Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

STM studies of epitaxial graphene

  • Swee Liang Wong (a1), Han Huang (a2), Wei Chen (a3) and Andrew T.S. Wee (a4)
Abstract

This article reviews the use of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) to characterize the physical and electronic properties of epitaxial graphene. Topographical variations revealed by STM allow the determination of the number of graphene layers and the detection of lattice mismatch between the graphene and the substrate, as well as rotational disorder. STS allows the local electronic characterization of graphene. STM/STS can also be used to perform local studies of graphene modification through processes such as atomic/molecular adsorption and intercalation.

Copyright
References
Hide All
1.Geim, A.K., Science 324, 1530 (2009), and references therein.
2.Novoselov, K.S., Geim, A.K., Morozov, S.V., Jiang, D., Zhang, Y., Dubonos, S.V., Grigorieva, I.V., Firsov, A.A., Science 306, 666 (2004), and references therein.
3.Güntherodt, H.J., Wiesendanger, R., Eds., Scanning Tunneling Microscopy I: General Principles and Applications to Clean and Adsorbate-Covered Surfaces (Springer, Berlin, ed. 2, 1992).
4.Binning, G., Rohrer, H., Gerber, C., Weibel, E., Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 57 (1982).
5.Brar, V., Zhang, Y., Yayon, Y., Ohta, T., McChesney, J., Bostwick, A., Rotenberg, E., Horn, K., Crommie, M., Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 122102 (2007).
6.Zhang, Y., Brar, V., Wang, F., Girit, C., Yayon, Y., Panlasigui, M., Zettl, A., Crommie, M., Nat. Phys. 4, 627 (2008).
7.Lauffer, P., Emtsev, K.V., Graupner, R., Seyller, T., Ley, L., Phys. Rev. B 77, 155426 (2008).
8.Cho, J., Gao, L., Tian, J., Cao, H., Wu, W., Yu, Q., Yitamben, E.N., Fisher, B., Guest, J.R., Chen, Y.P., Guisinger, N.P., ACS Nano 5, 3607 (2011).
9.Wong, S.L., Huang, H., Wang, Y., Cao, L., Qi, D., Santoso, I., Chen, W., Wee, A.T.S., ACS Nano 5, 7662 (2011).
10.Hamers, R.J., Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 40, 531 (1989).
11.Huang, H., Chen, W., Chen, S., Wee, A.T.S., ACS Nano 2, 2513 (2008).
12.Mallet, P., Varchon, F., Naud, C., Magaud, L., Berger, C., Veuillen, J.Y., Phys. Rev. B 76, 041403(R) (2007).
13.Veuillen, J.Y., Hiebel, F., Magaud, L., Mallet, P., Varchon, F., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43, 374008 (2010).
14.Riedl, C., Coletti, C., Iwasaki, T., Zakharov, A.A., Starke, U., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 246804 (2009).
15.Riedl, C., Coletti, C., Starke, U., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43, 374009 (2010).
16.Bostwick, A., Emtsev, K., Horn, K., Huwald, E., Ley, L., McChesney, J., Ohta, T., Riley, J., Rotenberg, E., Speck, F., Seyller, Th., Adv. Solid State Phys. 47, 159 (2008).
17.Kim, S., Ihm, J., Choi, H.J., Son, Y.W., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 176802 (2008).
18.Varchon, F., Feng, R., Hass, J., Li, X., Nguyen, B.N., Naud, C., Mallet, P., Veuillen, J.Y., Berger, C., Conrad, E.H., Magaud, L., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 126805 (2007).
19.Emtsev, K.V., Speck, F., Seyller, T., Ley, L., Phys. Rev. B 77, 155303 (2008).
20.N’Diaye, A.T., Engler, M., Busse, C., Wall, D., Buckanie, N., Meyer zu Heringdorf, F.J., van Gastel, R., Poelsema, B., Michely, T., New J. Phys. 11, 023006 (2009).
21.Yu, Q., Jauregui, L.A., Wu, W., Colby, R., Tian, J., Su, Z., Cao, H., Liu, Z., Pandey, D., Wei, D., Chung, T.F., Peng, P., Guisinger, N.P., Stach, E.A., Bao, J., Pei, S.S., Chen, Y.P., Nat. Mater. 10, 443 (2011).
22.Kwon, S., Ciobanu, C., Petrova, V., Shenoy, V., Bareño, J., Gambin, V., Petrov, I., Kodambaka, S., Nano Lett. 9, 3985 (2009).
23.Gao, M., Pan, Y., Huang, L., Hu, H., Zhang, L., Guo, H., Du, S., Gao, H., Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 033101 (2011).
24.Lahiri, J., Miller, T., Adamska, L., Oleynik, I., Batzill, M., Nano Lett. 11, 518 (2011).
25.Biedermann, L., Bolen, M., Capano, M., Zemlyanov, D., Reifenberger, R., Phys. Rev. B 79, 125411 (2009).
26.Huang, H., Liang Wong, S., Tin, C.C., Qiang Luo, Z., Xiang Shen, Z., Chen, W., Shen Wee, A.T., J. Appl. Phys. 110, 014308 (2011).
27.First, P., de Heer, W.A, Seyller, T., Berger, C., Stroscio, J., Moon, J., MRS Bull. 35, 296 (2010).
28.Poon, S.W., Chen, W., Tok, E.S., Wee, A.T.S., Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 104102 (2008).
29.Poon, S.W., Chen, W., Wee, A.T.S., Tok, E.S., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12, 13522 (2010).
30.Hiebel, F., Mallet, P., Varchon, F., Magaud, L., Veuillen, J.Y., Phys. Rev. B 78, 153412 (2008).
31.Hupalo, M., Conrad, E., Tringides, M., Phys. Rev. B 80, 041401 (2009).
32.Sprinkle, M., Siegel, D., Hu, Y., Hicks, J., Tejeda, A., Taleb-Ibrahimi, A., Le Fèvre, P., Bertran, F., Vizzini, S., Enriquez, H., Chiang, S., Soukiassian, P., Berger, C., de Heer, W.A., Lanzara, A., Conrad, E.H., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 226803 (2009).
33.Siegel, D., Hwang, C., Fedorov, A., Lanzara, A., Phys. Rev. B 81, 241417 (2010).
34.Hass, J., de Heer, W.A, Conrad, E., J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 20, 323202 (2008).
35.Hass, J., Varchon, F., Millán-Otoya, J., Sprinkle, M., Sharma, N., de Heer, W.A., Berger, C., First, P., Magaud, L., Conrad, E., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 125504 (2008).
36.Song, Y.J., Otte, A.F., Kuk, Y., Hu, Y., Torrance, D.B., First, P.N., de Heer, W.A., Min, H., Adam, S., Stiles, M.D., MacDonald, A.H., Stroscio, J.A., Nature 467, 185 (2010).
37.Berger, C., Song, Z., Li, X., Wu, X., Brown, N., Naud, C., Mayou, D., Li, T., Hass, J., Marchenkov, A.N., Conrad, E.H., First, P.N., de Heer, W.A., Science 312, 1191 (2006).
38.Miller, D., Kubista, K., Rutter, G., Ruan, M., de Heer, W.A., First, P., Stroscio, J., Science 324, 924 (2009).
39.Gao, L., Guest, J.R., Guisinger, N.P., Nano Lett. 10, 3512 (2010).
40.N’Diaye, A.T., Coraux, J., Plasa, T.N., Busse, C., Michely, T., New J. Phys. 10, 043033 (2008).
41.Coraux, J., N’Diaye, A.T., Busse, C., Michely, T., Nano Lett. 8, 565 (2008).
42.Balog, R., Jørgensen, B., Nilsson, L., Andersen, M., Rienks, E., Bianchi, M., Fanetti, M., Lægsgaard, E., Baraldi, A., Lizzit, S., Sljivancanin, Z., Besenbacher, F., Hammer, B., Pedersen, T.G., Hofmann, P., Hornekær, L., Nat. Mater. 9, 315 (2010).
43.Barja, S., Garnica, M., Hinarejos, J.J., Vázquez de Parga, A.L., Martín, N., Miranda, R., Chem. Commun. 46, 8198 (2009).
44.Huang, L., Pan, Y., Pan, L., Gao, M., Xu, W., Que, Y., Zhou, H., Wang, Y., Du, S., Gao, H.J., Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 163107 (2011).
45.Wintterlin, J., Bocquet, M., Surf. Sci. 603, 1841 (2009).
46.Jin, L., Fu, Q., Mu, R., Tan, D., Bao, X., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13, 16655 (2011).
47.Pan, Y., Zhang, H., Shi, D., Sun, J., Du, S., Liu, F., Gao, H.J., Adv. Mater. 21, 2777 (2009).
48.Marchini, S., Günther, S., Wintterlin, J., Phys. Rev. B 76, 075429 (2007).
49.Wang, B., Bocquet, M.L., Marchini, S., Günther, S., Wintterlin, J., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 10, 3530 (2008).
50.Miller, D.L., Kubista, K.D., Rutter, G.M., Ruan, M., de Heer, W.A., Kindermann, M., First, P.N., Stroscio, J.A., Nat. Phys. 6, 811 (2010).
51.Jung, S., Rutter, G.M., Klimov, N.N., Newell, D.B., Calizo, I., Hight-Walker, A.R., Zhitenev, N.B., Stroscio, J.A., Nat. Phys. 7, 245 (2011).
52.Li, G., Luican, A., Lopes dos Santos, J.M.B., Castro Neto, A.H., Reina, A., Kong, J., Andrei, E.Y., Nat. Phys. 6, 109 (2009).
53.Li, G., Luican, A., Andrei, E.Y., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 176804 (2009).
54.Levy, N., Burke, S.A., Meaker, K.L., Panlasigui, M., Zettl, A., Guinea, F., Neto, A.H.C., Crommie, M.F., Science 329, 544 (2010).
55.Yan, H., Sun, Y., He, L., Nie, J.C., Chan, M.H.W., Phys. Rev. B 85, 035422 (2012).
56.Subramaniam, D., Libisch, F., Li, Y., Pauly, C., Geringer, V., Reiter, R., Mashoff, T., Liebmann, M., Burgdörfer, J., Busse, C., Michely, T., Mazzarello, R., Pratzer, M., Morgenstern, M., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 046801 (2012).
57.Tapaszto, L., Dobrik, G., Lambin, P., Biro, L., Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 397 (2008).
58.Castro Neto, A., Peres, N., Novoselov, K., Geim, A., Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 109 (2009).
59.Wallace, P., Phys. Rev. 71, 622 (1947).
60.Hossain, M.Z., Walsh, M.A., Hersam, M.C., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 15399 (2010).
61.Brihuega, I., Mallet, P., Bena, C., Bose, S., Michaelis, C., Vitali, L., Varchon, F., Magaud, L., Kern, K., Veuillen, J., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 206802 (2008).
62.Ando, T., NPG Asia Mater. 1, 17 (2009).
63.Yazyev, O., Helm, L., Phys. Rev. B 75, 125408 (2007).
64.Ugeda, M., Fernández-Torre, D., Brihuega, I., Pou, P., Martínez-Galera, A., Pérez, R., Gómez-Rodríguez, J., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 116803 (2011).
65.Lahiri, J., Lin, Y., Bozkurt, P., Oleynik, I.I., Batzill, M., Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 326 (2010).
66.Wang, Y., Huang, Y., Song, Y., Zhang, X., Ma, Y., Liang, J., Chen, Y., Nano Lett. 9, 220 (2008).
67.Guisinger, N.P., Rutter, G.M., Crain, J.N., First, P.N., Stroscio, J.A., Nano Lett. 9, 1462 (2009).
68.Zhao, L., He, R., Rim, K.T., Schiros, T., Kim, K.S., Zhou, H., Gutierrez, C., Chockalingam, S.P., Arguello, C.J., Palova, L., Nordlund, D., Hybertsen, M.S., Reichman, D.R., Heinz, T.F., Kim, P., Pinczuk, A., Flynn, G.W., Pasupathy, A.N., Science 333, 999 (2011).
69.Haberer, D., Vyalikh, D.V., Taioli, S., Dora, B., Farjam, M., Fink, J., Marchenko, D., Pichler, T., Ziegler, K., Simonucci, S., Dresselhaus, M.S., Knupfer, M., Büchner, B., Grüneis, A., Nano Lett. 10, 3360 (2010).
70.Sessi, P., Guest, J.R., Bode, M., Guisinger, N.P., Nano Lett. 9, 4343 (2009).
71.Jee, H., Jin, K., Han, J., Hwang, H., Jhi, S., Kim, Y., Hwang, C., Phys. Rev. B 84, 075457 (2011).
72.Nair, R.R., Ren, W., Jalil, R., Riaz, I., Kravets, V.G., Britnell, L., Blake, P., Schedin, F., Mayorov, A.S., Yuan, S., Katsnelson, M.I., Cheng, H.M., Strupinski, W., Bulusheva, L.G., Okotrub, A.V., Grigorieva, I.V., Grigorenko, A.N., Novoselov, K.S., Geim, A.K., Small 6, 2877 (2010).
73.Jeon, K.J., Lee, Z., Pollak, E., Moreschini, L., Bostwick, A., Park, C.M., Mendelsberg, R., Radmilovic, V., Kostecki, R., Richardson, T.J., Rotenberg, E., ACS Nano 5, 1042 (2011).
74.Elias, D.C., Nair, R.R., Mohiuddin, T.M.G., Morozov, S.V., Blake, P., Halsall, M.P., Ferrari, A.C., Boukhvalov, D.W., Katsnelson, M.I., Geim, A.K., Novoselov, K.S., Science 323, 610 (2009).
75.Ohta, T., Bostwick, A., Seyller, T., Horn, K., Rotenberg, E., Science 313, 951 (2006).
76.Balog, R., Jørgensen, B., Wells, J., Lægsgaard, E., Hofmann, P., Besenbacher, F., Hornekær, L., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 8744 (2009).
77.Xie, L., Wang, X., Lu, J., Ni, Z., Luo, Z., Mao, H., Wang, R., Wang, Y., Huang, H., Qi, D., Liu, R., Yu, T., Shen, Z., Wu, T., Peng, H., Özyilmaz, B., Loh, K., Wee, A.T.S., Ariando, , Chen, W., Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 193113 (2011).
78.Hupalo, M., Liu, X., Wang, C., Lu, W., Yao, Y., Ho, K., Tringides, M., Adv. Mater. 23, 2082 (2011).
79.Choi, J., Lee, H., Kim, K.J., Kim, B., Kim, S., J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1, 505 (2010).
80.Chen, W., Chen, S., Qi, D.C., Gao, X.Y., Wee, A.T.S., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 10418 (2007).
81.Xie, L., Wang, X., Mao, H., Wang, R., Ding, M., Wang, Y., Özyilmaz, B., Loh, K.P., Wee, A.T.S., Ariando, , Chen, W., Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 012112 (2011).
82.Chen, Z., Santoso, I., Wang, R., Xie, L.F., Mao, H.Y., Huang, H., Wang, Y.Z., Gao, X.Y., Chen, Z.K., Ma, D., Wee, A.T.S., Chen, W., Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 213104 (2010).
83.Sun, J.T., Lu, Y.H., Chen, W., Feng, Y.P., Wee, A.T.S., Phys. Rev. B 81, 155403 (2010).
84.Huang, H., Chen, S., Gao, X., Chen, W., Wee, A.T.S., ACS Nano 3, 3431 (2009).
85.Wang, Q.H., Hersam, M.C., Nat. Chem. 1, 206 (2009).
86.Hiebel, F., Mallet, P., Veuillen, J.Y., Magaud, L., Phys. Rev. B 83, 075438 (2011).
87.Virojanadara, C., Zakharov, A., Yakimova, R., Johansson, L., Surf. Sci. 604, L4 (2010).
88.Virojanadara, C., Yakimova, R., Zakharov, A.A., Johansson, L.I., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43, 374010 (2010).
89.Sutter, P., Sadowski, J.T., Sutter, E.A., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 8175 (2010).
90.Oida, S., McFeely, F., Hannon, J., Tromp, R., Copel, M., Chen, Z., Sun, Y., Farmer, D., Yurkas, J., Phys. Rev. B 82, 041411(R) (2010).
91.Cranney, M., Vonau, F., Pillai, P.B., Denys, E., Aubel, D., De Souza, M.M., Bena, C., Simon, L., Europhys. Lett. 91, 66004 (2010).
92.Virojanadara, C., Watcharinyanon, S., Zakharov, A., Johansson, L., Phys. Rev. B 82, 205402 (2010).
93.Varykhalov, A., Sánchez-Barriga, J., Shikin, A., Biswas, C., Vescovo, E., Rybkin, A., Marchenko, D., Rader, O., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 157601 (2008).
94.Premlal, B., Cranney, M., Vonau, F., Aubel, D., Casterman, D., De Souza, M.M., Simon, L., Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 263115 (2009).
95.Walter, A.L., Jeon, K.J., Bostwick, A., Speck, F., Ostler, M., Seyller, T., Moreschini, L., Kim, Y.S., Chang, Y.J., Horn, K., Rotenberg, E., Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 184102 (2011).
96.Varykhalov, A., Gudat, W., Rader, O., Adv. Mater. 22, 3307 (2010).
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

MRS Bulletin
  • ISSN: 0883-7694
  • EISSN: 1938-1425
  • URL: /core/journals/mrs-bulletin
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed