Skip to main content Accesibility Help

Ultrafast Processes for Bulk Modification of Transparent Materials

  • Kazuyoshi Itoh, Wataru Watanabe, Stefan Nolte and Chris B. Schaffer

When a femtosecond laser pulse is focused inside a transparent material, the optical intensity in the focal volume can become high enough to induce permanent structural modifications such as a refractive index change or the formation of a small vacancy. Thus, one can micromachine structures inside the bulk of a transparent material in three dimensions. We review the mechanisms of and techniques for bulk modification of transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses and discuss the fabrication of photonic and other structures in transparent materials, including waveguides, couplers, gratings, diffractive lenses, optical data storage, and microfluidic channels.

Hide All
1Stuart, B.C.Feit, M.D.Herman, S.Rubenchik, A.M.Shore, B.W. and Perry, M.D.Phys. Rev. B 53 (1996) p. 1749.
2Lenzner, M.Krüger, J., Sartania, S.Cheng, Z.Spielmann, Ch., Mourou, G.Kautek, W. and Krausz, F.Phys. Rev. Lett. 80 (1998) p. 4076.
3Du, D.Liu, X.Korn, G.Squier, J. and Mourou, G.Appl. Phys. Lett. 64 (1994) p. 3071.
4Schaffer, C.B.Brodeur, A. and Mazur, E.Meas. Sci. Technol. 12 (2001) p. 1784.
5Joglekar, A.P.Liu, H.-H., Meyhöfer, E., Mourou, G. and Hunt, A.J.Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101 (2004) p. 5856.
6Miura, K.Qiu, J.Inouye, H.Mitsuyu, T. and Hirao, K.Appl. Phys. Lett. 71 (1997) p. 3329.
7Florea, C. and Winick, K.A.J. Lightwave Technol. 21 (2003) p. 246.
8Sudrie, L.Franco, M.Prade, B. and Mysyrowicz, A.Opt. Commun. 171 (1999) p. 279.
9Sudrie, L.Franco, M.Prade, B. and Mysyrowicz, A.Opt. Commun. 191 (2001) p. 333.
10Glezer, E.N.Milosavljevic, M.Huang, L.Finlay, R.J.Her, T.-H., Callan, J.P. and Mazur, E.Opt. Lett. 21 (1996) p. 2023.
11Glezer, E.N. and Mazur, E.Appl. Phys. Lett. 71 (1997) p. 882.
12Schaffer, C.B.Jamison, A.O. and Mazur, E.Appl. Phys. Lett. 84 (2004) p. 1441.
13Chan, J.W.Huser, T.Risbud, S. and Krol, D.M.Opt. Lett. 26 (2001) p. 1726.
14Chan, J.W.Huser, T.R.Risbud, S.H.Hayden, J.S. and Krol, D.M.Appl. Phys. Lett. 82 (2003) p. 2371.
15Chan, J.W.Huser, T.R.Risbud, S.H. and Krol, D.M.Appl. Phys. A 76 (2003) p. 367.
16Bruckner, R.J. Non-Cryst. Solids 5 (1970) p. 123.
17Bruckner, R.J. Non-Cryst. Solids 6 (1971) p. 177.
18Kawamura, K.Sarukura, N.Hirano, M. and Hosono, H.Appl. Phys. Lett. 78 (2001) p. 1038.
19Davis, K.M.Miura, K.Sugimoto, N. and Hirao, K.Opt. Lett. 21 (1996) p. 1829.
20Homoelle, D.Wielandy, W.Gaeta, A.L.Borrelli, E.F. and Smith, C.Opt. Lett. 24 (1999) p. 1311.
21Will, M.Nolte, S.Chichkov, B.N. and Tünnermann, A., Appl. Opt. 41 (2002) p. 4360.
22Shimotsuma, Y.Kazansky, P.G.Qiu, J. and Hirao, K.Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 247405 (2003).
23Shimotsuma, Y.Hirao, K.Qiu, J. and Kazansky, P.G.Mod. Phys. Lett. B 19 (2005) p. 225.
24Bricchi, E.Klappauf, B.G. and Kazansky, P.G.Opt. Lett. 29 (2004) p. 119.
25Hnatovsky, C.Taylor, R.S.Rajeev, P.P.Simova, E.Bhardwaj, V.R.Rayner, D.M. and Corkum, P.B.Appl. Phys. Lett. 87 (2005) p. 14104.
26Hnatovsky, C., Taylor, R.S.Simova, E.Bhardwaj, V.R.Rayner, D.M. and Corkum, P.B.Opt. Lett. 30 (2005) p. 1867.
27Qiu, J.R.Miura, K. and Hirao, K.Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 37 (1998) p. 2263.
28Gorelik, T.Will, M.Nolte, S.Tünnermann, A., and Glatzel, U.Appl. Phys. A 76 (2003) p. 309.
29Streltsov, A.M. and Borrelli, N.F.J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19 (2002) p. 2469.
30Bhardwaj, V.R.Simova, E.Corkum, P.B.Rayner, D.M.Hnatovsky, C.Taylor, R.S.Schreder, B.Kluge, M. and Zimmer, J.J. Appl. Phys. 97 083102 (2005).
31Schaffer, C.B.Brodeur, A.Garcia, J.F. and Mazur, E.Opt. Lett. 26 (2001) p. 93.
32Minoshima, K.Kowalevicz, A.M.Hartl, I.Ippen, E.P. and Fujimoto, J.G.Opt. Lett. 26 (2001) p. 1516.
33Minoshima, K.Kowalevicz, A.M.Ippen, E.P. and Fujimoto, J.G.Opt. Express 10 (2002) p. 645.
34Schaffer, C.B.Garcia, J.F. and Mazur, E.Appl. Phys. A 76 (2003) p. 351.
35Will, M.Burghoff, J.Limpert, J.Schreiber, T.Nolte, S. and Tünermann, A., in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), edited by awchuk, A.A. (Optical Society of America, Baltimore, MD, 2003) paper No. CWI 6.
36Shah, L.Arai, A.Y.Eaton, S.M. and Herman, P.R.Opt. Express 13 (2005) p. 1999.
37Borrelli, N.F.Smith, C.Allan, D.C. and Seward, T.P.J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14 (1997) p. 1606.
38Watanabe, W.Toma, T.Yamada, K.Nishii, J.Hayashi, K. and Itoh, K.Opt. Lett. 25 (2000) p. 1669.
39Watanabe, W. and Itoh, K.Opt. Express 10 (2002) p. 603.
40Yamada, K.Watanabe, W.Toma, T.Itoh, K. and Nishii, J.Opt. Lett. 26 (2001) p. 19.
41Osellame, R.Taccheo, S.Marangoni, M.Ramponi, R.Laporta, P.Polli, D.Silvestri, S. De, and Cerullo, G.J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20 (2003) p. 1559.
42Cerullo, G.Osellame, R.Taccheo, S.Marangoni, M.Polli, D.Ramponi, R.Laporta, P. and Silvestri, S. De, Opt. Lett. 27 (2002) p. 1938.
43Ams, M.Spence, D.J.Marshall, G.D. and Withford, M.J.Opt. Express 13 (2005) p. 5676.
44Sikorski, Y.Said, A.A.Bado, P.Maynard, R.Florea, C. and Winick, K.A.Electron. Lett. 36 (2000) p. 226.
45Osellame, R.Taccheo, S.Cerullo, G.Marangoni, M.Polli, D.Ramponi, R.Laporta, P. and Silvestri, S. De, Electron. Lett. 38 (2002) p. 964.
46Taccheo, S.Valle, G. Della, Osellame, R.Cerullo, G.Chiodo, N.Laporta, P.Svelto, O.Killi, A.Morgner, U.Lederer, M. and Kopf, D.Opt. Lett. 29 (2004) p. 2626.
47Osellame, R.Chiodo, N.Valle, G. Della, Taccheo, S.Ramponi, R.Cerullo, G.Killi, A.Morgner, U.Lederer, M. and Kopf, D.Opt. Lett. 29 (2004) p. 1900.
48Gui, L.Xu, B. and Chong, T.C.IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16 (2004) p. 1337.
49Apostolopoulos, V.Laversenne, L.Colomb, T.Depeursinge, C.Salathé, R.P., Pollnau, M.Osellame, R.Cerullo, G. and Laporta, P.Appl. Phys. Lett. 85 (2004) p. 1122.
50Nejadmalayeri, A.H.Herman, P.R.Burghoff, J.Will, M.Nolte, S. and Tünnermann, A., Opt. Lett. 30 (2005) p. 964.
51Zoubir, A.Richardson, M.Rivero, C.Schulte, A.Lopez, C.Richardson, K., N., and Valle, R.Opt. Lett. 29 (2004) p. 748.
52Sowa, S.Watanabe, W.Nishii, J. and Itoh, K.Opt. Express 14 (2006) p. 291.
53Homoelle, D.Wielandy, S.Gaeta, A.L.Borrelli, N.F. and Smith, C.Opt. Lett. 24 (1999) p. 1311.
54Nolte, S.Will, M.Burghoff, J. and Tünnermann, A., J. Mod. Opt. 51 (2004) p. 2533.
55Nasu, Y.Kohtoku, M. and Hibino, Y.Opt. Lett. 30 (2005) p. 723.
56Streltsov, A.M. and Borrelli, N.F.Opt. Lett. 26 (2001) p. 42.
57Watanabe, W.Asano, T.Yamada, K.Itoh, K. and Nishii, J.Opt. Lett. 28 (2003) p. 2491.
58Nolte, S.Will, M.Burghoff, J. and Tünnermann, A., Appl. Phys. A 77 (2003) p. 109.
59Kowalevicz, A.M.Sharma, V.Ippen, E.P.Fujimoto, J.G. and Minoshima, K.Opt. Lett. 30 (2005) p. 1060.
60Pertsch, T.Peschel, U.Lederer, F.Burghoff, J.Will, M.Nolte, S. and Tünnermann, A., Opt. Lett. 29 (2004) p. 468.
61Szameit, A.Blömer, D., Burghoff, J.Pertsch, T.Nolte, S. and Tünnermann, A., Appl. Phys. B 82 (2006) p. 507.
62Yamada, K.Watanabe, W.Nishii, J. and Itoh, K.Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 42 (2003) p. 6916.
63Kawamura, K.Ogawa, T.Sarukura, N.Hirano, M. and Hosono, H.Appl. Phys. B 71 (2000) p. 119.
64Li, Y.Watanabe, W.Itoh, K. and Sun, X.Appl. Phys. Lett. 81 (2002) p. 1952.
65Kawamura, K.Ogawa, T.Sarukura, N.Hirano, M. and Hosono, H.Appl. Phys. B 71 (2000) p. 119.
66Li, Y.Watanabe, W.Yamada, K.Shinagawa, T.Itoh, K.Nishii, J. and Jiang, Y.Appl. Phys. Lett. 80 (2002) p. 1508.
67Li, Y.Yamada, K.Ishizuka, T.Watanabe, W.Itoh, K. and Zhou, Z.Opt. Express 10 (2002) p. 1173.
68Watanabe, W.Kuroda, D.Itoh, K. and Nishii, J.Opt. Express 10 (2002) p. 978.
69Yamada, K.Watanabe, W.Li, Y.Itoh, K. and Nishii, J.Opt. Lett. 29 (2004) p. 1846.
70Marcinkevièius, A., Juodkazis, S.Watanabe, M.Miwa, M.Matsuo, S.Misawa, H. and Nishii, J.Opt. Lett. 26 (2001) p. 277.
71Cheng, Y.Sugioka, K.Midorikawa, K.Masuda, M.Toyoda, K.Kawachi, M. and Shihoyama, K.Opt. Lett. 28 (2003) p. 55.
72Masuda, M.Sugioka, K.Cheng, Y.Aoki, N.Kawachi, M.Shihoyama, K.Toyoda, K.Helvajian, H. and Midorikawa, K.Appl. Phys. A 76 (2003) p. 857.
73Bellouard, Y.Said, A.Dugan, M. and Bado, P.Opt. Express 12 (2004) p. 2120.
74Sugioka, K.Cheng, Y. and Midorikawa, K.J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 17 (2004) p. 397.
75Li, Y.Itoh, K.Watanabe, W.Yamada, K.Kuroda, D.Nishii, J. and Jiang, Y.Opt. Lett. 26 (2001) p. 1912.
76Iga, Y.Ishizuka, T.Watanabe, W.Li, Y.Nishii, J. and Itoh, K.Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 43 (2004) p. 4207.
77Ke, K.Hasselbrink, E.F. Jr, and Hunt, A.J.Anal. Chem. 77 (2005) p. 5083.
78Kim, T.N.Campbell, K.Groisman, A.Kleinfeld, D. and Schaffer, C.B.Appl. Phys. Lett. 86 201106 (2005).
79Eaton, S.M.Zhang, H.Herman, P.R.Yoshino, F.Shah, L.Bovatsek, J. and Arai, A.Y.Opt. Express 13 (2005) p. 4708.
80Zoubir, A.Richardson, M.Canioni, L.Brocas, A. and Sarger, L.J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22 (2005) p. 2138.
81Szameit, A.Blömer, D., Burghoff, J.Schreiber, T.Pertsch, T.Nolte, S.Tünnermann, A., and Lederer, F.Opt. Express 13 (2005) p. 10552.
82Christodoulides, D.N. and Eugenieva, E.D.Phys. Rev. Lett. 87 233901 (2001).
83Eugenieva, E.D.Efremidis, N.K. and Christodoulides, D.N.Opt. Lett. 26 (2001) p. 1978.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

MRS Bulletin
  • ISSN: 0883-7694
  • EISSN: 1938-1425
  • URL: /core/journals/mrs-bulletin
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed