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Stabilizing the surface of lithium metal

  • J.T. Vaughey (a1), Gao Liu (a2) and Ji-Guang Zhang (a3)

Abstract

The success of high capacity energy storage systems based on lithium (Li) batteries relies on the realization of the promise of Li-metal anodes. Li metal has many advantageous properties, including an extremely high theoretical specific capacity (3860 mAh g–1), the lowest electrochemical potential (–3.040 V versus standard hydrogen electrode), and low density (0.59 g cm–3), which, all together, make it a very desirable electrode for energy storage devices. However, while primary Li batteries are used for numerous commercial applications, rechargeable Li-metal batteries that utilize Li-metal anodes have not been as successful. This article discusses the properties of Li metal in the absence of surface stabilization, as well as three different approaches currently under investigation for stabilizing the surface of Li metal to control its reactivity within the electrochemical environment of a Li-based battery.

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