This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
1SN Bleich , YC Wang , Y Wang , et al. (2009) Increasing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages among US adults: 1988-1994 to 1999-2004. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 372–381.
2KJ Duffey & BM Popkin (2012) Shifts in patterns and consumption of beverages between 1965 and 2002. Obesity 15, 2739–2747.
3SJ Nielsen & BM Popkin (2004) Changes in beverage intake between 1977 and 2001. Am J Prev Med 27, 205–210.
4BM Popkin & SJ Nielsen (2012) The sweetening of the world's diet. Obes Res 11, 1325–1332.
5SJ Nielsen , AM Siega-Riz & BM Popkin (2012) Trends in energy intake in US between 1977 and 1996: similar shifts seen across age groups. Obes Res 10, 370–378.
6ML Storey , RA Forshee & PA Anderson (2006) Beverage consumption in the US population. J Am Diet Assoc 106, 1992–2000.
7YC Wang , SL Gortmaker , AM Sobol , et al. (2006) Estimating the energy gap among US children: a counterfactual approach. Pediatrics 118, e1721–e1733.
9LR Young & M Nestle (2003) Expanding portion sizes in the US marketplace: implications for nutrition counseling. J Am Diet Assoc 103, 231–234.
10YC Wang , SN Bleich & SL Gortmaker (2008) Increasing caloric contribution from sugar-sweetened beverages and 100% fruit juices among US children and adolescents, 1988-2004. Pediatrics 121, e1604–e1614.
11JA Welsh , AJ Sharma , L Grellinger , et al. (2011) Consumption of added sugars is decreasing in the United States. Am J Clin Nutr 94, 726–734.
13CL Ogden , MD Carroll , BK Kit , et al. (2012) Prevalence of obesity and trends in body mass index among US children and adolescents, 1999-2010. JAMA 307, 483–490.
17FB Hu & VS Malik (2010) Sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes: epidemiologic evidence. Physiol Behav 100, 47–54.
18GL Ambrosini , WH Oddy , RC Huang , et al. (2013) Prospective associations between sugar-sweetened beverage intakes and cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr 98, 327–334.
19C Agostoni , JL Bresson , S Fairweather-Tait , et al. (2010) Scientific opinion on dietary reference values for carbohydrates and dietary fibre. EFSA J 8, 1462–1539.
20K Kaiser , J Shikany , K Keating , et al. (2013) Will reducing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption reduce obesity? Evidence supporting conjecture is strong, but evidence when testing effect is weak. Obes Rev 14, 620–633.
22RH Lustig , LA Schmidt & CD Brindis (2012) Public health: the toxic truth about sugar. Nature 482, 27–29.
23RH Lustig (2010) Fructose: metabolic, hedonic, and societal parallels with ethanol. J Am Diet Assoc 110, 1307–1321.
24RJ Johnson , MA Lanaspa & LG Sanchez-lozada (2012) Effects of excessive fructose intake on health. Ann Intern Med 156, 905–906.
25KJ Melanson , TJ Angelopoulos , V Nguyen , et al. (2008) High-fructose corn syrup, energy intake, and appetite regulation. Am J Clin Nutr 88, 1738S–1744S.
26S Perez-Pozo , J Schold , T Nakagawa , et al. (2009) Excessive fructose intake induces the features of metabolic syndrome in healthy adult men: role of uric acid in the hypertensive response. Int J Obes 34, 454–461.
27SW Rizkalla (2010) Health implications of fructose consumption: a review of recent data. Nutr Metab (Lond) 7, 82.
28GA Bray (2008) Fructose: should we worry? Int J Obes 32, S127–S131.
30GA Bray (2012) Fructose and risk of cardiometabolic disease. Curr Atheroscler Rep 14, 570–578.
31GA Bray (2013) Potential health risks from beverages containing fructose found in sugar or high-fructose corn syrup. Diabetes Care 36, 11–12.
32GA Bray , SJ Nielsen & BM Popkin (2004) Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 79, 537–543.
33C Brown , A Dulloo & J Montani (2008) Sugary drinks in the pathogenesis of obesity and cardiovascular diseases. Int J Obes 32, S28–S34.
34IJ Brown , J Stamler , L Van Horn , et al. (2011) Sugar-sweetened beverage, sugar intake of individuals, and their blood pressure: International Study of Macro/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure. Hypertension 57, 695–701.
35VS Malik & FB Hu (2012) Sweeteners and risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes: the role of sugar-sweetened beverages. Curr Diab Rep 12, 195–203.
36BM Popkin (2012) Sugary beverages represent a threat to global health. Trends Endocrinol Metab 23, 591–593.
37DM Klurfeld (2013) What do government agencies consider in the debate over added sugars? Adv Nutr 4, 257–261.
38B Elbel , J Cantor & T Mijanovich (2012) Potential effect of the New York City policy regarding sugared beverages. N Engl J Med 367, 680–681.
39S Caprio (2012) Calories from soft drinks - do they matter? N Engl J Med 367, 1462–1463.
40Anonymous (2012) Regulation of sugar-sweetened beverages. N Engl J Med 367, 1464–1466.
41C Chaufan , GH Hong & P Fox (2009) Taxing “sin foods” - obesity prevention and public health policy. N Engl J Med 361, e113.
42JL Pomeranz & KD Brownell (2012) Portion sizes and beyond - government's legal authority to regulate food-industry practices. N Engl J Med 367, 1383–1385.
43DA Cohen & SH Babey (2012) Candy at the cash register - a risk factor for obesity and chronic disease. N Engl J Med 367, 1381–1383.
44DR Just & CR Payne (2009) Obesity: can behavioral economics help? Ann Behav Med 38, 47–55.
46JS White (2008) Straight talk about high-fructose corn syrup: what it is and what it ain't. Am J Clin Nutr 88, 1716S–1721S.
47K-A Lê & L Tappy (2006) Metabolic effects of fructose. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 9, 469–475.
48S Bogdanov , T Jurendic , R Sieber , et al. (2008) Honey for nutrition and health: a review. J Am Coll Nutr 27, 677–689.
49K Casazza , KR Fontaine , A Astrup , et al. (2013) Myths, presumptions, and facts about obesity. N Engl J Med 368, 446–454.
50C Agostoni , JL Bresson , S Fairweather-Tait , et al. (2011) Scientific opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to fructose and reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses (ID 558) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) no 1924/2006. EFSA J 9, 2223–2238.
51JP Bantle , DC Laine , GW Castle , et al. (1983) Postprandial glucose and insulin responses to meals containing different carbohydrates in normal and diabetic subjects. N Engl J Med 309, 7–12.
52PA Crapo , OG Kolterman & JM Olefsky (1980) Effects of oral fructose in normal, diabetic, and impaired glucose tolerance subjects. Diabetes Care 3, 575–581.
53KL Stanhope & PJ Havel (2008) Endocrine and metabolic effects of consuming beverages sweetened with fructose, glucose, sucrose, or high-fructose corn syrup. Am J Clin Nutr 88, 1733S–1737S.
54KL Stanhope , JM Schwarz , NL Keim , et al. (2009) Consuming fructose-sweetened, not glucose-sweetened, beverages increases visceral adiposity and lipids and decreases insulin sensitivity in overweight/obese humans. J Clin Invest 119, 1322–1324.
55KL Stanhope & PJ Havel (2010) Fructose consumption: recent results and their potential implications. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1190, 15–24.
56L Tappy & K-A Lê (2010) Metabolic effects of fructose and the worldwide increase in obesity. Physiol Rev 90, 23–46.
57TJ Vasankari & TM Vasankari (2006) Effect of dietary fructose on lipid metabolism, body weight and glucose tolerance in humans. Food Nutr Res 50, 55–63.
58SM Grundy (1998) Multifactorial causation of obesity: implications for prevention. Am J Clin Nutr 67, 563S–572S.
59M Martinez-Gonzalez , J Alfredo Martinez , F Hu , et al. (1999) Physical inactivity, sedentary lifestyle and obesity in the European Union. Int J Obes 23, 1192–1201.
60SJ Torres & CA Nowson (2007) Relationship between stress, eating behavior, and obesity. Nutrition 23, 887–894.
61J Sobal & AJ Stunkard (1989) Socioeconomic status and obesity: a review of the literature. Psychol Bull 105, 260–275.
62JC de Ruyter , MR Olthof , JC Seidell , et al. (2012) A trial of sugar-free or sugar-sweetened beverages and body weight in children. N Engl J Med 367, 1397–1406.
63CB Ebbeling , HA Feldman , VR Chomitz , et al. (2012) A randomized trial of sugar-sweetened beverages and adolescent body weight. N Engl J Med 367, 1407–1416.
65O Allais , P Bertail & V Nichèle (2010) The effects of a fat tax on French households' purchases: a nutritional approach. Am J Agric Econ 92, 228–245.
66AR Gaby (2005) Adverse effects of dietary fructose. Altern Med Rev 10, 294.
68PJ Havel (2008) Dietary fructose: implications for dysregulation of energy homeostasis and lipid/carbohydrate metabolism. Nutr Rev 63, 133–157.
69J Hallfrisch (1990) Metabolic effects of dietary fructose. FASEB J 4, 2652–2660.
70MB Vos , JE Kimmons , C Gillespie , et al. (2008) Dietary fructose consumption among US children and adults: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Medscape J Med 10, 160.
72I Shimomura , M Matsuda , RE Hammer , et al. (2000) Decreased IRS-2 and increased SREBP-1c lead to mixed insulin resistance and sensitivity in livers of lipodystrophic and ob/ob mice. Mol Cell 6, 77–86.
73SW Rizkalla , J Luo , I Guilhem , et al. (1992) Comparative effects of 6 week fructose, dextrose and starch feeding on fat-cell lipolysis in normal rats: effects of isoproterenol, theophylline and insulin. Mol Cell Biochem 109, 127–132.
74PJ Havel (1997) Glucose but not fructose infusion increases circulating leptin in proportion to adipose stores in rhesus monkeys. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 105, 37–38.
75P Puigserver & BM Spiegelman (2003) Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α): transcriptional coactivator and metabolic regulator. Endocr Rev 24, 78–90.
76RM McDevitt , SJ Bott , M Harding , et al. (2001) De novo lipogenesis during controlled overfeeding with sucrose or glucose in lean and obese women. Am J Clin Nutr 74, 737–746.
77KL Teff , J Grudziak , RR Townsend , et al. (2009) Endocrine and metabolic effects of consuming fructose- and glucose-sweetened beverages with meals in obese men and women: influence of insulin resistance on plasma triglyceride responses. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94, 1562–1569.
78H Vuorinen-Markkola & H Yki-Järvinen (1994) Hyperuricemia and insulin resistance. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 78, 25–29.
80MA Lanaspa , LG Sanchez-Lozada , C Cicerchi , et al. (2012) Uric acid stimulates fructokinase and accelerates fructose metabolism in the development of fatty liver. PLOS ONE 7, e47948.
81MF Abdelmalek , A Suzuki , C Guy , et al. (2010) Increased fructose consumption is associated with fibrosis severity in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Hepatology 51, 1961–1971.
82N Togashi , N Ura , K Higashiura , et al. (2000) The contribution of skeletal muscle tumor necrosis factor-α to insulin resistance and hypertension in fructose-fed rats. J Hypertens 18, 1605–1610.
84NE Babsky , JL Toribio & JE Lozano (1986) Influence of storage on the composition of clarified apple juice concentrate. J Food Sci 51, 564–567.
85EE Ventura , JN Davis & MI Goran (2010) Sugar content of popular sweetened beverages based on objective laboratory analysis: focus on fructose content. Obesity 19, 868–874.
86TT Fung , V Malik , KM Rexrode , et al. (2009) Sweetened beverage consumption and risk of coronary heart disease in women. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 1037–1042.
87L Chen , B Caballero , DC Mitchell , et al. (2010) Reducing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with reduced blood pressure a prospective study among United States adults. Circulation 121, 2398–2406.
88R Dhingra , L Sullivan , PF Jacques , et al. (2007) Soft drink consumption and risk of developing cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged adults in the community. Circulation 116, 480–488.
89KA Meyer , LH Kushi , DR Jacobs , et al. (2000) Carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and incident type 2 diabetes in older women. Am J Clin Nutr 71, 921–930.
90S-J Janket , JE Manson , H Sesso , et al. (2003) A prospective study of sugar intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Diabetes Care 26, 1008–1015.
91MF Abdelmalek , M Lazo , A Horska , et al. (2012) Higher dietary fructose is associated with impaired hepatic adenosine triphosphate homeostasis in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. Hepatology 56, 952–960.
92NP Paynter , H-C Yeh , S Voutilainen , et al. (2006) Coffee and sweetened beverage consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Epidemiol 164, 1075–1084.
93RA Forshee , PA Anderson & ML Storey (2008) Sugar-sweetened beverages and body mass index in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 1662–1671.
94KJ Duffey & BM Popkin (2008) High-fructose corn syrup: is this what's for dinner? Am J Clin Nutr 88, 1722S–1732S.
95L de Koning , VS Malik , EB Rimm , et al. (2011) Sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverage consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in men. Am J Clin Nutr 93, 1321–1327.
96MI Goran , SJ Ulijaszek & EE Ventura (2012) High fructose corn syrup and diabetes prevalence: a global perspective. Glob Public Health 8, 55–64.
97Z Kmietowicz (2012) Countries that use large amounts of high fructose corn syrup have higher rates of type 2 diabetes. BMJ 345, e7994.
100S Basu , P Yoffe , N Hills , et al. (2013) The relationship of sugar to population-level diabetes prevalence: an econometric analysis of repeated cross-sectional data. PLOS ONE 8, e57873.
103K-A Lê , M Ith , R Kreis , et al. (2009) Fructose overconsumption causes dyslipidemia and ectopic lipid deposition in healthy subjects with and without a family history of type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 1760–1765.
104D Faeh , K Minehira , J-M Schwarz , et al. (2005) Effect of fructose overfeeding and fish oil administration on hepatic de novo lipogenesis and insulin sensitivity in healthy men. Diabetes 54, 1907–1913.
105NM Hamburg , CJ McMackin , AL Huang , et al. (2007) Physical inactivity rapidly induces insulin resistance and microvascular dysfunction in healthy volunteers. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 27, 2650–2656.
106L Egli , V Lecoultre , F Theytaz , et al. (2013) Exercise prevents fructose-induced hypertriglyceridemia in healthy young subjects. Diabetes 62, 2259–2265.
107C Koutsari , F Karpe , SM Humphreys , et al. (2001) Exercise prevents the accumulation of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and their remnants seen when changing to a high-carbohydrate diet. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 21, 1520–1525.
108SS Elliott , NL Keim , JS Stern , et al. (2002) Fructose, weight gain, and the insulin resistance syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 911–922.
109JP Bantle , SK Raatz , W Thomas , et al. (2000) Effects of dietary fructose on plasma lipids in healthy subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 72, 1128–1134.
110C Couchepin , K-A Lê , M Bortolotti , et al. (2008) Markedly blunted metabolic effects of fructose in healthy young female subjects compared with male subjects. Diabetes Care 31, 1254–1256.
111C Tran , D Jacot-Descombes , V Lecoultre , et al. (2010) Sex differences in lipid and glucose kinetics after ingestion of an acute oral fructose load. Br J Nutr 104, 1139–1147.
113SE Lakhan (2013) Kirchgessner A The emerging role of dietary fructose in obesity and cognitive decline. Nutr J 12, 114.
114D Klurfeld , J Foreyt , T Angelopoulos , et al. (2013) Lack of evidence for high fructose corn syrup as the cause of the obesity epidemic. Int J Obes 37, 771–773.
115DP DiMeglio & RD Mattes (2000) Liquid versus solid carbohydrate: effects on food intake and body weight. Int J Obes 24, 794–800.
116KJ Melanson , L Zukley , J Lowndes , et al. (2007) Effects of high-fructose corn syrup and sucrose consumption on circulating glucose, insulin, leptin, and ghrelin and on appetite in normal-weight women. Nutrition 23, 103–112.
117M Mærsk , A Belza , JJ Holst , et al. (2012) Satiety scores and satiety hormone response after sucrose-sweetened soft drink compared with isocaloric semi-skimmed milk and with non-caloric soft drink: a controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr 66, 523–529.
121JA Welsh , A Sharma , SA Cunningham , et al. (2011) Consumption of added sugars and indicators of cardiovascular disease risk among US adolescents: clinical perspective. Circulation 123, 249–257.
123J Rodin , D Reed & L Jamner (1988) Metabolic effects of fructose and glucose: implications for food intake. Am J Clin Nutr 47, 683–689.
124L Te Morenga , S Mallard & J Mann (2013) Dietary sugars and body weight: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials and cohort studies. BMJ 346, e7492.
125TH Moran (2009) Fructose and satiety. J Nutr 139, 1253S–1256S.
126JL Sievenpiper , RJ de Souza & DJ Jenkins (2012) Sugar: fruit fructose is still healthy. Nature 482, 470.
127J Slavin (2012) Beverages and body weight: challenges in the evidence-based review process of the Carbohydrate Subcommittee from the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee. Nutr Rev 70, S111–S120.
128KA Page , O Chan , J Arora , et al. (2013) Effects of fructose vs glucose on regional cerebral blood flow in brain regions involved with appetite and reward pathways fructose consumption and weight gain. JAMA 309, 63–70.
130MK Hellerstein , J-M Schwarz & RA Neese (1996) Regulation of hepatic de novo lipogenesis in humans. Annu Rev Nutr 16, 523–557.
132SZ Sun & MW Empie (2012) Fructose metabolism in humans - what isotopic tracer studies tell us. Nutr Metab 9, 89.
133RJ Johnson , SE Perez-Pozo , YY Sautin , et al. (2009) Hypothesis: could excessive fructose intake and uric acid cause type 2 diabetes? Endocr Rev 30, 96–116.
134DI Feig , D-H Kang & RJ Johnson (2008) Uric acid and cardiovascular risk. N Engl J Med 359, 1811–1821.
135LG Sánchez-Lozada , W Mu , C Roncal , et al. (2010) Comparison of free fructose and glucose to sucrose in the ability to cause fatty liver. Eur J Nutr 49, 1–9.
136R Oberhaensli , D Taylor , B Rajagopalan , et al. (1987) Study of hereditary fructose intolerance by use of 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Lancet 330, 931–934.
137V Lecoultre , L Egli , F Theytaz , et al. (2013) Fructose-induced hyperuricemia is associated with a decreased renal uric acid excretion in humans. Diabetes Care 36, e149–e150.
138W Lin , H Huang , M Huang , et al. (2012) Effects on uric acid, body mass index and blood pressure in adolescents of consuming beverages sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup. Int J Obes 37, 532–539.
139KW Dodd , PM Guenther , LS Freedman , et al. (2006) Statistical methods for estimating usual intake of nutrients and foods: a review of the theory. J Am Diet Assoc 106, 1640–1650.
140TJ Angelopoulos , J Lowndes , L Zukley , et al. (2009) The effect of high-fructose corn syrup consumption on triglycerides and uric acid. J Nutr 139, 1242S–1245S.
142B Buemann , S Toubro , JJ Holst , et al. (2000) d-Tagatose, a stereoisomer of d-fructose, increases blood uric acid concentration. Metabolism 49, 969–976.
143DD Wang , JL Sievenpiper , RJ de Souza , et al. (2012) The effects of fructose intake on serum uric acid vary among controlled dietary trials. J Nutr 142, 916–923.
144L Zgaga , E Theodoratou , J Kyle , et al. (2012) The association of dietary intake of purine-rich vegetables, sugar-sweetened beverages and dairy with plasma urate, in a cross-sectional study. PLOS ONE 7, e38123.
145SZ Sun , BD Flickinger , PS Williamson-Hughes , et al. (2010) Lack of association between dietary fructose and hyperuricemia risk in adults. Nutr Metab (Lond) 7, 16.
146G Livesey & R Taylor (2008) Fructose consumption and consequences for glycation, plasma triacylglycerol, and body weight: meta-analyses and meta-regression models of intervention studies. Am J Clin Nutr 88, 1419–1437.
147G Livesey (2013) Is there really a link between diabetes and the ingestion of fructose? Nutr Bull 38, 337–343.
149CB Ebbeling , HA Feldman , SK Osganian , et al. (2006) Effects of decreasing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption on body weight in adolescents: a randomized, controlled pilot study. Pediatrics 117, 673–680.
150NK Pollock , V Bundy , W Kanto , et al. (2012) Greater fructose consumption is associated with cardiometabolic risk markers and visceral adiposity in adolescents. J Nutr 142, 251–257.
151KW Cullen , DM Ash , C Warneke , et al. (2002) Intake of soft drinks, fruit-flavored beverages, and fruits and vegetables by children in grades 4 through 6. Am J Public Health 92, 1475–1477.
152G Livesey (2009) Fructose ingestion: dose-dependent responses in health research. J Nutr 139, 1246S–1252S.
153JL Sievenpiper & RJ de Souza (2013) Are sugar-sweetened beverages the whole story? Am J Clin Nutr 98, 261–263.
154L Tappy & B Mittendorfer (2012) Fructose toxicity: is the science ready for public health actions? Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 15, 357–361.