We have used coherent imaging fiber arrays as a platform for preparing chemical sensors and biosensors. Sensors can be made with spatially-discrete sensing sites for multi-analyte determinations. Micrometer sized sensors have been fabricated by etching the cores of an optical imaging fiber to create microwells and loading them with microspheres. These arrays possess both high sensitivity and reproducibility and can be used for making thousands of measurements simultaneously such as for genetic analysis or for the analysis of complex biological fluids. Both optical and optoelectrochemical arrays have been used for multiplexed sensing. In another scheme, the arrays can be used for single molecule detection. In this format, individual molecules, such as enzymes, can be trapped in the microwells by sealing each microwell with a silicone gasket. The enzyme molecules catalyze the formation of a fluorescent product that can be detected readily. The kinetic properties of hundreds to thousands of single enzyme molecules can be monitored simultaneously using this format. By observing the stochastic nature of the single molecule responses, new mechanistic insights into the fundamental nature of the enzymes can be obtained.