sources 94, 189 (2001).
65.Forney, M.W., Ganter, M.J., Staub, J.W., Ridgley, R.D., Landi, B.J., Nano Lett. 13, 4158 (2013).



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed