Skip to main content

Seismic stratigraphy of Dinantian carbonates in the southern Netherlands and northern Belgium

  • John J.G. Reijmer (a1), Johan H. ten Veen (a2), Bastiaan Jaarsma (a3) and Roy Boots (a1)

Due to their potential as a petroleum or geothermal system, the Dinantian carbonates of the Netherlands have recently attracted renewed interest because of the identified presence of excellent reservoir properties. This notion contrasts with the general assumption that these carbonates are tight. Therefore, in order to give the current knowledge state, this paper re-examines the sparse publicly available well and seismic data and literature to assess the distribution and reservoir properties of the Dinantian carbonates.

Dinantian carbonate deposition occurred throughout the study area (southern onshore and offshore of the Netherlands and northern Belgium), which is situated on the northern margin of the London–Brabant Massif, progressively onlapping the latter structure. This study confirms the presence of three carbonate facies types in the study area: a Tournaisian low-gradient carbonate ramp system, succeeded by a succession in which the carbonate ramp system evolved to a rimmed shelf setting. Subsidence of the northern margin of the London–Brabant Massif resulted in a landward shift of the shallow-marine facies belts, while the formation of normal faults resulted in a ‘staircase’-shaped shallow-water platform–slope–basin profile, associated with large-scale resedimentation processes. After deposition, the limestone deposits were frequently exhumed and reburied. A first period of regional exhumation occurred at the end of the Dinantian, which seems to be associated with porosity-enhancing meteoric karstification, possibly limited to the palaeo-shelf edge. The most intense alterations seem to be present as a deep leached horizon below the Cretaceous unconformity at the top of the Dinantian sequences. In addition, clear evidence for hydrothermal fluid migration is found locally, enhancing reservoir properties at some places while occluding porosity at others. The timing of these phases of hydrothermal fluid circulation is poorly understood.

Whereas in the United Kingdom hydrocarbons have been produced from karstified Dinantian carbonates, this petroleum play has received little attention in the Netherlands. This paper shows that, also for the Netherlands, a karstic reservoir probably existed before the start of hydrocarbon generation from the onlapping basal Namurian shales. The hydrocarbon prospectivity of these sediments, however, is primarily controlled by the presence of both a karst-related reservoir and migration routes from a decent-quality source rock. Two geothermal projects producing from this reservoir in the southern onshore Netherlands have shown the potential of the Dinantian carbonates for ultra-deep geothermal projects. To conclude, the findings presented herein are relevant for studies of the hydrocarbon prospectivity and studies of the geothermal potential of Dinantian carbonates in the Dutch on- and offshore.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Seismic stratigraphy of Dinantian carbonates in the southern Netherlands and northern Belgium
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Seismic stratigraphy of Dinantian carbonates in the southern Netherlands and northern Belgium
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Seismic stratigraphy of Dinantian carbonates in the southern Netherlands and northern Belgium
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author. Email:
Hide All

Present address: College of Petroleum Engineering & Geosciences, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia

Hide All
Abbink, O.A., Devuyst, F.X., Grötsch, J., Hance, L., Van Hoof, T.B., Kombrink, H., & Van Ojik, K., 2009. The Lower Carboniferous of Key-well UHM-02, Onshore The Netherlands, and implications for regional basin development. 71st EAGE Conference and Technical Exhibition, 811 June 2009, Amsterdam, Netherlands. EAGE (Amsterdam).
Amantini, E., 2009. Development of the performance of the Loenhout UGS (Antwerp, Belgium). 24th World Gas Conference, 59 October 2009, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Conference proceedings.
Aretz, M., 2016. The Kulm Facies of the Montagne Noire (Mississippian, southern France). In: Denayer, J. & Aretz, M.. (eds): Devonian and Carboniferous research: homage to Professor Edouard Poty. Geologica Belgica 19 (1–2). doi: 10.20341/gb.2015.018.
Aretz, M. & Chevalier, E., 2007. After the collapse of stromatoporid-coral reefs – the Famennian and Dinantian reefs of Belgium: much more than Waulsortian mounds. In: Álvaro, J.J., Aretz, M., Boulvain, F., Munnecke, A., Vachard, D. & Vennin, E. (eds): Palaeozoic reefs and bioaccumulations: climatic and evolutionary controls. Geological Society of London Special Publication 275: 143168.
Author Unknown, 1978. Core analysis Brouwershavensegat 1. Retrieved from
Author Unknown, 1981. Core analysis S 5-1. Retrieved from
Author Unknown, 1982. Core analysis report well Kortgene 1. Retrieved from
Blanchon, P., 2011. Back-stepping. In: Hopley, D. (ed): Encyclopedia of modern coral reefs. Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series. Springer Netherlands (Dordrecht): 7784.
Bless, M.J.M., Boonen, P., Bouckaert, J., Brauckmann, C., Conil, R., Dusar, M., Felder, P.J., Felder, W.M., Goekdag, H., Kockel, F., Laloux, M., Langguth, H.R., Van Der Meer Mohr, J.P.M., Meesen, T., Op Het Veld, F., Paproth, E., Pietzner, H., Plum, J., Poty, E., Scherp, A., Schulz, R., Streel, M., Thorez, J., Van Rooijen, P., Vanguestaine, M., Vieslet, J.L., Wiersma, D.J., Winkler-Prins, C.F. & Wolf, M., 1981. Preliminary report on Lower Tertiary-Upper Cretaceous and Dinantian-Famennian rocks in the boreholes Heugem-1/1a and Kastanjelaan-2 (Maastricht, the Netherlands). Mededelingen Rijks Geologische Dienst 35: 333–415.
Bless, M.J.M., Bouckaert, J. & Paproth, E., 1983. Recent exploration in Pre-Permian rocks around the Brabant Massif in Belgium. The Netherlands and the Federal Republic of Germany. In: Kaasschieter, J.P.H. & Reijers, T.J.A. (eds): Petroleum geology of the southeastern North Sea and the adjacent onshore areas. Geologie en Mijnbouw (The Hague): 5162.
Böker, U., Dijksman, B. & van den Graaff, E., 2012. Winterton area Dinantian prospectivity review, technical summary and concepts for reservoir models, Project G977. PanTerra Geoconsultants (Leiderdorp).
Bridges, P.H., Gutteridge, P. & Pickard, N.A.H., 1995. The environmental setting of Early Carboniferous mud-mounds. In: Monty, C.L.V., Bosence, D.W.J., Bridges, P.H. & Pratt, B.R. (eds): Carbonate mud-mounds: their origin and evolution. International Association of Sedimentologists Special Publication 23: 171190.
Buggisch, W., 1991. The global Frasnian-Famennian «Kellwasser Event». Geologische Rundschau 80: 4972.
Burgess, P.M. & Gayer, R.A., 2000. Late Carboniferous tectonic subsidence in South Wales: implications for Variscan basin evolution and tectonic history in SW Britain. Journal of the Geological Society 157 (1): 93104.
Cambridge Carbonates Ltd, 2002. Dinantian depositional systems and exploration potential. Unpublished report. Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij (Assen).
Cameron, N. & Ziegler, T., 1997. Probing the lower limits of a fairway: further pre-Permian potential in the southern North Sea. In: Ziegler, K., Turner, P. & Daines, S.R. (eds): Petroleum geology of the southern North Sea: future potential. Geological Society of London Special Publication 123: 123141.
Cameron, T.D.J., 1993. Chapter 5, Carboniferous and Devonian of the southern North Sea. In: Knox, R.W.O.B. & Cordey, W.G. (eds): Lithostratigraphic nomenclature of the UK North Sea. British Geological Survey (London).
Choquette, P.W. and Pray, L.C., 1970. Geologic nomenclature and classification of porosity in sedimentary carbonates. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 54 (2): 207250.
Coward, M.P., 1993. The effect of Late Caledonian and Variscan continental escape tectonics on basement structure, Paleozoic basin kinematics and subsequent Mesozoic basin development in NW Europe. In: Parker, J.R. (ed.): Petroleum geology of Northwest Europe: proceedings of the 4th Conference. Geological Society of London (London): 10951108.
Coward, M.P., Dewey, J., Hempton, M. & Holroyd, J., 2003. Tectonic evolution. In: Evans, D.J., Graham, C., Armour, A. & Bathust, P. (eds): The millennium atlas: petroleum geology of the central and northern North Sea. Geological Society of London (London): 1733.
Della Porta, G., Kenter, J.A.M. & Harris, P.M., 2008. Non-actualistic carbonate deposystems: revising the carbonate factory-depth paradigm. Search and Discovery Article #40290.
Della Porta, G., Merino-Tomé, O., Kenter, J.A.M. & Verwer, K., 2013. Lower Jurassic microbial and skeletal carbonate factories and platform geometry (Djebel Bou Dahar, High Atlas, Morocco). In: Verwer, K., Playton, T.E. & Harris, P.M. (eds): Deposits, architecture, and controls of carbonate margin, slope, and basinal settings. SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology) (Tulsa, OK): 238264.
Dijkshoorn, L. & Clauser, C., 2013. Relative importance of different physical processes on upper crustal specific heat flow in the Eifel-Maas region, Central Europe and ramifications for the production of geothermal energy. Natural Science 5: 268281.
Doornenbal, H. & Stevenson, A., 2010. Petroleum geological atlas of the southern Permian Basin Area. EAGE Publications (Houten): 352 pp.
Dreesen, R., Bouckaert, J., Dusar, M., Soille, J. & Vandenberghe, N., 1987. Subsurface structural analysis of the late-Dinantian carbonate shelf at the northern flank of the Brabant Massif (Campine Basin, N-Belgium). Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Belgium. Ministerie van Economische Zaken, Bestuur van het Mijnwezen, Belgische Geologische Dienst (Brussels).
Dronkers, A.J., Graves, W. & Standing, D.W., 1984. S02-02: Final Geological Report, Mobil Producing Netherlands Inc. Retrieved from
Drzewiecki, P.A. & Simó, J.A., 2002. Depositional processes, triggering mechanisms and sediment composition of carbonate gravity flow deposits: examples from the Late Cretaceous of the south-central Pyrenees, Spain. Sedimentary Geology 146 (1–2): 155189.
Dunham, R.J., 1962. Classification of carbonate rocks according to depositional texture. In: Ham, W.E. (ed.): Classification of carbonate rocks. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 1: 108121.
EBN (Energie Beheer Nederland), 2014. Petrophysical evaluation of the Dinantian carbonates. Unpublished.
Evans, D.J. & Kirby, G.A., 1999. The architecture of concealed Dinantian carbonate sequences over the Central Lancashire and Holme highs, northern England. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society 52: 297312.
Ford, T.D. & King, R.J., 1965. Layered epigenetic galena-barite deposits in the Golconda mine, Brassington, Derbyshire, England. Economic Geology 60: 16861701.
Fraser, A.J. & Gawthorpe, R.L., 1990. Tectono-stratigraphic development and hydrocarbon habitat of the Carboniferous in northern England. In: Hardman, R.F.P. & Brooks, J. (eds): Tectonic events responsible for Britain's oil and gas reserves. Geological Society of London Special Publication 55: 4986.
Friedrich, G., Bless, M.J.M., Vogtmann, J. & Wiechowski, A., 1987. Lead-zinc mineralization in Dinantian rocks of boreholes Thermae 2000 and Thermae 2002 (Valkenburg a/d Geul, the Netherlands). Annales de la Société Géologique de Belgique 110: 59–75.
Fyhn, M.W., Boldreel, L. O. & Nielsen, L.H. 2009. Tectonic and climatic control on growth and demise of the Phanh Rang Carbonate Platform offshore south Vietnam. Basin Research 21 (2): 225252.
Gallagher, S.J. & Somerville, I., 2003. Lower Carboniferous (Late Visean) platform development and cyclicity in southern Ireland: foraminiferal biofacies and lithofacies evidence. Rivista Italiana di Palaeontologiae Stratigrafia, 109 (2): 159171.
GAPS Nederland B.V., 1991. Final report conventional core analysis well: O/18a-1 Placid International Oil Ltd. Retrieved from
Geluk, M.C., Dusar, M. & de Vos, W., 2007. Pre-Silesian. In: Wong, T.E., Batjes, D.A.J. & de Jager, J. (eds): Geology of the Netherlands. Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW) (Amsterdam): 2742.
Graulich, J.M., 1962. La phase sudète de l'Orogène varisque dans le synclinorium de namur à l'Est du Samson. Bulletin de la Société Belge de Géologie 71 (2): 181199.
Gutteridge, P., 2002. Uithuizermeeden-2, Core 1, Summary Report. Cambridge Carbonates Limited (Cambridge).
Harings, M.J., 2014. CAL-GT-01 – implications for the distribution of the Early Namurian Geverik Member in the Netherlands. 76th EAGE Conference & Exhibition, 1619 June 2014, Amsterdam, Netherlands. EAGE (Amsterdam): 14.
Harris, P.M., Garber, R.A. & Clark, M.E., 2008. Geologic framework for the Tengiz and Korolev isolated carbonate platforms, Kazakhstan. Search and Discovery Article #20060.
Heckel, P.H. & Clayton, G., 2006. The Carboniferous System. Use of the new official names for the subsystems, series, and stages. Geologica Acta 4 (3): 403407.
Hoornveld, N., 2013. Dinantian carbonate development and related prospectivity of the onshore Northern Netherlands. Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (Amsterdam): 142 pp.
Jaarsma, B., Brolsma, M.J., Hoetz, G. & Lutgert, J.E., 2013. Exploring Dinantian carbonates in the SNS – new data offering new insights. 75th EAGE Conference & Exhibition incorporating SPE EUROPEC, 1013 June, London, UK. EAGE (London).
Kenter, J.A.M., Harris, P.M. & Della Porta, G., 2005. Steep microbial boundstone-dominated platform margins: examples and implications. Sedimentary Geology 178: 530.
Klimchouk, A., 2017. Types and settings of hypogene karst. In: Klimchouk, A., Palmer, A.N., Waele, J.D., Auler, A. S. & Audra, P. (eds): Hypogene karst regions and caves of the world. Springer Nature (Cham): 139.
Kombrink, H., 2008. The Carboniferous of the Netherlands and surrounding areas; a basin analysis. GEOLOGICA ULTRAIECTINA, Mededelingen van de Faculteit Geowetenschappen 294. Universiteit Utrecht (Utrecht): 184 pp.
Kombrink, H., Leever, K.A., van Wees, J.-D., van Bergen, F., David, P. & Wong, T.E., 2008a. Late Carboniferous foreland basin formation and Early Carboniferous stretching in Northwestern Europe: inferences from quantitative subsidence analyses in the Netherlands. Basin Research 20 (3): 377396.
Kombrink, H., van Os, B.J.H., van der Zwan, C.J. & Wong, T.E., 2008b. Geochemistry of marine and lacustrine bands in the Upper Carboniferous of the Netherlands. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences 87 (4): 309322.
Kombrink, H., Besly, B.M., Collinson, J.D., Den Hartog Jager, D.G., Drozdzewski, G., Dusar, M., Hoth, P., Pagnier, H.J.M., Stemmerik, L., Waksmundzka, M.I. & Wrede, V., 2010. Carboniferous. In: Doornenbal, J.C. & Stevenson, A.G. (eds): Petroleum geological atlas of the Southern Permian Basin Area. AEGE Publications b.v. (Houten): 8199.
Laenen, B., 2003. Lithostratigrafie van het pre-Tertiair in Vlaanderen, Deel II Dinantiaan en
Devoon, Study commissioned by ANRE, 2003/ETE/R/095 – VITO. See also
Langenaeker, V., 2000. The Campine Basin. Stratigraphy, structural geology, coalification and hydrocarbon potential for the Devonian to Jurassic. Aardkundige Mededelingen 10. Leuven University Press (Leuven).
Leeder, M.R., 1976. Sedimentary facies and the origins of basin subsidence along the northern margin of the supposed Hercynian Ocean. Tectonophysics 36 (1–3): 167179.
Moser, M.R., Rankin, A.H. & Milledge, H.J., 1992. Hydrocarbon-bearing fluid inclusions in fluorite associated with the Windy Knoll bitumen deposit, UK. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 56: 155168.
Muchez, P. & Langenaeker, V., 1993. Middle Devonian to Dinantian sedimentation in the Campine Basin (Northern Belgium): its relation to Variscan Tectonism. In: Frostick, L.E. & Steel, R.J. (eds): Tectonic controls and signatures in sedimentary successions. Blackwell Publishing Ltd (Oxford): 171181.
Muchez, P. & Viaene, W., 1994. Dolomitization caused by water circulation near the mixing zone: an example from the Lower Visean of the Campine Basin (Northern Belgium). In: Purser, B., Tucker, M. & Zenger, D. (eds): Dolomites: a volume in honour of Dolomieu. Blackwell Publishing Ltd (Oxford)
Muchez, P., Viaene, W., Wolf, M. & Bouckaert, J., 1987. Sedimentology, coalification pattern and paleogeography of the Campine-Brabant Basin during the Visean. Geologie en Mijnbouw 66: 313326.
Muchez, P., Viaene, W., Bouckaert, J., Conil, R., Dusar, M., Poty, E., Soille, P. & Vandenberghe, N., 1990. The occurrence of a microbial buildup at Poederlee (Campine Basin, Belgium); biostratigraphy, sedimentology, early diagenesis and significance for early Warnantian paleogeography. Annales de la Société Geologique de Belgique 113 (2): 329339.
Muchez, P., Viaene, W., Keppens, A.E., Marshall, J.D. & Vandenberghe, N., 1991. Vein cements and the geochemical evolution of subsurface fluids in the Visean of the Campine Basin (Poederlee borehole, Belgium). Journal of the Geological Society 148 (6): 10051117.
NAM (Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij), 1982. Sedimentological model for Dinantian carbonates. Unpublished report.
Narkiewicz, M., 2007. Development and inversion of Devonian and Carboniferous basins in the eastern part of the Variscan foreland (Poland). Geological Quarterly 51 (3): 231265.
Oncken, O., von Winterfeld, C. & Dittmar, U., 1999. Accretion of a rifted passive margin; the late Paleozoic Rhenohercynian fold and thrust belt (middle European Variscides). Tectonics 18 (1): 7591.
PanTerra Geoconsultants, 2012. Description and microscopic analysis of 2 cuttings samples, Well CAL-GT-01. Unpublished report EBN BV.
Poty, E., 1997. Devonian and Carboniferous tectonics in the eastern and southeastern parts of the Brabant Massif (Belgium). Aardkundige Mededelingen 8: 143144.
Poty, E., 2014. Report on cuttings from the CAL-GT-01 borehole. Unpublished report EBN BV.
RGD (Rijks Geologische Dienst), 1978. Het Paleozoïcum van de Diepboring Brouwerhavensegat-1 (N.A.M.) tussen 1398 en 2906.8 m. Retrieved from
RGD, 1983. Onderzoek monsters NAM-boring Kortgene-1; kerntrajecten 946.90-995.60, 1351–1365.10, 1720.33-1735 en 1891.50-1900 m. Retrieved from
RGD, 1991. Palynological investigation of the well O18-01. Retrieved from
Schlager, W., 2005. Carbonate sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy. SEPM Concepts in Sedimentology and Paleontology 8. SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology) (Tulsa, OK): 200 pp.
Schroot, B.M., Van Bergen, F., Abbink, O.A., David, P., Van Eijs, R. & Veld, H., 2006. Hydrocarbon potential of the Pre-Westphalian in the Netherlands on- and offshore – report of the PetroPlay project. TNO-NITG (Utrecht).
Strank, A.R.E., 1987. The stratigraphy and structure of Dinantian strata in the East Midlands, UK. In: Adams, A.E., Miller, J. & Wright, V.P. (eds): European Dinantian environments. John Wiley (Chichester): 157175.
Swennen, R. & Muchez, P., 1991. Sedimentological and diagenetic study of the Dinantian carbonates and underlying siliciclastics of Placid borehole O18-01. Placid International Oil, Netherlands.
TOTAL E&P UK, 2007. A regional review of the Dinantian carbonate play: Southern North Sea & onshore UK. Total E&P UK.
Van Adrichem Boogaert, H.A. & Kouwe, W.F.P., 1993. Stratigraphic nomenclature of the Netherlands, revision and update by RGD and NOGEPA. Mededelingen Rijks Geologische Dienst 50. TNO–NITG Geological Survey of the Netherlands (Utrecht).
Van der Molen, A.S., 2004. Sedimentary development, seismic stratigraphy and burial compaction of the Chalk Group in the Netherlands North Sea area. GEOLOGICA ULTRAIECTINA. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Geowetenschappen 248. Universiteit Utrecht (Utrecht): 180 pp.
Van Hulten, F.F.N., 2012. Devono-Carboniferous carbonate platform systems of the Netherlands. Geologica Belgica 15 (4): 284296.
Van Hulten, F.F.N. & Poty, E., 2008. Geological factors controlling Early Carboniferous carbonate platform development in the Netherlands . Geological Journal 43: 175196.
Van Hulten, F.F.N. & Poty, E., 2009. Dinantian Reefs underneath the Netherlands. 71st EAGE Conference and Technical Exhibition, 8–11 June 2009, Amsterdam, Netherlands. EAGE (Amsterdam): W039: 1–5.
Vandenberghe, N., 1984. The subsurface geology of the Meer area in North Belgium and its significance for the occurrence of hydrocarbons. Journal of Petroleum Geology 7: 5566.
Vandenberghe, N., Poggiagliolmi, E. & Watt, G., 1986. Offset dependent seismic amplitudes from karst limestone in northern Belgium. First Break 4 (5): 927.
Vandenberghe, N., Dusar, M., Laga, P.G. & Bouckaert, J., 1988. The Meer well in North Belgium. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Belgium 25. Ministère des Affaires économiques, Administration des Mines, Service géologique de Belgique (Brussels).
Vandenberghe, N., Dusar, M., Laga, P.G. & Bouckaert, J., 2000. The Merksplas-Beerse geothermal well (17W265) and the Dinantian reservoir. Geologica Belgica, 3 (3–4): 349367.
Vandenberghe, N., De Craen, N. & Beerten, K., 2014. Geological framework of the Campine Basin Geological setting, tectonics, sedimentary sequences. Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie. External Report 262: 1113.
Van Keer, I., Ondrak, R., Muchez, Ph., Bayer, U., Dusar, M & Viaene, W., 1998. Burial history and thermal evolution of Westphalian coal-bearing strata in the Campine basin (NE Belgium). Geologie en Mijnbouw, 76: 301310.
Verniers, J., Pharaoh, T., Adré, L., Debacker, T., de Vos, W., Everaerts, M., Herbosch, A., Samuelsson, J., Sintubin, M. & Vecoli, M., 2002. The Cambrian to mid Devonian basin development and deformation history of eastern Avalonia, east of the Midlands Microcraton: new data and a review. In: Winchester, J.A., Pharaoh, T.C. & Verniers, J. (eds): Palaeozoic amalgamation of Central Europe. Geological Society of London Special Publication 201: 4793.
Wang, B. & Al-Aasm, I.S., 2002. Karst-controlled diagenesis and reservoir development: Example from the Ordovician main-reservoir carbonate rocks on the eastern margin of the Ordos basin, China. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 86 (9): 16391658.
Waters, C.N. & Davies, S.J., 2006. Carboniferous: extensional basins, advancing deltas and coal swamps. In: Brenchley, P.J. & Rawson, P.F. (eds): The geology of England and Wales. Geological Society of London (London): 173223.
Waters, C.N., Waters, R.A., Barclay, W.J. & Davies, J.R., 2009. A lithostratigraphical framework for the Carboniferous successions of southern Great Britain (Onshore). British Geological Survey(London).
Weber, L.J., Francis, B.P., Harris, P.M. & Clark, M.E., 2003. Stratigraphy, lithofacies, and reservoir distribution, Tengiz Field, Kazakhstan. In: Ahr, W.M., Harris, P.M., Morgan, W.A., & Somerville, I.D. (eds): Permo-Carboniferous carbonate platforms and reefs. Society for Sedimentary Geology Special Publication 78. Society for Sedimentary Geology (Tulsa, OK): 351394.
Whalen, M. T., Day, J., Eberli, G. P. & Homewood, P. W., 2002. Microbial carbonates as indicators of environmental change and biotic crises in carbonate systems: examples from the Late Devonian, Alberta basin, Canada. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 181 (1–3): 127151.
Wintershall Noordzee BV, 2006. Promote Licence P1252, Two Year Report, Blocks: 53/15b, 53/19, 53/20, 54/11 & 54/16. Wintershall Noordzee BV (Rijswijk).
Yang, H., Xue, F., Pan, W., Chen, L., Yang, P., Tong, Y. & Zhao, C., 2010. Seismic description of karst topography and caves of Ordovician carbonate reservoirs, Lungu area, Tarim Basin, West China. SEG Annual Meeting 2010. Society of Exploration Geophysicists (Denver, CO): 12561260.
Ziegler, P.A., 1990a. Geological atlas of Western and Central Europe. Shell International Petroleum Maatschappij B.V.: 237 pp.
Ziegler, P.A., 1990b. Tectonic and palaeogeographic development of the North Sea Rift system. In: Blundell, D.J. & Gibbs, A.D. (eds): Tectonic evolution of the North Sea rifts. Oxford Science Publications (Oxford): 136.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Netherlands Journal of Geosciences
  • ISSN: 0016-7746
  • EISSN: 1573-9708
  • URL: /core/journals/netherlands-journal-of-geosciences
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Type Description Title
Supplementary materials

Reijmer et al supplementary material
Table S1

 Unknown (16 KB)
16 KB


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed