Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Access
  • Cited by 38
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Cameron, Jameason D. Sigal, Ronald J. Kenny, Glen P. Alberga, Angela S. Prud’homme, Denis Phillips, Penny Doucette, Steve and Goldfield, Gary 2016. Body composition and energy intake — skeletal muscle mass is the strongest predictor of food intake in obese adolescents: The HEARTY trial. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Vol. 41, Issue. 6, p. 611.

    Hopkins, M Finlayson, G Duarte, C Whybrow, S Ritz, P Horgan, G W Blundell, J E and Stubbs, R J 2016. Modelling the associations between fat-free mass, resting metabolic rate and energy intake in the context of total energy balance. International Journal of Obesity, Vol. 40, Issue. 2, p. 312.

    Karl, J. Philip Smith, Tracey J. Wilson, Marques A. Bukhari, Asma S. Pasiakos, Stefan M. McClung, Holly L. McClung, James P. and Lieberman, Harris R. 2016. Altered metabolic homeostasis is associated with appetite regulation during and following 48-h of severe energy deprivation in adults. Metabolism, Vol. 65, Issue. 4, p. 416.

    Millward, D.J. 2016. Encyclopedia of Food and Health.

    Blundell, J.E. Finlayson, G. Gibbons, C. Caudwell, P. and Hopkins, M. 2015. The biology of appetite control: Do resting metabolic rate and fat-free mass drive energy intake?. Physiology & Behavior, Vol. 152, p. 473.

    Dulloo, A. G. Jacquet, J. Montani, J.-P. and Schutz, Y. 2015. How dieting makes the lean fatter: from a perspective of body composition autoregulation through adipostats and proteinstats awaiting discovery. Obesity Reviews, Vol. 16, p. 25.

    2014. Free-Ranging Cats.

    Dulloo, Abdul G. Jacquet, Jean Seydoux, Josiane and Montani, Jean-Pierre 2013. Comment les régimes amaigrissants font grossir : d’une perspective d’autorégulation de la composition corporelle. Cahiers de Nutrition et de Diététique, Vol. 48, Issue. 1, p. 15.

    Millward, D Joe 2013. The use of protein:energy ratios for defining protein requirements, allowances and dietary protein contents. Public Health Nutrition, Vol. 16, Issue. 05, p. 763.

    Millward, D.J. 2013. Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition.

    Millward, D.J. 2013. Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition.

    Duggan, Maureen B 2012. The elephant moves into the sunlight: progress in childhood malnutrition. Paediatrics and International Child Health, Vol. 32, Issue. 4, p. 190.

    Dulloo, Abdul G. Jacquet, Jean and Montani, Jean-Pierre 2012. How dieting makes some fatter: from a perspective of human body composition autoregulation. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, Vol. 71, Issue. 03, p. 379.

    Mendel, Ronald 2012. Dietary Protein and Resistance Exercise.

    Millward, D. Joe 2012. Identifying recommended dietary allowances for protein and amino acids: a critique of the 2007 WHO/FAO/UNU report. British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 108, Issue. S2, p. S3.

    Eisert, Regina 2011. Hypercarnivory and the brain: protein requirements of cats reconsidered. Journal of Comparative Physiology B, Vol. 181, Issue. 1, p. 1.

    Kaushik, Sadasivam J and Seiliez, Iban 2010. Protein and amino acid nutrition and metabolism in fish: current knowledge and future needs. Aquaculture Research, Vol. 41, Issue. 3, p. 322.

    Cadogan, Joanna Blumsohn, Aubrey Barker, Margo E. and Eastell, Richard 2009. A Longitudinal Study of Bone Gain in Pubertal Girls: Anthropometric and Biochemical Correlates. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, Vol. 13, Issue. 10, p. 1602.

    Nang Thu, Tran Thi Parkouda, Charles de Saeger, Sarah Larondelle, Yvan and Rollin, Xavier 2009. Protein level does not affect lysine utilization efficiency at marginal lysine intake in growing rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry. Aquaculture, Vol. 288, Issue. 3-4, p. 312.

    Stubbs, James Whybrow, Stephen and Mazlan Mamat, Nik 2008. Appetite and Food Intake.


A Protein-Stat Mechanism for Regulation of Growth and Maintenance of the Lean Body Mass

  • D. Joe Millward (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 14 December 2007
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      A Protein-Stat Mechanism for Regulation of Growth and Maintenance of the Lean Body Mass
      Your Kindle email address
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      A Protein-Stat Mechanism for Regulation of Growth and Maintenance of the Lean Body Mass
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      A Protein-Stat Mechanism for Regulation of Growth and Maintenance of the Lean Body Mass
      Available formats
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

2R. E. Allen & L. L. Rankin (1990). Regulation of satellite cells during skeletal muscle growth and development. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 194, 8186.

4A. Ashworth & D. J. Millward (1986). Catch-up growth in children. Nutrition Reviews 44, 157163.

8J. E. Blundell , C. L. Lawton & A. J. Hill (1993). Mechanisms of appetite control and their abnormalities in obese patients. Hormone Research 39 (Supplement 3), 7276.

9O. G. Brooke & E. F. Wheeler (1976). High energy feeding in protein-energy malnutrition. Archives of Disease in Childhood 51, 968971.

13J. M. De Castro (1987). Macronutrient relationships with meal patterns and mood in the spontaneous feeding behavior of humans. Physiology and Behavior 39, 561569.

17D. J. Dix & B. R. Eisenberg (1990). Myosin mRNA accumulation and myofibrillogenesis at the myotendinous junction of stretched muscle fibers. Journal of Cell Biology 111, 18851894.

20J. D. Fernstrom (1991). Effects of the diet and other metabolic phenomena on brain tryptophan uptake and serotonin synthesis. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 294, 369376.

21J. D. Fernstrom & R. J. Wurtman (1972). Brain serotonin content: physiological regulation by plasma neutral amino acids. Science 178, 414416.

22M. H. Fernstrom & J. D. Fernstrom (1993). Large changes in serum free tryptophan levels do not alter brain tryptophan levels: studies in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Life Sciences 52, 907916.

34R. J. Goss (1978). Adaptive mechanisms of growth control. In Human Growth, vol. 1, Principles and Prenatal Growth, pp. 321 [ Falkner F. and Tanner J. M. , editors]. New York: Plenum Press.

40D. Haussinger (1995). Regulation of metabolism by changes in cellular hydration. Clinical Nutrition 14, 412.

41D. Haussinger & F. Lang (1992). Cell volume and hormone action. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 13, 371373.

42D. Haussinger , E. Roth , F. Lang & W. Gerok (1993). Cellular hydration state: an important determinant of protein catabolism in health and disease. Lancet 341, 13301332.

45M. M. Jepson , P. C. Bates & D. J. Millward (1988). The role of insulin and thyroid hormones in the regulation of muscle growth and protein turnover in response to dietary protein in the rat. British Journal of Nutrition 59,397415.

46I. Kabir , T. Butler , L. E. Underwood & M. M. Rahman (1992). Effects of a protein-rich diet during convalescence from shigellosis on catch-up growth, serum proteins, and insulin-like growth factor-I. Pediatric Research 32, 689692.

48S. Kashyap , K. F. Schulze , M. Forsyth , C. Zucker , R. B. Dell , R. Ramakrishnan & W. C. Heird (1988). Growth, nutrient retention and metabolic response in low birth weight infants fed varying intakes of protein and energy. Journal of Pediatrics 113, 713721.

50G. J. Laurent , M. P. Sparrow , P. C. Bates & D. J. Millward (1978). Turnover of muscle protein in the fowl. Collagen content and turnover in cardiac and skeletal muscles of adult fowl and the changes during stretch induced growth. Biochemical Journal 176, 419427.

52R. H. McCusker & D. R. Clemmons (1988). Insulin-like growth factor binding protein secretion by muscle cells: effect of cellular differentiation and proliferation. Journal of Cellular Physiology 137, 505512.

56D. J. Millward (1989). The endocrine response to dietary protein: the anabolic drive on growth. In Milk Proteins, pp. 4959 [ Barth C. A. and Schlimme E. , editors]. Darmstadt: Steimkopff Verlag.

57D. J. Millward (1990). The hormonal control of protein turnover. Clinical Nutrition 9, 115126.

60D. J. Millward , P. J. Garlick , R. J. C. Stewart , D. O. Nnanyelugo & J. C. Waterlow (1975). Skeletal-muscle growth and protein turnover. Biochemical Journal 150, 235243.

61D. J. Millward & J. P. W. Rivers (1989). The need for indispensable amino acids: the concept of the anabolic drive. Diabetes and Metabolism Reviews 5, 191212.

63S. Mohan , C. M. Bautista , J. Wergedal & D. J. Baylink (1990). Isolation of an inhibitory insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein from bone-cellconditioned medium: a potential local regulator of IGF action. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 86, 83388342.

64M. Mori , T. Kawada & K. Torii (1991). Appetite and taste preference in growing rats given various levels of protein nutrition. Brain Research Bulletin 27, 417422.

69D. F. Parker , J. M. Round , P. Sacco & D. A. Jones (1990). A cross-sectional survey of upper and lower limb strength in boys and girls during childhood and adolescence. Annals of Human Biology 17, 199212.

71G. M. Price , D. Halliday , P. J. Pacy , M. R. Quevedo & D. J. Millward (1994 a). Nitrogen homoeostasis in man. 1. Influence of protein intake on the amplitude of diurnal cycling of body nitrogen. Clinical Science 86, 91102.

73M. R. Quevedo , G. M. Price , D. Halliday , P. J. Pacy & D. J. Millward (1994). Nitrogen homoeostasis in man. 3. Diurnal changes in nitrogen excretion, leucine oxidation and whole body leucine kinetics during a reduction from a high to a moderate protein intake. Clinical Science 86, 185193.

74D. Picou , P. J. Reeds , A. A. Jackson & N. Poulter (1976). The measurement of muscle mass in children using [15N]creatine. Pediatric Research 10, 184188.

75K. L. Roehrig (1991). The influence of food on food intake: methodological problems and mechanisms of action. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 30, 575597.

76B. Russell , D. J. Dix , D. L. Haller & E. L. J. Jacobs (1992). Repair of injured skeletal muscle: a molecular approach. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 24, 189196.

80J. O. Tirapegui , Z. A. H. Yahya , P. C. Bates & D. J. Millward (1994). Dietary energy, glucocorticoids, and the regulation of long bone and muscle growth in the rat. Clinical Science 87, 599606.

86P. K. Winchester & W. J. Gonyea (1992). Regional injury and the terminal differentiation of satellite cells in stretched avian slow tonic muscle. Developmental Biology 151, 459472.

87Z. A. H. Yahya , P. C. Bates & D. J. Millward (1990). Responses to protein deficiency of plasma and tissue insulin-like growth factor-1 levels and proteoglycan synthesis rates in rat skeletal muscle and bone. Journal of Endocrinology 127, 497503.

89Z. A. H. Yahya , J. O. Tirapegui , P. C. Bates & D. J. Millward (1994). Influence of dietary protein, energy and corticosteroids on protein turnover, proteoglycan sulphation and growth of long bone and skeletal muscle in the rat. Clinical Science 87, 607618.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Nutrition Research Reviews
  • ISSN: 0954-4224
  • EISSN: 1475-2700
  • URL: /core/journals/nutrition-research-reviews
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *