Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

A multidisciplinary reconstruction of Palaeolithic nutrition that holds promise for the prevention and treatment of diseases of civilisation

  • Remko S. Kuipers (a1), Josephine C. A. Joordens (a2) and Frits A. J. Muskiet (a1)

Evolutionary medicine acknowledges that many chronic degenerative diseases result from conflicts between our rapidly changing environment, our dietary habits included, and our genome, which has remained virtually unchanged since the Palaeolithic era. Reconstruction of the diet before the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions is therefore indicated, but hampered by the ongoing debate on our ancestors' ecological niche. Arguments and their counterarguments regarding evolutionary medicine are updated and the evidence for the long-reigning hypothesis of human evolution on the arid savanna is weighed against the hypothesis that man evolved in the proximity of water. Evidence from various disciplines is discussed, including the study of palaeo-environments, comparative anatomy, biogeochemistry, archaeology, anthropology, (patho)physiology and epidemiology. Although our ancestors had much lower life expectancies, the current evidence does neither support the misconception that during the Palaeolithic there were no elderly nor that they had poor health. Rather than rejecting the possibility of ‘healthy ageing’, the default assumption should be that healthy ageing posed an evolutionary advantage for human survival. There is ample evidence that our ancestors lived in a land–water ecosystem and extracted a substantial part of their diets from both terrestrial and aquatic resources. Rather than rejecting this possibility by lack of evidence, the default assumption should be that hominins, living in coastal ecosystems with catchable aquatic resources, consumed these resources. Finally, the composition and merits of so-called ‘Palaeolithic diets’, based on different hominin niche-reconstructions, are evaluated. The benefits of these diets illustrate that it is time to incorporate this knowledge into dietary recommendations.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      A multidisciplinary reconstruction of Palaeolithic nutrition that holds promise for the prevention and treatment of diseases of civilisation
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      A multidisciplinary reconstruction of Palaeolithic nutrition that holds promise for the prevention and treatment of diseases of civilisation
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      A multidisciplinary reconstruction of Palaeolithic nutrition that holds promise for the prevention and treatment of diseases of civilisation
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Dr Frits A. J. Muskiet, fax +31 50 361 2290, email
Hide All
1Darwin C (1979) The Illustrated Origin of Species. Ede: Zomer & Keuning Boeken B.V.
2Crawford MA (2010) Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in human brain evolution. In Human Brain Evolution. The Influence of Freshwater and Marine Food Resources, pp. 1331 [Cunnane SC and Stewart KM, editors]. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.
3Knoll AH, Javaux EJ, Hewitt D, et al. . (2006) Eukaryotic organisms in Proterozoic oceans. Phil Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 361, 10231038.
4Brocks JJ, Logan GA, Buick R, et al. . (1999) Archean molecular fossils and the early rise of eukaryotes. Science 285, 10331036.
5Buick R (2008) When did oxygenic photosynthesis evolve? Phil Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 363, 27312743.
6Holland HD (2006) The oxygenation of the atmosphere and oceans. Phil Trans R Soc B Biol Sci 361, 903915.
7Crawford MA & Marsh DE (1995) Nutrition and Evolution: Food in Evolution and the Future. New Canaan, CT: Keats.
8Eaton SB & Konner M (1985) Paleolithic nutrition. A consideration of its nature and current implications. N Engl J Med 312, 283289.
9Eaton SB, Konner M & Shostak M (1988) Stone Agers in the fast lane: chronic degenerative diseases in evolutionary perspective. Am J Med 84, 739749.
10Eaton SB, Eaton SB III, Konner MJ, et al. . (1996) An evolutionary perspective enhances understanding of human nutritional requirements. J Nutr 126, 17321740.
11Eaton SB & Cordain L (1997) Evolutionary aspects of diet: old genes, new fuels. Nutritional changes since agriculture. World Rev Nutr Diet 81, 2637.
12Egger G & Dixon J (2009) Should obesity be the main game? Or do we need an environmental makeover to combat the inflammatory and chronic disease epidemics? Obes Rev 10, 237249.
13Egger G & Dixon J (2010) Inflammatory effects of nutritional stimuli: further support for the need for a big picture approach to tackling obesity and chronic disease. Obes Rev 11, 137149.
14Wood B & Brooks A (1999) Human evolution. We are what we ate. Nature 400, 219220.
15Muskiet FAJ (2005) Evolutionaire geneeskunde. U bent wat u eet, maar u moet weer worden wat u at (Evolutionary medicine. You are what you eat, but you must again be what you ate). Ned Tijdsch Klin Chem Labgeneesk 30, 163184.
16Barker DJ (1990) The fetal and infant origins of adult disease. BMJ 301, 1111.
17Godfrey KM & Barker DJ (2000) Fetal nutrition and adult disease. Am J Clin Nutr 71, 1344S1352S.
18Drake AJ & Walker BR (2004) The intergenerational effects of fetal programming: non-genomic mechanisms for the inheritance of low birth weight and cardiovascular risk. J Endocrinol 180, 116.
19Gluckman PD, Hanson MA, Morton SM, et al. . (2005) Life-long echoes – a critical analysis of the developmental origins of adult disease model. Biol Neonate 87, 127139.
20Cordain L, Eades MR & Eades MD (2003) Hyperinsulinemic diseases of civilization: more than just syndrome X. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 136, 95112.
21Reaven GM (2005) The insulin resistance syndrome: definition and dietary approaches to treatment. Annu Rev Nutr 25, 391406.
22Pasinetti GM & Eberstein JA (2008) Metabolic syndrome and the role of dietary lifestyles in Alzheimer's disease. J Neurochem 106, 15031514.
23Muskiet FA & Kemperman RF (2006) Folate and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in psychiatric disease. J Nutr Biochem 17, 717727.
24Muskiet FA (2010) Pathophysiology and evolutionary aspects of dietary fats and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids across the life cycle. In Fat Detection. Taste, Texture, and Post Ingestive Effects, pp. 1979 [Montmayeur JP and Coutre J le, editors]. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group.
25Muskiet FAJ & Kuipers RS (2010) Lessons from shore-based hunter–gatherer diets in East Africa. In In Human Brain Evolution. The Influence of Freshwater and Marine Food Resources, pp. 77103 [Cunnane SC and Stewart KM, editors]. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.
26Feige JN, Gelman L, Michalik L, et al. . (2006) From molecular action to physiological outputs: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors are nuclear receptors at the crossroads of key cellular functions. Prog Lipid Res 45, 120159.
27Dobzhansky T (1964) Biology, molecular and organismic. Am Zool 4, 443452.
28Tinbergen N (1963) On the aims and methods of ethology. Zeit Tierpsy 20, 410463.
29Harris EE & Malyango AA (2005) Evolutionary explanations in medical and health profession courses: are you answering your students' ‘why’ questions? BMC Med Educ 5, 16.
30Purushotham AD & Sullivan R (2010) Darwin, medicine and cancer. Ann Oncol 21, 199203.
31Williams GC & Nesse RM (1991) The dawn of Darwinian medicine. Q Rev Biol 66, 122.
32Nesse RM & Williams GC (1994) Why We Get Sick. The New Science of Darwinian Medicine. New York: Times Books, Random House, Inc.
33Gould SJ & Vrba ES (1982) Exaptation – a missing term in the science of form. Paleobiology 8, 415.
34Eaton SB, Eaton SB III, Sinclair AJ, et al. . (1998) Dietary intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during the Paleolithic. World Rev Nutr Diet 83, 1223.
35Eaton SB, Cordain L & Lindeberg S (2002) Evolutionary health promotion: a consideration of common counterarguments. Prev Med 34, 119123.
36O'Keefe JH Jr & Cordain L (2004) Cardiovascular disease resulting from a diet and lifestyle at odds with our Paleolithic genome: how to become a 21st-century hunter–gatherer. Mayo Clin Proc 79, 101108.
37Hahn RA, Teutsch SM, Rothenberg RB, et al. . (1990) Excess deaths from nine chronic diseases in the United States, 1986. JAMA 264, 26542659.
38Hill K, Hurtado AM & Walker RS (2007) High adult mortality among Hiwi hunter–gatherers: implications for human evolution. J Hum Evol 52, 443454.
39Howell N (2001) Demography of the Dobe !Kung, 2nd ed.Piscataway: Aldine Transaction.
40Hill K & Hurtado A (1995) Ache Life History: the Ecology and Demography of a Foraging People. Piscataway: Aldine Transaction.
41Marlowe FM (2010) The Hadza Hunter–Gatherers of Tanzania. Los Angeles: The University of California Press.
42Eaton SB & Eaton SBI (1999) The evolutionary context of chronic degenerative diseases. In Evolution in Health and Disease, pp. 251259 [Stearns SC, editor]. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
43Shephard RJ & Roy J (1996) The Health Consequences of Modernization: Evidence from Circumpolar Peoples. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
44Lindeberg S & Lundh B (1993) Apparent absence of stroke and ischaemic heart disease in a traditional Melanesian island: a clinical study in Kitava. J Intern Med 233, 269275.
45Lindeberg S, Nilsson-Ehle P, Terent A, et al. . (1994) Cardiovascular risk factors in a Melanesian population apparently free from stroke and ischaemic heart disease: the Kitava study. J Intern Med 236, 331340.
46Trowell HC & Burkitt DP (1981) Western Diseases: Their Emergence and Prevention. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
47Blacklow RS (2007) Actuarially speaking: an overview of life expectancy. What can we anticipate? Am J Clin Nutr 86, 1560S1562S.
48Angel JL (1984) Health as a factor in the changes from hunting to developed farming in the eastern Mediterranean. In Paleopathology at the Origins of Agriculture, pp. 5173 [Cohen MN and Armelagos GJ, editors]. New York: Academic Press.
49Larsen CS (1995) Biological changes in human populations with agriculture. Annu Rev Anthropol 24, 185213.
50Larsen CS (2003) Animal source foods and human health during evolution. J Nutr 133, 3893S3897S.
51Larsen CS (2000) Dietary reconstruction and nutritional assessement of past peoples: the bioanthropological record. In The Cambridge World History of Food, pp. 1334 [Kiple KF and Ornelas KC, editors]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
52Cohen MN (1984) Editors summation. In Paleopathology at the Origins of Ariculture, pp. 585601 [Cohen MN and Armelagos GJ, editors]. New York: Academic Press.
53McKeown T, Brown RG & Record RG (1972) An interpretation of the modern rise of population in Europe. Popul Stud (Camb) 26, 345382.
54Blurton-Jones NG, Marlowe FW, Hawkes K, et al. (2000) Paternal investment and hunter–gatherer divorce. In Adaptation and Human Behavior: An Anthropological Perspective, pp. 6190 [Cronk L, Chagnon N and Irons W, editors]. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
55Hawkes K, O'Connell JF & Blurton-Jones NG (2001) Hunting and nuclear families: some lessons from the Hadza about men's work. Curr Anthropol 42, 681709.
56Hawkes K, O'Connell JF, Jones NG, et al. . (1998) Grandmothering, menopause, and the evolution of human life histories. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95, 13361339.
57O'Connell JF, Hawkes K & Blurton Jones NG (1999) Grandmothering and the evolution of Homo erectus. J Hum Evol 36, 461485.
58Sear R, Mace R & McGregor IA (2000) Maternal grandmothers improve nutritional status and survival of children in rural Gambia. Proc Biol Sci 267, 16411647.
59Bogin B (2009) Childhood, adolescence, and longevity: a multilevel model of the evolution of reserve capacity in human life history. Am J Hum Biol 21, 567577.
60Hawkes K (2010) Colloquium paper: how grandmother effects plus individual variation in frailty shape fertility and mortality: guidance from human–chimpanzee comparisons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107, Suppl. 2, 89778984.
61van Bodegom D, Rozing M, May L, et al. . (2010) When grandmothers matter. Gerontology 56, 214216.
62Kachel AF, Premo LS & Hublin JJ (2011) Grandmothering and natural selection. Proc Biol Sci 278, 384391.
63Strier KB, Chaves PB, Mendes SL, et al. . (2011) Low paternity skew and the influence of maternal kin in an egalitarian, patrilocal primate. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108, 1891518919.
64van Bodegom D (2011) Selection for longevity in a polygamous society in rural Africa. In Post-Reproductive Survival in a Polygamous Society in Rural Africa, chapter 7, pp. 125140. Doctoral Thesis, Leiden University.
65Brunet M, Guy F, Pilbeam D, et al. . (2002) A new hominid from the Upper Miocene of Chad, Central Africa. Nature 418, 145151.
66Senut B, Pickford M, Gommery D, et al. . (2001) First hominid from the Miocene (Lukeino Formation, Kenya). C R Acad Sci IIA 332, 137144.
67Haile-Selassie Y, Suwa G & White TD (2004) Late Miocene teeth from Middle Awash, Ethiopia, and early hominid dental evolution. Science 303, 15031505.
68White TD, Asfaw B, Beyene Y, et al. . (2009) Ardipithecus ramidus and the paleobiology of early hominids. Science 326, 7586.
69Leakey MG, Feibel CS, McDougall I, et al. . (1998) New specimens and confirmation of an early age for Australopithecus anamensis. Nature 393, 6266.
70Kimbel WH & Delezene LK (2009) “Lucy” redux: a review of research on Australopithecus afarensis. Am J Phys Anthropol 140, Suppl. 49, 248.
71Harrison T (2011) Hominins from the Upper Laetolil and Upper Ndolanya beds, Laetoli. In Paleontology and Geology of Laetoli: Human Evolution in Context: Volume 2: Fossil Hominins and the Associated Fauna, pp. 141188 [Harrison T, editor]. Dordrecht: Springer.
72Brunet M, Beauvilain A, Coppens Y, et al. . (1995) The first australopithecine 2,500 kilometres west of the Rift Valley (Chad). Nature 378, 273275.
73Leakey MG, Spoor F, Brown FH, et al. . (2001) New hominin genus from eastern Africa shows diverse middle Pliocene lineages. Nature 410, 433440.
74Asfaw B, White T, Lovejoy O, et al. . (1999) Australopithecus garhi: a new species of early hominid from Ethiopia. Science 284, 629635.
75Herries AI, Hopley PJ, Adams JW, et al. . (2010) Letter to the Editor: Geochronology and palaeoenvironments of Southern African hominin-bearing localities – a reply to Wrangham et al., 2009. “Shallow-water habitats as sources of fallback foods for hominins”. Am J Phys Anthropol 143, 640646.
76Tattersall I (2010) Macroevolutionary patterns, exaptation, and emergence in the evolution of the human brain and cognition. In Human Brain Evolution. The Influence of Freshwater and Marine Food Resources, pp. 111 [Cunnane SC and Stewart KM, editors]. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.
77Stringer C (2003) Human evolution: out of Ethiopia. Nature 423, 692693, 695.
78White TD, Asfaw B, DeGusta D, et al. . (2003) Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash, Ethiopia. Nature 423, 742747.
79Brown P, Sutikna T, Morwood MJ, et al. . (2004) A new small-bodied hominin from the Late Pleistocene of Flores, Indonesia. Nature 431, 10551061.
80Reich D, Patterson N, Kircher M, et al. . (2011) Denisova admixture and the first modern human dispersals into Southeast Asia and Oceania. Am J Hum Genet 89, 516528.
81Stringer C (2000) Palaeoanthropology. Coasting out of Africa. Nature 405, 2425, 27.
82Templeton A (2002) Out of Africa again and again. Nature 416, 4551.
83Oppenheimer S (2009) The great arc of dispersal of modern humans: Africa to Australia. Quat Int 202, 213.
84Templeton AR (2005) Haplotype trees and modern human origins. Am J Phys Anthropol 128, Suppl. 41, 3359.
85Templeton AR (2007) Genetics and recent human evolution. Evolution 61, 15071519.
86Templeton AR (2010) Coherent and incoherent inference in phylogeography and human evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107, 63766381.
87Green RE, Krause J, Ptak SE, et al. . (2006) Analysis of one million base pairs of Neanderthal DNA. Nature 444, 330336.
88Zhivotovsky LA, Rosenberg NA & Feldman MW (2003) Features of evolution and expansion of modern humans, inferred from genomewide microsatellite markers. Am J Hum Genet 72, 11711186.
89Knight A, Underhill PA, Mortensen HM, et al. . (2003) African Y chromosome and mtDNA divergence provides insight into the history of click languages. Curr Biol 13, 464473.
90Henn BM, Gignoux CR, Jobin M, et al. . (2011) Hunter–gatherer genomic diversity suggests a southern African origin for modern humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108, 51545162.
91Behar DM, Villems R, Soodyall H, et al. . (2008) The dawn of human matrilineal diversity. Am J Hum Genet 82, 11301140.
92Ambrose SH (1998) Late Pleistocene human population bottlenecks, volcanic winter, and differentiation of modern humans. J Hum Evol 34, 623651.
93Rosenberg NA, Pritchard JK, Weber JL, et al. . (2002) Genetic structure of human populations. Science 298, 23812385.
94Washburn SL & Lancaster CS (1968) The evolution of hunting. In Man the Hunter, pp. 293303 [Lee RB and DeVore I, editors]. New York: Aldine Publishing Company.
95Sailer LD, Gaulin SC, Voster JS, et al. . (1985) Measuring the relationship between dietary quality and body size in primates. Primates 26, 1427.
96Herculano-Houzel S (2009) The human brain in numbers: a linearly scaled-up primate brain. Front Hum Neurosci 3, 31.
97Deaner RO, Isler K, Burkart J, et al. . (2007) Overall brain size, and not encephalization quotient, best predicts cognitive ability across non-human primates. Brain Behav Evol 70, 115124.
98Hill RS & Walsh CA (2005) Molecular insights into human brain evolution. Nature 437, 6467.
99Broadhurst CL, Cunnane SC & Crawford MA (1998) Rift Valley lake fish and shellfish provided brain-specific nutrition for early Homo. Br J Nutr 79, 321.
100Cunnane SC (2010) Human brain evolution: a question of solving key nutritional and metabolic constraints on mammalian brain development. In Human Brain Evolution. The Influence of Freshwater and Marine Food Resources, pp. 3376 [Cunnane SC and Stewart KM, editors]. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.
101Cunnane SC (2005) Origins and evolution of the Western diet: implications of iodine and seafood intakes for the human brain. Am J Clin Nutr 82, 483484.
102Navarrete A, van Schaik CP & Isler K (2011) Energetics and the evolution of human brain size. Nature 480, 9193.
103Potts R (2011) Evolution: big brains explained. Nature 480, 4344.
104Blinkov SM & Glezer II (1968) The Human Brain in Figures and Tables. New York: Basic Books, Inc.
105White DR, Widdowson EM, Woodard HQ, et al. . (1991) The composition of body tissues (II). Fetus to young adult. Br J Radiol 64, 149159.
106Dobbing J & Sands J (1973) Quantitative growth and development of human brain. Arch Dis Child 48, 757767.
107Roth G & Dicke U (2005) Evolution of the brain and intelligence. Trends Cogn Sci 9, 250257.
108Herculano-Houzel S (2011) Scaling of brain metabolism with a fixed energy budget per neuron: implications for neuronal activity, plasticity and evolution. PLoS One 6, e17514.
109Herculano-Houzel S (2011) Not all brains are made the same: new views on brain scaling in evolution. Brain Behav Evol 78, 2236.
110Azevedo FA, Carvalho LR, Grinberg LT, et al. . (2009) Equal numbers of neuronal and nonneuronal cells make the human brain an isometrically scaled-up primate brain. J Comp Neurol 513, 532541.
111Herculano-Houzel S (2010) Coordinated scaling of cortical and cerebellar numbers of neurons. Front Neuroanat 4, 12.
112King MC & Wilson AC (1975) Evolution at two levels in humans and chimpanzees. Science 188, 107116.
113Gu J & Gu X (2003) Induced gene expression in human brain after the split from chimpanzee. Trends Genet 19, 6365.
114Caceres M, Lachuer J, Zapala MA, et al. . (2003) Elevated gene expression levels distinguish human from non-human primate brains. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100, 1303013035.
115Marques-Bonet T, Caceres M, Bertranpetit J, et al. . (2004) Chromosomal rearrangements and the genomic distribution of gene-expression divergence in humans and chimpanzees. Trends Genet 20, 524529.
116Finlay BL & Darlington RB (1995) Linked regularities in the development and evolution of mammalian brains. Science 268, 15781584.
117Stimpson CD, Tetreault NA, Allman JM, et al. . (2011) Biochemical specificity of von economo neurons in hominoids. Am J Hum Biol 23, 2228.
118Sherwood CC, Subiaul F & Zawidzki TW (2008) A natural history of the human mind: tracing evolutionary changes in brain and cognition. J Anat 212, 426454.
119Sherwood CC, Gordon AD, Allen JS, et al. . (2011) Aging of the cerebral cortex differs between humans and chimpanzees. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108, 1302913034.
120Abzhanov A, Kuo WP, Hartmann C, et al. . (2006) The calmodulin pathway and evolution of elongated beak morphology in Darwin's finches. Nature 442, 563567.
121Patel NH (2006) Evolutionary biology: how to build a longer beak. Nature 442, 515516.
122Schneider RA (2007) How to tweak a beak: molecular techniques for studying the evolution of size and shape in Darwin's finches and other birds. Bioessays 29, 16.
123Kaindl AM, Passemard S, Kumar P, et al. . (2010) Many roads lead to primary autosomal recessive microcephaly. Prog Neurobiol 90, 363383.
124Williams CA, Dagli A & Battaglia A (2008) Genetic disorders associated with macrocephaly. Am J Med Genet A 146A, 20232037.
125Evans PD, Anderson JR, Vallender EJ, et al. . (2004) Adaptive evolution of ASPM, a major determinant of cerebral cortical size in humans. Hum Mol Genet 13, 489494.
126Evans PD, Anderson JR, Vallender EJ, et al. . (2004) Reconstructing the evolutionary history of microcephalin, a gene controlling human brain size. Hum Mol Genet 13, 11391145.
127Evans PD, Gilbert SL, Mekel-Bobrov N, et al. . (2005) Microcephalin, a gene regulating brain size, continues to evolve adaptively in humans. Science 309, 17171720.
128Evans PD, Vallender EJ & Lahn BT (2006) Molecular evolution of the brain size regulator genes CDK5RAP2 and CENP. J Gene 375, 7579.
129Speth JD (1989) Early hominid hunting and scavenging – the role of meat as an energy-source. J Hum Evol 18, 329343.
130Crawford MA, Bloom M, Broadhurst CL, et al. . (1999) Evidence for the unique function of docosahexaenoic acid during the evolution of the modern hominid brain. Lipids 34, Suppl., S39S47.
131Gibbons A (2002) American Association of Physical Anthropologists meeting. Humans' head start: new views of brain evolution. Science 296, 835837.
132Crawford MA (2002) Cerebral evolution. Nutr Health 16, 2934.
133Cordain L, Eaton SB, Sebastian A, et al. . (2005) Origins and evolution of the Western diet: health implications for the 21st century. Am J Clin Nutr 81, 341354.
134Carlson BA & Kingston JD (2007) Docosahexaenoic acid, the aquatic diet, and hominin encephalization: difficulties in establishing evolutionary links. Am J Hum Biol 19, 132141.
135Joordens JC, Kuipers RS & Muskiet FA (2007) Preformed dietary DHA: the answer to a scientific question may in practice become translated to its opposite. Am J Hum Biol 19, 582584.
136Joordens CA, Kuipers RS & Muskiet FAJ (2005) On breast milk, diet, and large human brains. Curr Anthropol 46, 122124.
137Langdon JH (2006) Has an aquatic diet been necessary for hominin brain evolution and functional development? Br J Nutr 96, 717.
138Dart RA (1925) Australopithecus africanus: the man-ape of South Africa. Nature 115, 195199.
139Tobias PV (1998) Water and human evolution. Out There 35, 3844.
140Tobias PV (2010) Foreword: evolution, encephalization, environment. In Human Brain Evolution. The Influence of Freshwater and Marine Food Resources, pp. viixii [Cunnane SC and Stewart KM, editors]. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.
141White TD, Ambrose SH, Suwa G, et al. . (2009) Macrovertebrate paleontology and the Pliocene habitat of Ardipithecus ramidus. Science 326, 8793.
142Cerling TE, Levin NE, Quade J, et al. . (2010) Comment on the paleoenvironment of Ardipithecus ramidus. Science 328, 1105.
143Feibel CS (2011) Anthropology: shades of the savannah. Nature 476, 3940.
144Cerling TE, Wynn JG, Andanje SA, et al. . (2011) Woody cover and hominin environments in the past 6 million years. Nature 476, 5156.
145Woodburn J (1968) An introduction to Hadza ecology. In Man the Hunter, [Lee RB and DeVore I, editors]. New York: Aldine Publishing Company.
146Tanner NM & Zihlmann AL (1976) Women in evolution, part 1: innovation and selection in human origins. Signs 1, 585608.
147Stanford CB (1999) The hunting people. In The Hunting Apes: Meat Eating and the Origins of Human Behaviour, chapter 5, pp. 136162. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
148Cordain L, Miller JB, Eaton SB, et al. . (2000) Plant-animal subsistence ratios and macronutrient energy estimations in worldwide hunter–gatherer diets. Am J Clin Nutr 71, 682692.
149Stanford CB (1999) Man the hunter and other stories. In The Hunting Apes: Meat Eating and the Origins of Human Behaviour, chapter 2, pp. 1551. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
150Ungar PS & Sponheimer M (2011) The diets of early hominins. Science 334, 190193.
151Bernor RL (2007) New apes fill the gap. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104, 1966119662.
152Lebatard AE, Bourles DL, Duringer P, et al. . (2008) Cosmogenic nuclide dating of Sahelanthropus tchadensis and Australopithecus bahrelghazali: Mio-Pliocene hominids from Chad. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105, 32263231.
153Bosworth W & Morley CK (1994) Structural and stratigraphic evolution of the Anza rift, Kenya. Tectonophysics 236, 93115.
154Joordens JC (2011) The Power of Place: Climate Changes as Driver of Hominin Evolution and Dispersal over the Past Five Million Years. Amsterdam: Vrije Universiteit.
155Vignaud P, Duringer P, Mackaye HT, et al. . (2002) Geology and palaeontology of the Upper Miocene Toros-Menalla hominid locality, Chad. Nature 418, 152155.
156Stewart KM (2010) The case for exploitation of wetlands environments and foods by pre-sapiens hominins. In Human Brain Evolution. The Influence of Freshwater and Marine Food Resources, pp. 137171 [Cunnane SC and Stewart KM, editors]. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.
157Pickford M & Senut B (2001) The geological and faunal context of Late Miocene hominid remains from Lukeino, Kenya. C R Acad Sci IIA 332, 145152.
158WoldeGabriel G, Haile-Selassie Y, Renne PR, et al. . (2001) Geology and palaeontology of the Late Miocene Middle Awash valley, Afar rift, Ethiopia. Nature 412, 175178.
159WoldeGabriel G, Ambrose SH, Barboni D, et al. . (2009) The geological, isotopic, botanical, invertebrate, and lower vertebrate surroundings of Ardipithecus ramidus. Science 326, 65e165e5.
160Feibel CS, Harris JM & Brown FH (1991) Paleoenvironmental context for the late Neogene of the Turkana basin. In Koobi Fora Research Project, pp. 321346 [Harris JM, editor]. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
161Reed KE (1997) Early hominid evolution and ecological change through the African Plio-Pleistocene. J Hum Evol 32, 289322.
162Ward C, Leakey M & Walker A (1999) The new hominid species Australopithecus anamensis. Evol Anthropol 7, 197205.
163Schoeninger MJ, Reeser H & Hallin K (2003) Paleoenvironment of Australopithecus anamensis at Allia Bay, East Turkana, Kenya: evidence from mammalian herbivore enamel stable isotopes. J Anthropol Archaeol 22, 200207.
164Reed KE (2008) Paleoecological patterns at the Hadar hominin site, Afar Regional State, Ethiopia. J Hum Evol 54, 743768.
165Su DF & Harrison T (2008) Ecological implications of the relative rarity of fossil hominins at Laetoli. J Hum Evol 55, 672681.
166Veldkamp A, Buis E, Wijbrands JR, et al. . (2007) Late Cenozoic fluvial dynamics of the River Tana, Kenya, an uplift dominated record. Quat Sci Rev 26, 28972912.
167Sepulchre P, Ramstein G, Fluteau F, et al. . (2006) Tectonic uplift and Eastern Africa aridification. Science 313, 14191423.
168Trauth MH, Maslin MA, Deino AL, et al. . (2007) High- and low-latitude forcing of Plio-Pleistocene East African climate and human evolution. J Hum Evol 53, 475486.
169Bartoli G, Sarnthein M, Weinelt M, et al. . (2005) Final closure of the Panama and the onset of northern hemisphere glaciation. Earth Planetary Sci Lett 237, 3344.
170Potts R (1998) Environmental hypotheses of hominin evolution. Yearb Phys Anthropol 41, 93136.
171Pobiner BL, Rogers MJ, Monahan CM, et al. . (2008) New evidence for hominin carcass processing strategies at 1.5 Ma, Koobi Fora, Kenya. J Hum Evol 55, 103130.
172Ashley GM, Tactikos JC & Owen RB (2009) Hominin use of springs and wetlands: paleoclimate and archaeological records from Olduvai Gorge (~ 1.79–1.74 Ma). Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 272, 116.
173Drake NA, Blench RM, Armitage SJ, et al. . (2011) Ancient watercourses and biogeography of the Sahara explain the peopling of the desert. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108, 458462.
174Sikes NE (1994) Early hominid habitat preferences in East-Africa – paleosol carbon isotopic evidence. J Hum Evol 27, 2545.
175Joordens JC, Wesselingh FP, de Vos J, et al. . (2009) Relevance of aquatic environments for hominins: a case study from Trinil (Java, Indonesia). J Hum Evol 57, 656671.
176Popovich DG, Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, et al. . (1997) The western lowland gorilla diet has implications for the health of humans and other hominoids. J Nutr 127, 20002005.
177Marshall AJ & Wrangham RW (2007) Evolutionary consequences of fallback foods. Int J Primatol 28, 12181235.
178Nishida T (1980) Local differences in responses to water among wild chimpanzees. Folia Primatol 33, 189209.
179Sakamaki T (1998) First record of algae-feeding by a female chimpanzee at Mahale. Pan Afr News 5, 13.
180Kempf E (2009) Patterns of water use in primates. Folia Primatol (Basel) 80, 275294.
181Wrangham R, Cheney D, Seyfarth R, et al. . (2009) Shallow-water habitats as sources of fallback foods for hominins. Am J Phys Anthropol 140, 630642.
182Vogel ER, van Woerden JT, Lucas PW, et al. . (2008) Functional ecology and evolution of hominoid molar enamel thickness: Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii and Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii. J Hum Evol 55, 6074.
183Suwa G, Kono RT, Simpson SW, et al. . (2009) Paleobiological implications of the Ardipithecus ramidus dentition. Science 326, 9499.
184Teaford MF & Ungar PS (2000) Diet and the evolution of the earliest human ancestors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97, 1350613511.
185Walker A, Hoeck HN & Perez L (1978) Mecrowear of mammalian teeth as an indicator of diet. Science 201, 908910.
186Ungar PS, Grine FE & Teaford MF (2008) Dental microwear and diet of the Plio-Pleistocene hominin Paranthropus boisei. Plos One 3, e2044.
187Ungar PS, Scott RS, Grine FE, et al. . (2010) Molar microwear textures and the diets of Australopithecus anamensis and Australopithecus afarensis. Philos Trans R Soc B Biol Sci 365, 33453354.
188Grine FE, Ungar PS, Teaford MF, et al. . (2006) Molar microwear in Praeanthropus afarensis: evidence for dietary stasis through time and under diverse paleoecological conditions. J Hum Evol 51, 297319.
189Scott RS, Ungar PS, Bergstrom TS, et al. . (2005) Dental microwear texture analysis shows within-species diet variability in fossil hominins. Nature 436, 693695.
190Cerling TE, Mbua E, Kirera FM, et al. . (2011) Diet of Paranthropus boisei in the early Pleistocene of East Africa. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108, 93379341.
191Ungar P (2004) Dental topography and diets of Australopithecus afarensis and early Homo. J Hum Evol 46, 605622.
192Ulijaszek SJ (2002) Human eating behaviour in an evolutionary ecological context. Proc Nutr Soc 61, 517526.
193Goldstone AP, de Hernandez CG, Beaver JD, et al. . (2009) Fasting biases brain reward systems towards high-calorie foods. Eur J Neurosci 30, 16251635.
194Ungar PS, Grine FE, Teaford MF, et al. . (2006) Dental microwear and diets of African early Homo. J Hum Evol 50, 7895.
195Ungar PS, Grine FE & Teaford MF (2006) Diet in early Homo: a review of the evidence and a new model of adaptive versatility. Annu Rev Anthropol 35, 209228.
196Perez-Perez A, De Castro JMB & Arsuaga JL (1999) Nonocclusal dental microwear analysis of 300 000-year-old Homo heilderbergensis teeth from Sima de los Huesos (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain). Am J Phys Anthropol 108, 433457.
197Lalueza C, PerezPerez A & Turbon D (1996) Dietary inferences through buccal microwear analysis of middle and upper pleistocene human fossils. Am J Phys Anthropol 100, 367387.
198Mahoney P (2007) Human dental microwear from Ohalo II (22 500–23 500 cal BP), Southern Levant. Am J Phys Anthropol 132, 489500.
199Mahoney P (2006) Dental microwear from Natufian hunter–gatherers and early neolithic farmers: comparisons within and between samples. Am J Phys Anthropol 130, 308319.
200Milton K (1999) Nutritional characteristics of wild primate foods: do the diets of our closest living relatives have lessons for us? Nutrition 15, 488498.
201Milton K (2003) The critical role played by animal source foods in human (Homo) evolution. J Nutr 133, 3886S3892S.
202Gittleman JL & Thompson SD (1988) Energy allocation in mammalian reproduction. Am Zool 28, 863875.
203Oftedal TO (1984) Milk composition, milk yield and energy output a peak lactation: a comparative review. Symp Zool Soc Lond 51, 3385.
204Aiello LC & Key C (2002) Energetic consequences of being a Homo erectus female. Am J Hum Biol 14, 551565.
205Aiello LC & Wells JCK (2002) Energetics and the evolution of the genus Homo. Annu Rev Anthropol 31, 323338.
206Cunnane SC & Crawford MA (2003) Survival of the fattest: fat babies were the key to evolution of the large human brain. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 136, 1726.
207Leonard WR, Robertson ML, Snodgrass JJ, et al. . (2003) Metabolic correlates of hominid brain evolution. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 136, 515.
208Aiello LC & Wheeler P (1995) The expensive-tissue hypothesis – the brain and the digestive system in human and primate evolution. Curr Anthropol 36, 199221.
209Aiello LC (2007) Notes on the implications of the expensive tissue hypothesis for human biological and social evolution. In Guts and Brains. An Integrative Approach to the Hominin Record, pp. 1728 [Roebroeks W, editor]. Leiden: Leiden University Press.
210Kaufman JA, Hladik CM & Pasquet P (2003) On the expensive-tissue hypothesis: independent support from highly encephalized fish. Curr Anthropol 44, 705707.
211Galdikas BM & Wood JW (1990) Birth spacing patterns in humans and apes. Am J Phys Anthropol 83, 185191.
212Isler K & van Schaik CP (2009) The expensive brain: a framework for explaining evolutionary changes in brain size. J Hum Evol 57, 392400.
213Isler K (2011) Energetic trade-offs between brain size and offspring production: marsupials confirm a general mammalian pattern. Bioessays 33, 173179.
214Pontzer H, Raichlen DA & Sockol MD (2009) The metabolic cost of walking in humans, chimpanzees, and early hominins. J Hum Evol 56, 4354.
215Wrangham RW, Jones JH, Laden G, et al. . (1999) The raw and the stolen. Cooking and the ecology of human origins. Curr Anthropol 40, 567594.
216Robinson BW & Wilson DS (1998) Optimal foraging, specialization, and a solution to Liem's paradox. Am Nat 151, 223235.
217Harris WS (2008) You are what you eat applies to fish, too. J Am Diet Assoc 108, 11311133.
218Sponheimer M & Dufour DL (2009) Increased dietary breadth in early hominin evolution: revisiting arguments and evidence with a focus on biogeochemical contributions. In The Evolution of Hominin Diets: Integrating Approaches to the Study of Palaeolithic Subsistence, chapter 18, pp. 229240 [Hublin J-J and Richards MP, editors]. Dordrecht: Springer.
219Sillen A & Kavanagh M (1982) Strontium and paleodietary research: a review. Am J Phys Anthropol 25, 6790.
220Sillen A (1992) Strontium calcium ratios (Sr/Ca) of Australopithecus robustus and associated fauna from Swartkrans. J Hum Evol 23, 495516.
221Sillen A, Hall G & Armstrong R (1995) Strontium calcium ratios (Sr/Ca) and strontium isotopic-ratios (87Sr/86Sr) of Australopithecus robustus and Homo sp. from Swartkrans. J Hum Evol 28, 277285.
222Conklin-Brittain NL, Wrangham RW & Hunt KD (1998) Dietary response of chimpanzees and cercopithecines to seasonal variation in fruit abundance. II. Macronutrients. Int J Primatol 19, 971998.
223Lee-Thorp J & Sponheimer M (2003) Three case studies used to reassess the reliability of fossil bone and enamel isotope signals for paleodietary studies. J Anthropol Archaeol 22, 208216.
224Sponheimer M, de Ruiter D, Lee-Thorp J, et al. . (2005) Sr/Ca and early hommin diets revisited: new data from modern and fossil tooth enamel. J Hum Evol 48, 147156.
225Lee-Thorp J & Sponheimer M (2006) Contributions of biogeochemistry to understanding hominin dietary ecology. Yearb Phys Anthropol 49, 131148.
226Balter V & Simon L (2006) Diet and behavior of the Saint-Cesaire Neanderthal inferred from biogeochemical data inversion. J Hum Evol 51, 329338.
227Ophel IL & Fraser CD (1970) Calcium and strontium discrimination by aquatic plants. Ecology 51, 324327.
228Ambrose SH & Deniro MJ (1986) The isotopic ecology of East-African mammals. Oecologia 69, 395406.
229Lee-Thorp JA, Sponheimer M, Passey BH, et al. . (2010) Stable isotopes in fossil hominin tooth enamel suggest a fundamental dietary shift in the Pliocene. Phil Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 365, 33893396.
230Sponheimer M & Lee-Thorp JA (2006) Enamel diagenesis at South African Australopith sites: implications for paleoecological reconstruction with trace elements. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 70, 16441654.
231Sponheimer M, Lee-Thorp J, de Ruiter D, et al. . (2005) Hominins, sedges, and termites: new carbon isotope data from the Sterkfontein valley and Kruger National Park. J Hum Evol 48, 301312.
232Vogel JC (1978) Isotopic assessment of dietary habits of ungulates. S Afr J Sci 74, 298301.
233Cerling TE, Harris JM, MacFadden BJ, et al. . (1997) Global vegetation change through the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. Nature 389, 153158.
234Peters CR & Vogel JC (2005) Africa's wild C-4 plant foods and possible early hominid diets. J Hum Evol 48, 219236.
235Segalen L, Lee-Thorp JA & Cerling T (2007) Timing of C-4 grass expansion across sub-Saharan Africa. J Hum Evol 53, 549559.
236Sponheimer M, Reed KE & Lee-Thorp JA (1999) Combining isotopic and ecomorphological data to refine bovid paleodietary reconstruction: a case study from the Makapansgat Limeworks hominin locality. J Hum Evol 36, 705718.
237Lee-Thorp J, Thackeray JF & van der Merwe N (2000) The hunters and the hunted revisited. J Hum Evol 39, 565576.
238Sponheimer M, Lee-Thorp JA & de Ruiter DJ (2007) Icarus, Isotopes, and Australopith Diets. In Evolution of the Human Diet: The Known, the Unknown, and the Unknowable, pp. 132149 [Ungar P, editor]. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
239Kelly JF (2000) Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen in the study of avian and mammalian trophic ecology. Can J Zool 78, 127.
240Schoeninger MJ & Deniro MJ (1984) Nitrogen and carbon isotopic composition of bone-collagen from marine and terrestrial animals. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 48, 625639.
241Mbabazi D, Makanga B, Orach-Meza F, et al. . (2010) Intra-lake stable isotope ratio variation in selected fish species and their possible carbon sources in Lake Kyoga (Uganda): implications for aquatic food web studies. Afr J Ecol 48, 667675.
242Schoeninger MJ, Deniro MJ & Tauber H (1983) Stable nitrogen isotope ratios of bone-collagen reflect marine and terrestrial components of prehistoric human diet. Science 220, 13811383.
243Sponheimer M & Lee-Thorp JA (2003) Differential resource utilization by extant great apes and australopithecines: towards solving the C-4 conundrum. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 136, 2734.
244Lee-Thorp JA, Sponheimer M & Luyt J (2007) Tracking changing environments using stable carbon isotopes in fossil tooth enamel: an example from the South African hominin sites. J Hum Evol 53, 595601.
245van der Merwe NJ, Masao FT & Bamford MK (2008) Isotopic evidence for contrasting diets of early hominins Homo habilis and Australopithecus boisei of Tanzania. S Afr J Sci 104, 153155.
246Schoeninger MJ, Moore J & Sept JM (1999) Subsistence strategies of two ‘savanna’ chimpanzee populations: the stable isotope evidence. Am J Primatol 49, 297314.
247Sponheimer M, Loudon JE, Codron D, et al. . (2006) Do “savanna” chimpanzees consume C-4 resources? J Hum Evol 51, 128133.
248Sponheimer M & Lee-Thorp JA (1999) Oxygen isotopes in enamel carbonate and their ecological significance. J Archaeol Sci 26, 723728.
249Sponheimer M & Lee-Thorp JA (2001) The oxygen isotope composition of mammalian enamel carbonate from Morea Estate, South Africa. Oecologia 126, 153157.
250Hu Y, Shang H, Tong H, et al. . (2009) Stable isotope dietary analysis of the Tianyuan 1 early modern human. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106, 1097110974.
251Richards MP, Pettitt PB, Trinkaus E, et al. . (2000) Neanderthal diet at Vindija and Neanderthal predation: the evidence from stable isotopes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97, 76637666.
252Richards MP, Pettitt PB, Stiner MC, et al. . (2001) Stable isotope evidence for increasing dietary breadth in the European mid-Upper Paleolithic. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98, 65286532.
253Richards MP (2002) A brief review of the archaeological evidence for Palaeolithic and Neolithic subsistence. Eur J Clin Nutr 56, 12701278.
254Richards MP, Schulting RJ & Hedges RE (2003) Archaeology: sharp shift in diet at onset of Neolithic. Nature 425, 366.
255Richards MP, Jacobi R, Cook J, et al. . (2005) Isotope evidence for the intensive use of marine foods by Late Upper Palaeolithic humans. J Hum Evol 49, 390394.
256Richards MP & Trinkaus E (2009) Isotopic evidence for the diets of European Neanderthals and early modern humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106, 1603416039.
257van der Merwe NJ, Thackeray JF, Lee-Thorp JA, et al. . (2003) The carbon isotope ecology and diet of Australopithecus africanus at Sterkfontein, South Africa. J Hum Evol 44, 581597.
258Semaw S, Rogers MJ, Quade J, et al. . (2003) 2.6-Million-year-old stone tools and associated bones from OGS-6 and OGS-7, Gona, Afar, Ethiopia. J Hum Evol 45, 169177.
259McPherron SP, Alemseged Z, Marean CW, et al. . (2010) Evidence for stone-tool-assisted consumption of animal tissues before 3.39 million years ago at Dikika, Ethiopia. Nature 466, 857860.
260Willis LA, Eren MI & Rick TC (2008) Does butchering fish leave cut marks? J Archaeol Sci 35, 14381444.
261Braun DR, Harris JW, Levin NE, et al. . (2010) Early hominin diet included diverse terrestrial and aquatic animals 1·95 Ma in East Turkana, Kenya. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107, 1000210007.
262de Heinzelin J, Clark JD, White T, et al. . (1999) Environment and behavior of 2.5-million-year-old Bouri hominids. Science 284, 625629.
263Leonard WR, Robertson ML & Snodgrass JJ (2007) Energetics and the evolution of brain size in early Homo. In Guts and Brains. An Integrative Approach to the Hominin Record, pp. 2946 [Roebroeks W, editor]. Leiden: Leiden University Press.
264Simpson SW, Quade J, Levin NE, et al. . (2008) A female Homo erectus pelvis from Gona, Ethiopia. Science 322, 10891092.
265Bramble DM & Lieberman DE (2004) Endurance running and the evolution of Homo. Nature 432, 345352.
266Broadhurst CL, Wang Y, Crawford MA, et al. . (2002) Brain-specific lipids from marine, lacustrine, or terrestrial food resources: potential impact on early African Homo sapiens. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 131, 653673.
267Erlandson JM (2001) The archaeology of aquatic adaptations: paradigms for a new millennium. J Archaeol Res 9, 287350.
268Marean CW (2010) Coastal South Africa and the co-evolution of the modern human lineage and the coastal adaptation. In Trekking the Shore: Changing Coastlines and the Antiquity of Coastal Settlement, pp. 421440 [Bicho N, Haws JA and Davis LG, editors]. New York: Springer.
269Stewart KM (1994) Early hominid utilization of fish resources and implications for seasonality and behavior. J Hum Evol 27, 229245.
270Wang S, Lewis CM, Jakobsson M, et al. . (2007) Genetic variation and population structure in native Americans. PLoS Genet 3, e185.
271Pope GG (1989) Bamboo and human-evolution. In Natural History, pp. 4857, October 1989.
272Fagan BM (1990) The Journey from Eden: The Peopling of Our World. London: Thames and Hudson.
273Bar-Yosef O (1994) The lower Paleolithic of the Near East. J World Prehist 8, 211265.
274Cleyet-Merle J & Madelaine S (1995) Inland evidence of human sea coast exploitation in Palaeolithic France. In Man and Sea in the Mesolithic, pp. 303308 [Fischer A, editor]. Oxford: Oxbow Books.
275Klein RG, Avery G, Cruz-Uribe K, et al. . (1999) Duinefontein 2, an Acheulean Site in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. J Hum Evol 37, 153190.
276de Lumley H (1969) A Paleolithic camp at Nice. In Scientific American, vol. 220, pp. 4250.
277Villa P (1983) Terra Amata and the Middle Pleistocene Archaeological Record of Southern France (University of California Publications in Anthropology). Berkeley: University of California Press.
278Marean CW, Bar-Matthews M, Bernatchez J, et al. . (2007) Early human use of marine resources and pigment in South Africa during the Middle Pleistocene. Nature 449, 905908.
279Walter RC, Buffler RT, Bruggemann JH, et al. . (2000) Early human occupation of the Red Sea coast of Eritrea during the last interglacial. Nature 405, 6569.
280Stiner MC (1993) Honor Among Thieves: A Zooarchaeological Study of Neandertal Ecology. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
281von den Driesch A (2004) The Middle Stone Age fish fauna from the Klassies River main site, South Africa. Anthropozoologica 39, 3359.
282Erlandson JM (2010) Food for thought: the role of coastlines and aquatic resources in human evolution. In Human Brain Evolution: The Influence of Freshwater and Marine Food Resources, pp. 125136 [Cunnane SC and Stewart KM, editors]. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell.
283Klein RG, Cruz-Uribe K, Halkett D, et al. . (1999) Paleoenvironmental and human behavioral implications of the Boegoeberg 1 late pleistocene hyena den, Northern Cape Province, South Africa. Quatern Res 52, 393403.
284Marean CW, Goldberg P, Avery G, et al. . (2000) Middle Stone Age stratigraphy and excavations at Die Kelders Cave 1 (Western Cape Province, South Africa): the 1992, 1993, and 1995 field seasons. J Hum Evol 38, 742.
285Henshilwood C & Sealy J (1997) Bone artifacts from the Middle Stone Age at Blombos Cave, southern cape, South Africa. Curr Anthropol 38, 890895.
286Klein RG, Avery G, Cruz-Uribe K, et al. . (2004) The Ysterfontein 1 Middle Stone Age site, South Africa, and early human exploitation of coastal resources. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101, 57085715.
287Avery G, Halkett D, Orton J, et al. . (2008) The Ysterfontein 1 Middle Stone Age rock shelter and the evolution of coastal foraging. S Afr Archaeol Soc Goodwin Ser 10, 6689.
288Henshilwood C, d'Errico F, Vanhaeren M, et al. . (2004) Middle Stone Age shell beads from South Africa. Science 304, 404.
289Harris JW, Williamson PG, Morris PJ, et al. (1990) Archaeology of the Lusso beds. In Evolution of Environments and Hominidae in the African Western Rift Valley, pp. 237272 [Boaz NT, editor]. Martinsville: Virginia Museum of Natural History.
290Meylan P (1990) Fossil turtles from the upper Semliki, Zaire. In Evolution of Environments and Hominidae in the African Western Rift Valley, pp. 163170 [Boaz NT, editor]. Martinsville: Virginia Museum of Natural History.
291Henshilwood CS, Sealy JC, Yates R, et al. . (2001) Blombos Cave, Southern Cape, South Africa: preliminary report on the 1992–1999 excavations of the Middle Stone Age levels. J Archaeol Sci 28, 421448.
292Wickler S & Spriggs M (1988) Pleistocene human occupation of the Solomon-Islands, Melanesia. Antiquity 62, 703706.
293Allen J, Gosden C, Jones R, et al. . (1988) Pleistocene dates for the human occupation of New Ireland, northern Melanesia. Nature 331, 707709.
294O'Connor S, Ono R & Clarkson C (2011) Pelagic fishing at 42 000 years before the present and the maritime skills of modern humans. Science 334, 11171121.
295Morwood MJ, O'Sullivan PB, Aziz F, et al. . (1998) Fission-track ages of stone tools and fossils on the east Indonesian island of Flores. Nature 392, 173176.
296Morwood MJ, Aziz F, O'Sullivan P, et al. . (1999) Archaeological and palaeontological research in central Flores, east Indonesia: results of fieldwork 1997–98. Antiquity 73, 273286.
297Morwood MJ, Brown P, Jatmiko, et al. . (2005) Further evidence for small-bodied hominins from the Late Pleistocene of Flores, Indonesia. Nature 437, 10121017.
298Westaway KE, Morwood MJ, Roberts RG, et al. . (2007) Establishing the time of initial human occupation of Liang Bua, western Flores, Indonesia. Quat Geochronol 2, 337343.
299Brumm A, Jensen GM, van den Bergh GD, et al. . (2010) Hominins on Flores, Indonesia, by one million years ago. Nature 464, 748752.
300Sept JM (1986) Plant foods and early hominids at Site Fxjj 50, Koobi-Fora, Kenya. J Hum Evol 15, 751770.
301Gibbons A (2007) Paleoanthropology. Food for thought. Science 316, 15581560.
302Wobber V, Hare B & Wrangham R (2008) Great apes prefer cooked food. J Hum Evol 55, 340348.
303Goren-Inbar N, Alperson N, Kislev ME, et al. . (2004) Evidence of hominin control of fire at Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, Israel. Science 304, 725727.
304Roebroeks W & Villa P (2011) On the earliest evidence for habitual use of fire in Europe. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108, 52095214.
305Henry AG, Brooks AS & Piperno DR (2011) Microfossils in calculus demonstrate consumption of plants and cooked foods in Neanderthal diets (Shanidar III, Iraq; Spy I and II, Belgium). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108, 486491.
306Crawford MA, Bloom M, Cunnane S, et al. . (2001) Docosahexaenoic acid and cerebral evolution. World Rev Nutr Diet 88, 617.
307Parkington J (2003) Middens and moderns: shellfishing and the Middle Stone Age of the Western Cape, South Africa. S Afr J Sci 99, 243247.
308Parkington J, Roggenpoel C, Halkett D, et al. (2009) Initial observations on the Middle Stone Age coastal settlement in the Western Cape, South Africa. In Settlement Dynamics of the Middle Paleolithic and Middle Stone Age, pp. 522 [Conard NJ, editor]. Tubingen: Tubingen Publications in Prehistory.
309Cordain L, Eaton SB, Sebastian A, et al. . (2005) Origins and evolution of the Western diet: implications of iodine and seafood intakes for the human brain – reply. Am J Clin Nutr 82, 483484.
310Nadel D, Weiss E, Simchoni O, et al. . (2004) Stone Age hut in Israel yields world's oldest evidence of bedding. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101, 68216826.
311Weiss E, Wetterstrom W, Nadel D, et al. . (2004) The broad spectrum revisited: evidence from plant remains. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101, 95519555.
312Kislev ME, Weiss E, Hartmann A & Hartmann A (2004) Impetus for sowing and the beginning of agriculture: ground collecting of wild cereals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101, 26922695.
313Kimbel WH, Walter RC, Johanson DC, et al. . (1996) Late Pliocene Homo and Oldowan tools from the Hadar formation (Kada Hadar Member), Ethiopia. J Hum Evol 31, 549561.
314Lee RB (1968) What hunters do for a living, or, how to make out on scarce resources. In Man the Hunter, pp. 3048 [Lee RB and DeVore I, editors]. New York: Aldine Publishing Company.
315Murdock GV (1967) Ethnographic Atlas. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
316Stewart JH (1968) Causal factors and processes in the evolution of pre-farming societies. In Man the Hunter, pp. 321334 [Lee RB and DeVore I, editors]. New York: Aldine Publishing Company.
317Meehan B (1982) Shell Bed to Shell Midden. Canberra: Humanity Press.
318Moss ML (1993) Shellfish, gender, and status on the Northwest Coast – reconciling archaeological, ethnographic, and ethnohistorical records of the Tlingit. Am Anthropol 95, 631652.
319Godfrey KM, Lillycrop KA, Burdge GC, et al. . (2007) Epigenetic mechanisms and the mismatch concept of the developmental origins of health and disease. Pediatr Res 61, 5R10R.
320Burdge GC, Hanson MA, Slater-Jefferies JL, et al. . (2007) Epigenetic regulation of transcription: a mechanism for inducing variations in phenotype (fetal programming) by differences in nutrition during early life? Br J Nutr 97, 10361046.
321Waterland RA & Jirtle RL (2004) Early nutrition, epigenetic changes at transposons and imprinted genes, and enhanced susceptibility to adult chronic diseases. Nutrition 20, 6368.
322Lillycrop KA & Burdge GC (2010) Epigenetic changes in early life and future risk of obesity. Int J Obes (Lond) 35, 7283.
323Godfrey KM, Sheppard A, Gluckman PD, et al. . (2011) Epigenetic gene promoter methylation at birth is associated with child's later adiposity. Diabetes 60, 15281534.
324Bensinger SJ & Tontonoz P (2008) Integration of metabolism and inflammation by lipid-activated nuclear receptors. Nature 454, 470477.
325Castrillo A & Tontonoz P (2004) PPARs in atherosclerosis: the clot thickens. J Clin Invest 114, 15381540.
326Song Y, Yao X & Ying H (2011) Thyroid hormone action in metabolic regulation. Protein Cell 2, 358368.
327Bouillon R, Bischoff-Ferrari H & Willett W (2008) Vitamin D and health: perspectives from mice and man. J Bone Miner Res 23, 974979.
328McGrane MM (2007) Vitamin A regulation of gene expression: molecular mechanism of a prototype gene. J Nutr Biochem 18, 497508.
329Venturi S, Donati FM, Venturi A, et al. . (2000) Role of iodine in evolution and carcinogenesis of thyroid, breast and stomach. Adv Clin Path 4, 1117.
330Kohrle J & Gartner R (2009) Selenium and thyroid. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 23, 815827.
331Gilbert ME, McLanahan ED, Hedge J, et al. . (2011) Marginal iodide deficiency and thyroid function: dose–response analysis for quantitative pharmacokinetic modeling. Toxicology 283, 4148.
332Desvergne B & Wahli W (1999) Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: nuclear control of metabolism. Endocr Rev 20, 649688.
333Norman AW & Bouillon R (2010) Vitamin D nutritional policy needs a vision for the future. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 235, 10341045.
334Holick MF & Chen TC (2008) Vitamin D deficiency: a worldwide problem with health consequences. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 1080S1086S.
335Mann GV, Roels OA, Price DL, et al. . (1962) Cardiovascular disease in African Pygmies. A survey of the health status, serum lipids and diet of Pygmies in Congo. J Chron Dis 15, 341371.
336Mann GV, Shaffer RD, Anderson RS, et al. . (1964) Cardiovascular disease in the Masai. J Atheroscler Res 4, 289312.
337Mann GV, Shaffer RD & Rich A (1965) Physical fitness and immunity to heart disease in Masai. Lancet ii, 13081310.
338Shaper AG, Leonard PJ, Jones KW, et al. . (1969) Environmental effects on the body build, blood pressure and blood chemistry of nomadic warriors serving in the army in Kenya. East Afr Med J 46, 282289.
339O'Keefe JH Jr, Cordain L, Harris WH, et al. . (2004) Optimal low-density lipoprotein is 50 to 70 mg/dl: lower is better and physiologically normal. J Am Coll Cardiol 43, 21422146.
340Joffe BI, Jackson WP, Thomas ME, et al. . (1971) Metabolic responses to oral glucose in the Kalahari Bushmen. Br Med J 4, 206208.
341Merimee TJ, Rimoin DL & Cavalli-Sforza LL (1972) Metabolic studies in the African pygmy. J Clin Invest 51, 395401.
342Ramsden CE, Faurot KR, Carrera-Bastos P, et al. . (2009) Dietary fat quality and coronary heart disease prevention: a unified theory based on evolutionary, historical, global, and modern perspectives. Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med 11, 289301.
343Keys AB (1980) Seven Countries: A Multivariate Analysis of Death and Coronary Heart Disease. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
344Clarke R, Frost C, Collins R, et al. . (1997) Dietary lipids and blood cholesterol: quantitative meta-analysis of metabolic ward studies. BMJ 314, 112117.
345Kuipers RS, de Graaf DJ, Luxwolda MF, et al. . (2011) Saturated fat, carbohydrates and CVD. Neth J Med 69, 2228.
346Ho KJ, Biss K, Mikkelson B, et al. . (1971) The Masai of East Africa: some unique biological characteristics. Arch Pathol 91, 387410.
347Biss K, Ho KJ, Mikkelson B, et al. . (1971) Some unique biologic characteristics of the Masai of East Africa. N Engl J Med 284, 694699.
348Mann GV, Spoerry A, Gray M, et al. . (1972) Atherosclerosis in the Masai. Am J Epidemiol 95, 2637.
349Kaminer B & Lutz WPW (1960) Blood pressure in Bushmen of the Kalahari Desert. Circulation 22, 289295.
350Clement AJ, Fosdick LL & Plotkin R (1956) The formation of lactic acid in dental plaques. II. Oral conditions of primitive Bushmen of the Western Kalahari Desert. J Dent Res 35, 786791.
351Lindeberg S, Berntorp E, Nilsson-Ehle P, et al. . (1997) Age relations of cardiovascular risk factors in a traditional Melanesian society: the Kitava Study. Am J Clin Nutr 66, 845852.
352Sackett DL, Rosenberg WM, Gray JA, et al. . (1996) Evidence based medicine: what it is and what it isn't. BMJ 312, 7172.
353Blumberg J, Heaney RP, Huncharek M, et al. . (2010) Evidence-based criteria in the nutritional context. Nutr Rev 68, 478484.
354Dyerberg J, Bang HO & Hjorne N (1975) Fatty acid composition of the plasma lipids in Greenland Eskimos. Am J Clin Nutr 28, 958966.
355Bang HO, Dyerberg J & Sinclair HM (1980) The composition of the Eskimo food in north western Greenland. Am J Clin Nutr 33, 26572661.
356Burr ML, Fehily AM, Gilbert JF, et al. . (1989) Effects of changes in fat, fish, and fibre intakes on death and myocardial reinfarction: diet and reinfarction trial (DART). Lancet ii, 757761.
357Mozaffarian D & Rimm EB (2006) Fish intake, contaminants, and human health: evaluating the risks and the benefits. JAMA 296, 18851899.
358de Lorgeril M, Salen P, Martin JL, et al. . (1999) Mediterranean diet, traditional risk factors, and the rate of cardiovascular complications after myocardial infarction: final report of the Lyon Diet Heart Study. Circulation 99, 779785.
359Anonymous (1999) Dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E after myocardial infarction: results of the GISSI-Prevenzione trial. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto miocardico. Lancet 354, 447455.
360Marchioli R, Barzi F, Bomba E, et al. . (2002) Early protection against sudden death by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids after myocardial infarction: time-course analysis of the results of the Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardico (GISSI)-Prevenzione. Circulation 105, 18971903.
361Yokoyama M, Origasa H, Matsuzaki M, et al. . (2007) Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on major coronary events in hypercholesterolaemic patients (JELIS): a randomised open-label, blinded endpoint analysis. Lancet 369, 10901098.
362Kromhout D, Giltay EJ, Geleijnse JM, et al. . (2010) n-3 Fatty acids and cardiovascular events after myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 363, 20152026.
363Hibbeln JR (1998) Fish consumption and major depression. Lancet 351, 1213.
364Hibbeln JR (2002) Seafood consumption, the DHA content of mothers' milk and prevalence rates of postpartum depression: a cross-national, ecological analysis. J Affect Disord 69, 1529.
365Hibbeln JR (2009) Depression, suicide and deficiencies of omega-3 essential fatty acids in modern diets. World Rev Nutr Diet 99, 1730.
366Hibbeln JR (2001) Seafood consumption and homicide mortality. A cross-national ecological analysis. World Rev Nutr Diet 88, 4146.
367Lin PY & Su KP (2007) A meta-analytic review of double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of antidepressant efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids. J Clin Psychiatry 68, 10561061.
368Ross BM, Seguin J & Sieswerda LE (2007) Omega-3 fatty acids as treatments for mental illness: which disorder and which fatty acid? Lipids Health Dis 6, 21.
369Sinclair AJ, Begg D, Mathai M, et al. . (2007) Omega 3 fatty acids and the brain: review of studies in depression. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 16, Suppl. 1, 391397.
370Freeman MP (2000) Omega-3 fatty acids in psychiatry: a review. Ann Clin Psychiatry 12, 159165.
371Freeman MP, Hibbeln JR, Wisner KL, et al. . (2006) Omega-3 fatty acids: evidence basis for treatment and future research in psychiatry. J Clin Psychiatry 67, 19541967.
372Sublette ME, Ellis SP, Geant AL, et al. . (2011) Meta-analysis of the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in clinical trials in depression. J Clin Psychiatry 72, 15771584.
373Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (2007) Genome-wide association study of 14 000 cases of seven common diseases and 3,000 shared controls. Nature 447, 661678.
374Challem JJ (1997) Did the loss of endogenous ascorbate propel the evolution of Anthropoidea and Homo sapiens? Med Hypotheses 48, 387392.
375Nishikimi M, Fukuyama R, Minoshima S, et al. . (1994) Cloning and chromosomal mapping of the human nonfunctional gene for l-gulono-γ-lactone oxidase, the enzyme for l-ascorbic acid biosynthesis missing in man. J Biol Chem 269, 1368513688.
376Burdge GC & Wootton SA (2002) Conversion of α-linolenic acid to eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in young women. Br J Nutr 88, 411420.
377Burdge GC (2006) Metabolism of α-linolenic acid in humans. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 75, 161168.
378Kuipers RS, Luxwolda MF, Janneke Dijck-Brouwer DA, et al. . (2011) Intrauterine, postpartum and adult relationships between arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 85, 245252.
379Luxwolda MF, Kuipers RS, Smit EN, et al. . (2011) The relation between the omega-3 index and arachidonic acid is bell shaped: synergistic at low EPA+DHA status and antagonistic at high EPA+DHA status. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 85, 171178.
380Crawford MA, Hassam AG, Williams G, et al. . (1976) Essential fatty acids and fetal brain growth. Lancet i, 452453.
381Kuhn DC & Crawford M (1986) Placental essential fatty acid transport and prostaglandin synthesis. Prog Lipid Res 25, 345353.
382Crawford MA, Hassam AG & Rivers JP (1978) Essential fatty acid requirements in infancy. Am J Clin Nutr 31, 21812185.
383Hornstra G (2000) Essential fatty acids in mothers and their neonates. Am J Clin Nutr 71, 1262S1269S.
384Hornstra G (2005) Essential fatty acids during pregnancy. Impact on mother and child. Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Pediatr Program 55, 8396.
385Makrides M, Gibson RA, McPhee AJ, et al. . (2010) Effect of DHA supplementation during pregnancy on maternal depression and neurodevelopment of young children: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 304, 16751683.
386Doornbos B, van Goor SA, Dijck-Brouwer DA, et al. . (2009) Supplementation of a low dose of DHA or DHA+AA does not prevent peripartum depressive symptoms in a small population based sample. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 33, 4952.
387Su KP, Huang SY, Chiu TH, et al. . (2008) Omega-3 fatty acids for major depressive disorder during pregnancy: results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Psychiatry 69, 644651.
388Wojcicki JM & Heyman MB (2011) Maternal omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and risk for perinatal maternal depression. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 24, 680686.
389Koletzko B & Braun M (1991) Arachidonic acid and early human growth: is there a relation? Ann Nutr Metab 35, 128131.
390Szajewska H, Horvath A & Koletzko B (2006) Effect of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation of women with low-risk pregnancies on pregnancy outcomes and growth measures at birth: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 13371344.
391Olsen SF, Osterdal ML, Salvig JD, et al. . (2006) Duration of pregnancy in relation to seafood intake during early and mid pregnancy: prospective cohort. Eur J Epidemiol 21, 749758.
392Olsen SF, Osterdal ML, Salvig JD, et al. . (2007) Duration of pregnancy in relation to fish oil supplementation and habitual fish intake: a randomised clinical trial with fish oil. Eur J Clin Nutr 61, 976985.
393Malcolm CA, McCulloch DL, Montgomery C, et al. . (2003) Maternal docosahexaenoic acid supplementation during pregnancy and visual evoked potential development in term infants: a double blind, prospective, randomised trial. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 88, F383F390.
394Malcolm CA, Hamilton R, McCulloch DL, et al. . (2003) Scotopic electroretinogram in term infants born of mothers supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid during pregnancy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 44, 36853691.
395Judge MP, Harel O & Lammi-Keefe CJ (2007) A docosahexaenoic acid-functional food during pregnancy benefits infant visual acuity at four but not six months of age. Lipids 42, 117122.
396Birch EE, Carlson SE, Hoffman DR, et al. . (2010) The DIAMOND (DHA Intake And Measurement Of Neural Development) Study: a double-masked, randomized controlled clinical trial of the maturation of infant visual acuity as a function of the dietary level of docosahexaenoic acid. Am J Clin Nutr 91, 848859.
397Smithers LG, Gibson RA, McPhee A, et al. . (2008) Higher dose of docosahexaenoic acid in the neonatal period improves visual acuity of preterm infants: results of a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 88, 10491056.
398Judge MP, Harel O & Lammi-Keefe CJ (2007) Maternal consumption of a docosahexaenoic acid-containing functional food during pregnancy: benefit for infant performance on problem-solving but not on recognition memory tasks at age 9 mo. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 15721577.
399Dunstan JA, Simmer K, Dixon G, et al. . (2008) Cognitive assessment of children at age 2(1/2) years after maternal fish oil supplementation in pregnancy: a randomised controlled trial. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 93, F45F50.
400Helland IB, Smith L, Saarem K, et al. . (2003) Maternal supplementation with very-long-chain n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation augments children's IQ at 4 years of age. Pediatrics 111, e39e44.
401Helland IB, Smith L, Blomen B, et al. . (2008) Effect of supplementing pregnant and lactating mothers with n-3 very-long-chain fatty acids on children's IQ and body mass index at 7 years of age. Pediatrics 122, e472e479.
402McCann JC & Ames BN (2005) Is docosahexaenoic acid, an n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid, required for development of normal brain function? An overview of evidence from cognitive and behavioral tests in humans and animals. Am J Clin Nutr 82, 281295.
403Dijck-Brouwer DA, Hadders-Algra M, Bouwstra H, et al. . (2005) Lower fetal status of docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid and essential fatty acids is associated with less favorable neonatal neurological condition. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 72, 2128.
404Moriguchi T, Loewke J, Garrison M, et al. . (2001) Reversal of docosahexaenoic acid deficiency in the rat brain, retina, liver, and serum. J Lipid Res 42, 419427.
405Rao JS, Ertley RN, DeMar JC Jr, et al. . (2007) Dietary n-3 PUFA deprivation alters expression of enzymes of the arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid cascades in rat frontal cortex. Mol Psychiatry 12, 151157.
406van Goor SA, Smit EN, Schaafsma A, et al. . (2008) Milk of women with lifetime consumption of the recommended daily intake of fish fatty acids should constitute the basis for the DHA contents of infant formula. J Perinat Med 36, 548549.
407Brenna JT, Varamini B, Jensen RG, et al. . (2007) Docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid concentrations in human breast milk worldwide. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 14571464.
408Koletzko B, Lien E, Agostoni C, et al. . (2008) The roles of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnancy, lactation and infancy: review of current knowledge and consensus recommendations. J Perinat Med 36, 514.
409Kuipers RS, Smit EN, van der Meulen J, et al. . (2007) Milk in the island of Chole [Tanzania] is high in lauric, myristic, arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids, and low in linoleic acid reconstructed diet of infants born to our ancestors living in tropical coastal regions. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 76, 221233.
410Hachey DL, Silber GH, Wong WW, et al. . (1989) Human lactation. II: Endogenous fatty acid synthesis by the mammary gland. Pediatr Res 25, 6368.
411Kabara JJ (1980) Lipids as host-resistance factors of human milk. Nutr Rev 38, 6573.
412Bergsson G, Steingrimsson O & Thormar H (2002) Bactericidal effects of fatty acids and monoglycerides on Helicobacter pylori. Int J Antimicrob Agents 20, 258262.
413Widdowson EM, Dauncey MJ, Gairdner DM, et al. . (1975) Body fat of British and Dutch infants. Br Med J 1, 653655.
414Ailhaud G, Massiera F, Weill P, et al. . (2006) Temporal changes in dietary fats: role of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in excessive adipose tissue development and relationship to obesity. Prog Lipid Res 45, 203236.
415Ramsden CE, Hibbeln JR, Majchrzak SF, et al. . (2010) n-6 Fatty acid-specific and mixed polyunsaturate dietary interventions have different effects on CHD risk: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Br J Nutr 104, 15861600.
416Harris WS, Mozaffarian D, Rimm E, et al. . (2009) Omega-6 fatty acids and risk for cardiovascular disease: a science advisory from the American Heart Association Nutrition Subcommittee of the Council on Nutrition. Circulation 119, 902907.
417Gibson RA, Muhlhausler B & Makrides M (2011) Conversion of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), with a focus on pregnancy, lactation and the first 2 years of life. Matern Child Nutr 7, Suppl. 2, 1726.
418Koletzko B, Thiel I & Abiodun PO (1992) The fatty acid composition of human milk in Europe and Africa. J Pediatr 120, S62S70.
419Godfrey K, Robinson S, Barker DJ, et al. . (1996) Maternal nutrition in early and late pregnancy in relation to placental and fetal growth. BMJ 312, 410414.
420Innis SM & Kuhnlein HV (1988) Long-chain n-3 fatty acids in breast milk of Inuit women consuming traditional foods. Early Hum Dev 18, 185189.
421Ruan C, Liu X, Man H, et al. . (1995) Milk composition in women from five different regions of China: the great diversity of milk fatty acids. J Nutr 125, 29932998.
422Muskiet FA, Kuipers RS, Smit EN, et al. . (2007) The basis of recommendations for docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids in infant formula: absolute or relative standards? Am J Clin Nutr 86, 18021803.
423Willett WC (2002) Balancing life-style and genomics research for disease prevention. Science 296, 695698.
424Yudkin J (1963) Dietary carbohydrate and ischemic heart disease. Am Heart J 66, 835836.
425Yudkin J (1967) Evolutionary and historical changes in dietary carbohydrates. Am J Clin Nutr 20, 108115.
426Eaton SB (1992) Humans, lipids and evolution. Lipids 27, 814820.
427Cordain L, Watkins BA & Mann NJ (2001) Fatty acid composition and energy density of foods available to African hominids. Evolutionary implications for human brain development. World Rev Nutr Diet 90, 144161.
428Crawford MA (1968) Fatty-acid ratios in free-living and domestic animals. Possible implications for atheroma. Lancet i, 13291333.
429O'Dea K & Sinclair AJ (1982) Increased proportion of arachidonic acid in plasma lipids after 2 weeks on a diet of tropical seafood. Am J Clin Nutr 36, 868872.
430Sinclair AJ, O'Dea K & Naughton JM (1983) Elevated levels of arachidonic acid in fish from northern Australian coastal waters. Lipids 18, 877881.
431Gibson RA, Kneebone R & Kneebone GM (1984) Comparative levels of arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in Malaysian fish. Comp Biochem Physiol C 78, 325328.
432Naughton JM, O'Dea K & Sinclair AJ (1986) Animal foods in traditional Australian aboriginal diets: polyunsaturated and low in fat. Lipids 21, 684690.
433Konner M & Eaton SB (2010) Paleolithic nutrition: twenty-five years later. Nutr Clin Pract 25, 594602.
434Eaton SB, Eaton SB III & Konner MJ (1997) Paleolithic nutrition revisited: a twelve-year retrospective on its nature and implications. Eur J Clin Nutr 51, 207216.
435Eaton SB & Eaton SB III (2000) Paleolithic vs. modern diets – selected pathophysiological implications. Eur J Nutr 39, 6770.
436Cordain L, Miller JB, Eaton SB, et al. . (2000) Macronutrient estimations in hunter–gatherer diets. Am J Clin Nutr 72, 15891592.
437Kuipers RS, Luxwolda MF, Dijck-Brouwer DA, et al. . (2010) Estimated macronutrient and fatty acid intakes from an East African Paleolithic diet. Br J Nutr 104, 16661687.
438Morgan E (1997) The Aquatic Ape Hypothesis. London: Souvenir Press.
439Horrobin DF (2001) The Madness of Adam and Eve. How Schizophrenia Shaped Humanity. Reading: Cox & Wyman Ltd.
440Hotamisligil GS & Erbay E (2008) Nutrient sensing and inflammation in metabolic diseases. Nat Rev Immunol 8, 923934.
441Forsythe CE, Phinney SD, Fernandez ML, et al. . (2008) Comparison of low fat and low carbohydrate diets on circulating fatty acid composition and markers of inflammation. Lipids 43, 6577.
442Volek JS, Phinney SD, Forsythe CE, et al. . (2009) Carbohydrate restriction has a more favorable impact on the metabolic syndrome than a low fat diet. Lipids 44, 297309.
443Forsythe CE, Phinney SD, Feinman RD, et al. . (2010) Limited effect of dietary saturated fat on plasma saturated fat in the context of a low carbohydrate diet. Lipids 45, 947962.
444Simopoulos AP (1999) Essential fatty acids in health and chronic disease. Am J Clin Nutr 70, 560S569S.
445Simopoulos AP (2001) Evolutionary aspects of diet and essential fatty acids. World Rev Nutr Diet 88, 1827.
446Feinman RD & Volek JS (2006) Low carbohydrate diets improve atherogenic dyslipidemia even in the absence of weight loss. Nutr Metab (Lond) 3, 24.
447Osterdahl M, Kocturk T, Koochek A, et al. . (2008) Effects of a short-term intervention with a Paleolithic diet in healthy volunteers. Eur J Clin Nutr 62, 682685.
448Jönsson T, Granfeldt Y, Ahrén B, et al. . (2009) Beneficial effects of a Paleolithic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: a randomized cross-over pilot study. Cardiovasc Diabetol 8, 35.
449Lindeberg S, Jonsson T, Granfeldt Y, et al. . (2007) A Palaeolithic diet improves glucose tolerance more than a Mediterranean-like diet in individuals with ischaemic heart disease. Diabetologia 50, 17951807.
450Frassetto LA, Schloetter M, Mietus-Synder M, et al. . (2009) Metabolic and physiologic improvements from consuming a Paleolithic, hunter–gatherer type diet. Eur J Clin Nutr 63, 947955.