We investigated the effects of varying the multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) contents, as well as the additional use of drawing and poling on the polymorphic behavior and electroactive (piezoelectric) properties of the cast poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)/MWCNT membranes. Dramatic changes occurred in the polar β-phase crystal contents with the MWCNT loading. An optimum concentration of MWCNT exists for PVDF film polarization. On the other hand, films prepared by electrospinning process exhibited almost constant amount of β-phase with the MWCNT concentration. In this process, polymer fibers with diameters down to the nanometer range, or nanofibers, are formed by subjecting a fluid jet to a high electric field. The remanent polarization and piezoelectric response increased with the β-phase crystals. Cell adhesion and proliferation measured with MTT (Methylthiazolyl diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) assay coincidentally responded to the polarized PVDF films (β-phase amount).
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