Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Access
  • Cited by 98
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Baker, Ella J. Miles, Elizabeth A. Burdge, Graham C. Yaqoob, Parveen and Calder, Philip C. 2016. Metabolism and Functional Effects of Plant-Derived Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Humans. Progress in Lipid Research,

    Blondeau, Nicolas 2016. The nutraceutical potential of omega-3 alpha-linolenic acid in reducing the consequences of stroke. Biochimie, Vol. 120, p. 49.

    Kim, Minkyung Kim, Minjoo Lee, Young Ju Lee, Sung Pyo Kim, Tae Su Yang, Hye Jeong Kwon, Dae Young Lee, Sang-Hyun and Lee, Jong Ho 2016. Effects of α-linolenic acid supplementation in perilla oil on collagen-epinephrine closure time, activated partial thromboplastin time and Lp-PLA2 activity in non-diabetic and hypercholesterolaemic subjects. Journal of Functional Foods, Vol. 23, p. 95.

    Leikin-Frenkel, Alicia 2016. Is there A Role for Alpha-Linolenic Acid in the Fetal Programming of Health?. Journal of Clinical Medicine, Vol. 5, Issue. 4, p. 40.

    Liu, Liang Hu, Qinling Wu, Huihui Xue, Yihong Cai, Liang Fang, Min Liu, Zhiguo Yao, Ping Wu, Yongning and Gong, Zhiyong 2016. Protective role of n6/n3 PUFA supplementation with varying DHA/EPA ratios against atherosclerosis in mice. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, Vol. 32, p. 171.

    Monk, Jennifer M. Liddle, Danyelle M. Cohen, Daniel J.A. Tsang, Denis H. Hillyer, Lyn M. Abdelmagid, Salma A. Nakamura, Manabu T. Power, Krista A. Ma, David W.L. and Robinson, Lindsay E. 2016. The delta 6 desaturase knock out mouse reveals that immunomodulatory effects of essential n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are both independent of and dependent upon conversion. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, Vol. 32, p. 29.

    Roke, Kaitlin Jannas-Vela, Sebastian Spriet, Lawrence L. and Mutch, David M. 2016. FADS2genotype influences whole-body resting fat oxidation in young adult men. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Vol. 41, Issue. 7, p. 791.

    Abdelmagid, Salma A Clarke, Shannon E Roke, Kaitlin Nielsen, Daiva E Badawi, Alaa El-Sohemy, Ahmed Mutch, David M and Ma, David WL 2015. Ethnicity, sex, FADS genetic variation, and hormonal contraceptive use influence delta-5- and delta-6-desaturase indices and plasma docosahexaenoic acid concentration in young Canadian adults: a cross-sectional study. Nutrition & Metabolism, Vol. 12, Issue. 1,

    Calder, Philip 2015. Nutritional Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome.

    Calder, Philip C. 2015. Marine omega-3 fatty acids and inflammatory processes: Effects, mechanisms and clinical relevance. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids, Vol. 1851, Issue. 4, p. 469.

    Fukami, Ako Adachi, Hisashi Hirai, Yuji Enomoto, Mika Otsuka, Maki Kumagai, Eita Nakamura, Sachiko Yoshimura, Ayako Obuchi, Aya Nohara, Yume Nakao, Erika Hori, Kensuke and Fukumoto, Yoshihiro 2015. Association of serum eicosapentaenoic acid to arachidonic acid ratio with microalbuminuria in a population of community-dwelling Japanese. Atherosclerosis, Vol. 239, Issue. 2, p. 577.

    Generoso, Simone de Vasconcelos Rodrigues, Núbia Morais Trindade, Luísa Martins Paiva, Nivea Carolina Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento Carneiro, Cláudia Martins Ferreira, Adaliene Versiani de Matos Faria, Ana Maria Caetano and Maioli, Tatiani Uceli 2015. Dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acid attenuates 5-fluorouracil induced mucositis in mice. Lipids in Health and Disease, Vol. 14, Issue. 1,

    Guichardant, Michel Calzada, Catherine Bernoud-Hubac, Nathalie Lagarde, Michel and Véricel, Evelyne 2015. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and oxygenated metabolism in atherothrombosis. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids, Vol. 1851, Issue. 4, p. 485.

    Liu, Yong Buendía-Rodríguez, Germán Peñuelas-Rívas, Claudia Giovanna Tan, Zhiliang Rívas-Guevara, María Tenorio-Borroto, Esvieta Munteanu, Cristian R. Pazos, Alejandro and González-Díaz, Humberto 2015. Experimental and computational studies of fatty acid distribution networks. Mol. BioSyst., Vol. 11, Issue. 11, p. 2964.

    Salim de Castro, Gabriela Deminice, Rafael Cordeiro Simões-Ambrosio, Livia C. Calder, Philip A. Jordão, Alceu and Vannucchi, Helio 2015. Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid and Eicosapentaenoic Acid Influence Liver Triacylglycerol and Insulin Resistance in Rats Fed a High-Fructose Diet. Marine Drugs, Vol. 13, Issue. 4, p. 1864.

    Tunick, Michael H. Paul, Moushumi Ingham, Elaine R. Karreman, Hubert J. and Van Hekken, Diane L. 2015. Differences in milk characteristics between a cow herd transitioning to organic versus milk from a conventional dairy herd. International Journal of Dairy Technology, Vol. 68, Issue. 4, p. 511.

    Turner, Tyler D. Jensen, Jessica Pilfold, Jessica L. Prema, Dipesh Donkor, Kingsley K. Cinel, Bruno Thompson, Donald J. Dugan, Michael E. R. and Church, John S. 2015. Comparison of fatty acids in beef tissues from conventional, organic and natural feeding systems in western Canada. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, Vol. 95, Issue. 1, p. 49.

    Calder, Philip C. 2014. Very long chain omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids and human health. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, Vol. 116, Issue. 10, p. 1280.

    Childs, Caroline E. and Calder, Philip C. 2014. Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Brain and Neurological Health.

    Childs, Caroline E Kew, Samantha Finnegan, Yvonne E Minihane, Anne M Leigh-Firbank, Elizabeth C Williams, Christine M and Calder, Philip C 2014. Increased dietary α-linolenic acid has sex-specific effects upon eicosapentaenoic acid status in humans: re-examination of data from a randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel study. Nutrition Journal, Vol. 13, Issue. 1,


Dietary α-linolenic acid and health-related outcomes: a metabolic perspective

  • Graham C Burdge (a1) and Philip C Calder (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 14 December 2007

α-Linolenic acid (αLNA; 18: 3n-3) is essential in the human diet, probably because it is the substrate for the synthesis of longer-chain, more unsaturated n-3 fatty acids, principally EPA (20: 5n-3) and DHA (22: 6n-3), which confer important biophysical properties on cell membranes and so are required for tissue function. The extent to which this molecular transformation occurs in man is controversial. The present paper reviews the recent literature on the metabolism of αLNA in man, including the use of dietary αLNA in β-oxidation, recycling of carbon by fatty acid synthesis de novo and conversion to longer-chain PUFA. Sex differences in αLNA metabolism and the possible biological consequences are discussed. Increased consumption of EPA and DHA in fish oil has a number of well-characterised beneficial effects on health. The present paper also reviews the efficacy of increased αLNA consumption in increasing the concentrations of EPA and DHA in blood and cell lipid pools, and the extent to which such dietary interventions might be protective against CVD and inflammation. Although the effects on CVD risk factors and inflammatory markers are variable, where beneficial effects have been reported these are weaker than have been achieved from increasing consumption of EPA+DHA or linoleic acid. Overall, the limited capacity for conversion to longer-chain n-3 fatty acids, and the lack of efficacy in ameliorating CVD risk factors and inflammatory markers in man suggests that increased consumption of αLNA may be of little benefit in altering EPA+DHA status or in improving health outcomes compared with other dietary interventions.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Dietary α-linolenic acid and health-related outcomes: a metabolic perspective
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Dietary α-linolenic acid and health-related outcomes: a metabolic perspective
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Dietary α-linolenic acid and health-related outcomes: a metabolic perspective
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Dr Philip C. Calder, fax +44 2380 594379, email
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

MA Allman-Farinelli , D Hall , K Kingham , D Pang , P Petocz & EJ Favaloro (1999) Comparison of the effects of two low fat diets with different alpha-linolenic:linoleic acid ratios on coagulation and fibrinolysis. Atherosclerosis 142, 159168.

RE Anderson (1970) Lipids of ocular tissues. IV. A comparison of the phospholipids from the retina of six mammalian species. Experimental Eye Research 10, 339344.

BH Arjmandi , DA Khan , S Juma , ML Drum , S Venkatesh , E Sohn , L Wei & R Derman (1998) Whole flaxseed consumption lowers serum LDL-cholesterol and lipoprotein(a) concentrations in postmenopausal women. Nutrition Research 18, 12031214.

A Ascherio , EB Rimm , EL Giovannucci , D Spiegelman , M Stampfer & WC Willett (1996) Dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease in men: cohort follow up study in the United States. BMJ 313, 8490.

P Astorg , N Arnault , S Czernichow , N Noisette , P Galan & S Hercberg (2004) Dietary intakes and food sources of n-6 and n-3 PUFA in French adult men and women. Lipids 39, 527535.

HO Bang , J Dyerberg & N Hjoorne (1976) The composition of food consumed by Greenland Eskimos. Acta Medica Scandinavia 200, 6973.

A Baylin , EK Kabagambe , A Ascherio , D Spiegelman & H Campos (2003) Adipose tissue alpha-linolenic acid and nonfatal acute myocardial infarction in Costa Rica. Circulation 107, 15861591.

WJ Bemelmans , JD Lefrandt , EJ Feskens , PL van Haelst , J Broer , B Meyboom-de Jong , JF May , JW Tervaert & AJ Smit (2004) Increased alpha-linolenic acid intake lowers C-reactive protein, but has no effect on markers of atherosclerosis. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 58, 10831089.

JG Bieri & EL Prival (1965) Lipid composition of testes from various species. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 15, 275282.

HC Bucher , P Hengstler , C Schindler & G Meier (2002) n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids in coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. American Journal of Medicine 112, 298304.

GC Burdge , PR Derrick , JJ Russell , S Tricon , S Kew , T Banerjee , RF Grimble , CM Williams , P Yaqoob & PC Calder (2005) Incorporation of cis-9, trans-11 or trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid into human erythrocytes in vivo. Nutrition Research 25, 1319.

GC Burdge , AN Hunt & AD Postle (1994) Mechanisms of hepatic phosphatidylcholine synthesis in adult rat: effects of pregnancy. Biochemical Journal 303, 941947.

GC Burdge & SA Wootton (2003) Conversion of α-linolenic acid to palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic and oleic acids in men and women. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 69, 283290.

PC Calder (2001) Polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation and immunity. Lipids 36, 10071024.

PC Calder (2002) Dietary modification of inflammation with lipids. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 61, 345358.

PC Calder (2003) n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammation: from molecular biology to the clinic. Lipids 38, 342352.

PC Calder (2004 a) n-3 Fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: evidence explained and mechanisms explored. Clinical Science 107, 111.

PC Calder (2004 b) n-3 Fatty acids, inflammation and immunity – relevance to postsurgical and critically ill patients. Lipids 39, 11471161.

PC Calder (2005) Polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammation. Biochemical Society Transactions 33, 423427.

PC Calder , P Yaqoob , F Thies , FA Wallace & EA Miles (2002) Fatty acids and lymphocyte functions. British Journal of Nutrition 87, S31–S48.

VP Carnielli , DJ Wattimena , IH Luijendijk , A Boerlage , HJ Degenhart & PJ Sauer (1996) The very-low-birth-weight premature infant is capable of synthesizing arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid from linolenic and linolenic acid. Pediatric Research 40, 169174.

JK Chan , BE McDonald , JM Gerrard , VM Bruce , BJ Weaver & BJ Holub (1993) Effect of dietary alpha-linolenic acid and its ratio to linoleic acid on platelet and plasma fatty acids and thrombogenesis. Lipids 28, 811817.

MC Chang , JM Bell , AD Purdon , EG Chikhale & E Grange (1999) Dynamics of docosahexaenoic acid metabolism in the central nervous system: lack of effect of chronic lithium treatment. Neurochemistry Research 24, 399406.

JPF Chin , A Gust , PJ Nestel & AM Dart (1993) Fish oils dose-dependently inhibit vasoconstriction of forearm resistance vessels in humans. Hypertension 21, 2228.

HP Cho , M Nakamura & SD Clarke (1999) Cloning, expression, and fatty acid regulation of the human delta-5 desaturase. Journal of Biological Chemistry 274, 3733537339.

JH Christensen , P Gustenhoff , E Korup , J Aaroe , E Toft , J Moller , K Rasmussen , J Dyerberg & EB Schmidt (1996) Effect of fish oil on heart rate variability in survivors of myocardial infarction: a double blind randomised controlled trial. BMJ 312, 677678.

JH Christensen , HA Skou , L Fog , V Hansen , T Vesterlund , J Dyerberg , E Toft & EB Schmidt (2001) Marine n-3 fatty acids, wine intake, and heart rate variability in patients referred for coronary angiography. Circulation 103, 651657.

MT Clandinin , JE Chappell , T Heim , PR Swyer & GW Chance (1981) Fatty acid utilization in perinatal de novo synthesis of tissues. Early Human Development 5, 355366.

P Clouet , I Niot & J Bezard (1989) Pathway of alpha-linolenic acid through the mitochondrial outer membrane in the rat liver and influence on the rate of oxidation. Comparison with linoleic and oleic acids. Biochemical Journal 263, 867873.

HR Correia , SC Balseiro , ER Correia , PG Mota & ML de Areia (2004) Why are human newborns so fat? Relationship between fatness and brain size at birth. American Journal of Human Biology 16, 2430.

SC Cunnane , MA Ryan , CR Nadeau , RP Bazinet , K Musa-Veloso & U McCloy (2003) Why is carbon from some polyunsaturates extensively recycled in lipid synthesis? Lipids 38, 477484.

SC Cunnane , SC Williams , JD Bell , S Brookes , K Craig , RA Iles & MA Crawford (1994) Utilization of uniformly labeled 13C-polyunsaturated fatty acids in the synthesis of long-chain fatty acids and cholesterol accumulating in the neonatal rat brain. Journal of Neurochemistry 62, 24292436.

S D'andrea , H Guillou , S Jan , D Catheline , JN Thibault , M Bouriel , V Rioux & P Legrand (2002) The same rat Δ6-desaturase not only acts on 18- but also on 24-carbon fatty acids in very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. Biochemical Journal 364, 4955.

RJ de Antueno , LC Knickle , H Smith , ML Elliot , SJ Allen , S Nwaka & MD Winther (2001) Activity of human Δ5 and Δ6 desaturases on multiple n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. FEBS Letters 509, 7780.

IN de Gomez Dumm & RR Brenner (1975) Oxidative desaturation of alpha-linoleic, linoleic, and stearic acids by human liver microsomes. Lipids 10, 315317.

M de Lorgeril , S Renaud , N Mamelle , P Salen , JL Martin , I Monjaud , J Guidollet , P Touboul & J Delaye (1994) Mediterranean alpha-linolenic acid-rich diet in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Lancet 343, 14541459.

L Djousse , DK Arnett , JJ Carr , JH Eckfeldt , PN Hopkins , MA Province & RC Ellison (2005) Investigators of the NHLBI FHS Dietary linolenic acid is inversely associated with calcified atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary arteries: the National Heart. Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study. Circulation 111, 29212926.

TA Dolecek (1992) Epidemiological evidence of relationships between dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and mortality in the multiple risk factor intervention trial. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 200, 177182.

EA Emken (2001) Stable isotope approaches, applications and issues related to polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism studies. Lipids 36, 965973.

EA Emken , RO Adlof , SM Duval & GJ Nelson (1999) Effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid on desaturation and uptake in vivo of isotope-labeled oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids by male subjects. Lipids 34, 785798.

EA Emken , RO Adlof & RM Gulley (1994) Dietary linoleic acid influences desaturation and acylation of deuterium-labeled linoleic and linolenic acids in young adult males. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1213, 277288.

K Evans , GC Burdge , SA Wootton , ML Clark & KN Frayn (2002) Regulation of dietary fatty acid entrapment in subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Diabetes 51, 26842690.

O Ezaki , M Takahashi , T Shigematsu , K Shimamura , J Kimura , H Ezaki & T Gotoh . (1999) Long-term effects of dietary alpha-linolenic acid from perilla oil on serum fatty acids composition and on the risk factors of coronary heart disease in Japanese elderly subjects. Journal of Nutrition Science Vitaminology (Tokyo) 45, 759772.

JD Fernstrom (1999) Effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids on neuronal function. Lipids 34, 161169.

L Ge , JS Gordon , C Hsuan , K Stenn & SM Prouty (2003) Identification of the delta-6 desaturase of human sebaceous glands: expression and enzyme activity. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 120, 707714.

JM Geleijnse , EJ Giltay , DE Grobbee , AR Donders & FJ Kok (2002) Blood pressure response to fish oil supplementation: metaregression analysis of randomized trials. Journal of Hypertension 20, 14931499.

A Gibbons (2002 a) American Association of Physical Anthropologists meeting. Humans' head start: new views of brain evolution. Science 296, 835837.

A Gibbons (2002 b) Becoming human. In search of the first hominids. Science 295, 12141219.

EJ Giltay , EJ Duschek , MB Katan , PL Zock , SJ Neele & JC Netelenbos (2004 a) Raloxifene and hormone replacement therapy increase arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid levels in postmenopausal women. Journal of Endocrinology 182, 399408.

GK Goode , S Garcia & AM Heagerty (1997) Dietary supplementation with marine fish oil improves in vitro small artery endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic patients: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Circulation 96, 28022807.

PL Goyens , ME Spilker , PL Zock , MB Katan & RP Mensink (2005) Development of a compartmental model to quantify alpha-linolenic acid conversion after longer-term intake of multiple tracer boluses. Journal of Lipid Research 46, 14741483.

JG Hacia (2001) Genome of the apes. Trends in Genetics 17, 637645.

SD Harmon , TL Kaduce , TD Manuel & AA Spector (2003) Effect of Δ6-desaturase inhibitor SC-26196 on PUFA metabolism in human cells. Lipids 38, 469476.

WS Harris (1996) n-3 Fatty acids and lipoproteins: comparison of results from human and animal studies. Lipids 31, 243252.

K He , EB Rimm , A Merchant , BA Rosner , MJ Stampfer , WC Willett & A Ascherio (2004) Fish consumption and risk of stroke in men. JAMA 288, 31303136.

DA Healy , FA Wallace , EA Miles , PC Calder & P Newsholm (2000) Effect of low-to-moderate amounts of dietary fish oil on neutrophil lipid composition and function. Lipids 35, 763768.

RB Heath , F Karpe , RW Milne , GC Burdge , SA Wootton & KN Frayn (2003) Selective partitioning of dietary fatty acids into the VLDL TG pool in the early postprandial period. Journal of Lipid Research 44, 20652072.

KFAM Hulshof , MA van Erp-Baart , M Anttolainen , W Becker , SM Church , C Couet , E Hermann-Kunz , H Kesteloot , T Leth , I Martins , O Moreiras , J Moschandreas , (1999) Intake of fatty acids in Western Europe with emphasis on trans fatty acids: the TRANSFAIR Study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53, 143157.

N Hussein , E Ah-Sing , P Wilkinson , C Leach , BA Griffin & DJ Millward (2005) Relative rates of long chain conversion of 13C linoleic and α-linolenic acid in response to marked changes in their dietary intake in male adults. Journal of Lipid Research 46, 269280.

BG Jeffrey , HS Weisinger , M Neuringer & DC Mitchell (2001) The role of docosahexaenoic acid in retinal function. Lipids 36, 859871.

A Kaminskas , B Zieden , B Elving , M Kristenson , A Abaravicius , B Bergdahl , AG Olsson & Z Kucinskiene (1999) Adipose tissue fatty acids in men from two populations with different cardiovascular risk: the LiVicordia study. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical Laboratory Investigation 59, 227232.

HM Karvonen , A Aro , NS Tapola , I Salminen , MIJ Uusitupa & ES Sarkkinen (2002) Effect of alpha-linolenic acid-rich Camelina sativa oil on serum fatty acid composition and serum lipids in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Metabolism – Clinical and Experimental 51, 12531260.

DS Kelley , GJ Nelson , JE Love , LB Branch , PC Taylor , PC Schmidt , BE Mackey & JM Iacono (1993) Dietary alpha-linolenic acid alters tissue fatty acid composition, but not blood lipids, lipoproteins or coagulation status in humans. Lipids 28, 533537.

HR Knapp , IA Reilly , P Alessandrini & GA FitzGerald (1986) In vivo indexes of platelet and vascular function during fish-oil administration in patients with atherosclerosis. New England Journal of Medicine 314, 937942.

PM Kris-Etherton , WS Harris & LJ Appel (2002) Fish consumption, fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular disease. Circulation 106, 27472757.

N Kromann & A Green (1980) Epidemiological studies in the Upernavik district, Greenland. Incidence of some chronic diseases 1950–1974. Acta Medica Scandanavia 208, 401406.

WE Lands (2003) Diets could prevent many diseases. Lipids 38, 317321.

L Lauritzen , HS Hansen , MH Jorgensen & KF Michaelsen (2001) The essentiality of long chain n-3 fatty acids in relation to development and function of the brain and retina. Progress in Lipid Research 40, 194.

Z Li , ML Kaplan & DL Hachey (2000) Hepatic microsomal and peroxisomal docosahexaenoate biosynthesis during piglet development. Lipids 35, 13251333.

AH Lichtenstein , LM Ausman , W Carrasco , JL Jenner , LJ Gualtieri , BR Goldin , JM Ordovas & EJ Schaefer (1993) Effects of canola, corn, and olive oils on fasting and postprandial plasma lipoproteins in humans as part of a National Cholesterol Education Program Step 2 diet. Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis 13, 15331542.

V Macaulay , C Hill , A Achilli , C Rengo , D Clarke , W Meehan , J Blackburn , O Semino , R Scozzari , F Cruciani , A Taha , NK Shaari , (2005) Single, rapid coastal settlement of Asia revealed by analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes. Science 308, 10341036.

U McCloy , MA Ryan , PB Pencharz , RJ Ross & SCA Cunnane (2004) Comparison of the metabolism of eighteen-carbon 13C-unsaturated fatty acids in healthy women. Journal of Lipid Research 45, 474485.

GE McVeigh , GM Brennan , JN Cohn , SM Finkelstein , RJ Hayes & GD Johnston (1994) Fish oil improves arterial compliance in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis 14, 14251429.

M Martinez (2000) The fundamentals and practice of docosahexaenoic acid therapy in peroxisomal disorders. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 3, 101108.

I Marzo , MA Alava , A Pineiro & J Naval (1996) Biosynthesis of docosahexaenoic acid in human cells: evidence that two different delta 6-desaturase activities may exist. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1301, 263272.

I Marzo , MJ Martinez-Lorenzo , A Anel , P Desportes , MA Alava , J Naval & A Pineiro (1995) Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids in the main cell lineages of human leukemia and lymphoma. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1257, 140148.

DC Mitchell , SL Niu & BJ Litman . (2003) Enhancement of G protein-coupled signalling by DHA phospholipids. Lipids 38, 437443.

P Needleman , A Wyche & A Raz (1979) Platelet and blood vessel arachidonate metabolism and interactions. Journal of Clinical Investigation 63, 345349.

PJ Nestel , SE Pomeroy , T Sasahara , T Yamashita , YL Liang , AM Dart , GL Jennings , M Abbey & JD Cameron (1997) Arterial compliance in obese subjects is improved with dietary plant n-3 fatty acid from flaxseed oil despite increased LDL oxidizability. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 17, 11631170.

M Neuringer , WE Connor , DS Lin , L Barstad & S Luck (1986) Biochemical and functional effects of prenatal and postnatal omega 3 fatty acid deficiency on retina and brain in rhesus monkeys. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 83, 40214025.

WP Newman , JP Middaugh , MT Propst & DR Rogers (1993) Atherosclerosis in Alaska natives and non-natives. Lancet 341, 10561057.

TE Ollis , BJ Meyer & PR Howe (1999) Australian food sources and intakes of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 43, 346355.

UB Ottosson , A Lagrelius , U Rosing & B von Schoultz (1984) Relative fatty acids composition of lecithin during postmenopausal replacement therapy – a comparison between ethinyl estradiol and estradiol valerate. Gynaecologic and Obstetric Investigation 18, 296302.

P Pietinen , A Ascherio , P Korhonen , AM Hartman , WC Willett , D Albanes & J Virtamo (1997) Intake of fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease in a cohort of Finnish men. The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. American Journal of Epidemiology 145, 876887.

T Pischon , SE Hankinson , GS Hotamisligil , N Rifai , WC Willett & EB Rimm (2003) Habitual dietary intake of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in relation to inflammatory markers among US men and women. Circulation 108, 155160.

J-P Poisson , R-P Dupuy , P Sarda , B Descomps , M Narce , D Rieu & A Crastes de Paulet (1993) Evidence that liver microsomes of human neonates desaturate essential fatty acids. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1167, 109113.

CM Poissonnet , AR Burdi & SM Garn (1984) The chronology of adipose tissue appearance and distribution in the human fetus. Early Human Development 10, 111.

AD Postle , MDM Al , GC Burdge & G Hornstra (1995) The composition of individual molecular species of plasma phosphatidylcholine in human pregnancy. Early Human Development 43, 4758.

LS Rallidis , G Paschos , GK Liakos , AH Velissaridou , G Anastasiadis & A Zampelas (2003) Dietary alpha-linolenic acid decreases C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A and interleukin-6 in dyslipidaemic patients. Atherosclerosis 167, 237242.

LS Rallidis , G Paschos , ML Papaioannou , GK Liakos , DB Panagiotakos , G Anastasiadis & A Zampelas (2004) The effect of diet enriched with alpha-linolenic acid on soluble cellular adhesion molecules in dyslipidaemic patients. Atherosclerosis 174, 127132.

HM Roche & MJ Gibney (1999) Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and triacylglycerol metabolism in the postprandial state. Lipids 34, Suppl., S259–S265.

N Salem , R Powlosky , B Wegher & J Hibbeln (1999) In vivo conversion of linoleic acid to arachidonic acid in human adults. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 60, 407410.

N Salem , B Wegher , P Mena & R Uauy (1996) Arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids are biosynthesized from their 18-carbon precursors in human infants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 93, 4954.

TA Sanders & F Roshanai . (1983) The influence of different types of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on blood lipids and platelet function in healthy volunteers. Clinical Science (London) 64, 9199.

TA Sanders , M Vickers & AP Haines . (1981) Effect on blood lipids and haemostasis of a supplement of cod-liver oil, rich in eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, in healthy young men. Clinical Science (London) 61, 317324.

R Schrepf , T Limmert , P Claus Weber , K Theisen & A Sellmayer (2004) Immediate effects of n-3 fatty acid infusion on the induction of sustained ventricular tachycardia. Lancet 363, 14411442.

JA Simon , J Fong , JT Bernert & WS Browner (1995) Serum fatty acids and the risk of stroke. Stroke 26, 778782.

AP Simopoulos (2001) n-3 Fatty acids and human health: defining strategies for public policy. Lipids 36, S83–S89.

AJ Sinclair , NM Attar-Bashi & D Li (2000) What is the role of α-linolenic acid for mammals? Lipids 37, 11131123.

P Singer , I Berger , M Wirth , W Godicke & W Jaeger , S Voigt (1986) Slow desaturation and elongation of linoleic and α-linolenic acids as rationale of eicosapentaenoic acid-rich diet to lower blood pressure and serum lipids in normal, hypertensive and hyperlipidemic subjects. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Medicine 24, 173193.

E Sodergren , IB Gustafsson , S Basu , J Nourooz-Zadeh , C Nalsen , A Turpeinen , L Berglund & B Vessby (2001) A diet containing rapeseed oil-based fats does not increase lipid peroxidation in humans when compared to a diet rich in saturated fatty acids. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 55, 922931.

H Sprecher (2002) The roles of anabolic and catabolic reactions in the synthesis and recycling of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 67, 7983.

H Tagawa , H Shimokawa , T Tagawa , M Kuroiwa-Matsumoto , Y Hirooka & A Takeshita (1999) Long-term treatment with eicosapentaenoic acid augments both nitric oxide-mediated and non-nitric oxide-mediated endothelium-dependent forearm vasodilatation in patients with coronary artery disease. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 33, 633640.

AB Tang , KY Nishimura & SD Phinney (1993) Preferential reduction in adipose tissue alpha-linolenic acid (18:3 omega 3) during very low calorie dieting despite supplementation with 18:3 omega 3. Lipids 28, 987993.

C Tang , HP Cho , MT Nakamura & SD Clarke (2003) Regulation of human (Δ-6 desaturase gene transcription: identification of a functional direct repeat-1 element. Journal of Lipid Research 44, 686695.

F Thies , EA Miles , G Nebe-von-Caron , JR Powell , TL Hurst , EA Newsholme & PC Calder (2001 a) Influence of dietary supplementation with long chain n-3 or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on blood inflammatory cell populations and functions and on plasma soluble adhesion molecules in healthy adults. Lipids 36, 11831193.

SL Tilley , TM Coffman & BH Koller (2001) Mixed messages: modulation of inflammation and immune responses by prostaglandins and thromboxanes. Journal of Clinical Investigation 108, 1523.

SHF Vermunt , RP Mensink , AMG Simonis & G Hornstra (2000) Effects of dietary α-linolenic acid on the conversion and oxidation of [13C]-α-linolenic acid. Lipids 35, 137142.

C von Schacky , S Fischer & PC Weber (1985) Long-term effects of dietary marine omega-3 fatty acids upon plasma and cellular lipids, platelet function, and eicosanoid formation in humans. Journal of Clinical Investigation 76, 16261631.

RD Wiegand , CA Koutz , AM Stinson & RE Anderson (1991) Conservation of docosahexaenoic acid in rod outer segments of rat retina during n-3 and n-6 fatty acid deficiency. Journal of Neurochemistry 57, 16901699.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Nutrition Research Reviews
  • ISSN: 0954-4224
  • EISSN: 1475-2700
  • URL: /core/journals/nutrition-research-reviews
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *