This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
CS Pittendrigh (1993) Temporal organization: reflections of a Darwinian clock-watcher. Annu Rev Physiol
2 Y Ouyang , CR Andersson , T Kondo , et al. (1998) Resonating circadian clocks enhance fitness in cyanobacteria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95, 8660–8664.
FK Stephan & I Zucker (1972) Circadian rhythms in drinking behavior and locomotor activity of rats are eliminated by hypothalamic lesions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
G Groos & J Hendriks (1982) Circadian rhythms in electrical discharge of rat suprachiasmatic neurones recorded in vitro
. Neurosci Lett
9 G Tosini & M Menaker (1996) Circadian rhythms in cultured mammalian retina. Science 272, 419–421.
K Sakamoto , T Nagase , H Fukui , et al. (1998) Multitissue circadian expression of rat period homolog (rPer2) mRNA is governed by the mammalian circadian clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the brain. J Biol Chem
S Yamazaki , R Numano , M Abe , et al. (2000) Resetting central and peripheral circadian oscillators in transgenic rats. Science
13 SH Yoo , S Yamazaki , PL Lowrey , et al. (2004) PERIOD2:LUCIFERASE real-time reporting of circadian dynamics reveals persistent circadian oscillations in mouse peripheral tissues. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101, 5339–5346.
14 A Balsalobre , F Damiola & U Schibler (1998) A serum shock induces circadian gene expression in mammalian tissue culture cells. Cell 93, 929–937.
15 E Nagoshi , C Saini , C Bauer , et al. (2004) Circadian gene expression in individual fibroblasts: cell-autonomous and self-sustained oscillators pass time to daughter cells. Cell 119, 693–705.
16 DK Welsh , SH Yoo , AC Liu , et al. (2004) Bioluminescence imaging of individual fibroblasts reveals persistent, independently phased circadian rhythms of clock gene expression. Curr Biol 14, 2289–2295.
DB Boivin , FO James , A Wu , et al. (2003) Circadian clock genes oscillate in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Blood
22 SA Brown , F Fleury-Olela , E Nagoshi , et al. (2005) The period length of fibroblast circadian gene expression varies widely among human individuals. PLoS Biol 3, e338.
25 DT Otway , S Mantele , S Bretschneider , et al. (2011) Rhythmic diurnal gene expression in human adipose tissue from individuals who are lean, overweight, and type 2 diabetic. Diabetes 60, 1577–1581.
26 JA Stamenkovic , AH Olsson , CL Nagorny , et al. (2012) Regulation of core clock genes in human islets. Metabolism 61, 978–985.
28 C Dibner & U Schibler (2010) Albrecht U The mammalian circadian timing system: organization and coordination of central and peripheral clocks. Annu Rev Physiol 72, 517–549.
S Panda , MP Antoch , BH Miller , et al. (2002) Coordinated transcription of key pathways in the mouse by the circadian clock. Cell
33 S Zvonic , AA Ptitsyn , SA Conrad , et al. (2006) Characterization of peripheral circadian clocks in adipose tissues. Diabetes 55, 962–970.
AB Reddy , NA Karp , ES Maywood , et al. (2006) Circadian orchestration of the hepatic proteome. Curr Biol
Y Minami , T Kasukawa , Y Kakazu , et al. (2009) Measurement of internal body time by blood metabolomics. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
36 KL Eckel-Mahan , VR Patel , RP Mohney , et al. (2012) Coordination of the transcriptome and metabolome by the circadian clock. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109, 5541–5546.
37 JM Fustin , M Doi , H Yamada , et al. (2012) Rhythmic nucleotide synthesis in the liver: temporal segregation of metabolites. Cell Rep 1, 341–349.
38 R Dallmann , AU Viola , L Tarokh , et al. (2012) The human circadian metabolome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109, 2625–2629.
JE Ang , V Revell , A Mann , et al. (2012) Identification of human plasma metabolites exhibiting time-of-day variation using an untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolomic approach. Chronobiol Int
40 T Kasukawa , M Sugimoto , A Hida , et al. (2012) Human blood metabolite timetable indicates internal body time. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109, 15036–15041.
JD Johnston , G Frost & DT Otway (2009) Adipose tissue, adipocytes and the circadian timing system. Obes Rev
10, Suppl. 2, 52–60.
43 RD Rudic , P McNamara , AM Curtis , et al. (2004) BMAL1 and CLOCK, two essential components of the circadian clock, are involved in glucose homeostasis. PLoS Biol 2, e377.
FW Turek , C Joshu , A Kohsaka , et al. (2005) Obesity and metabolic syndrome in circadian Clock mutant mice. Science
S Yang , A Liu , A Weidenhammer , et al. (2009) The role of mPer2 clock gene in glucocorticoid and feeding rhythms. Endocrinology
46 MJ Costa , AY So , K Kaasik , et al. (2011) Circadian rhythm gene period 3 is an inhibitor of the adipocyte cell fate. J Biol Chem 286, 9063–9070.
47 H Cho , X Zhao , M Hatori , et al. (2012) Regulation of circadian behaviour and metabolism by REV-ERB-α and REV-ERB-β. Nature 485, 123–127.
PY Woon , PJ Kaisaki , J Braganca , et al. (2007) Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like (BMAL1) is associated with susceptibility to hypertension and type 2 diabetes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
49 EM Scott , AM Carter & PJ Grant (2008) Association between polymorphisms in the Clock gene, obesity and the metabolic syndrome in man. Int J Obes 32, 658–662.
KA Lamia , KF Storch & CJ Weitz (2008) Physiological significance of a peripheral tissue circadian clock. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
55 B Marcheva , KM Ramsey , ED Buhr , et al. (2010) Disruption of the clock components CLOCK and BMAL1 leads to hypoinsulinaemia and diabetes. Nature 466, 627–631.
GK Paschos , S Ibrahim , WL Song , et al. (2012) Obesity in mice with adipocyte-specific deletion of clock component Arntl. Nat Med
FK Stephan (2002) The “other” circadian system: food as a Zeitgeber. J Biol Rhythms
60 E Challet , J Mendoza , H Dardente , et al. (2009) Neurogenetics of food anticipation. Eur J Neurosci 30, 1676–1687.
61 KF Storch & CJ Weitz (2009) Daily rhythms of food-anticipatory behavioral activity do not require the known circadian clock. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106, 6808–6813.
64 M Mieda , SC Williams , JA Richardson , et al. (2006) The dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus as a putative food-entrainable circadian pacemaker. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103, 12150–12155.
65 PM Fuller , J Lu & CB Saper (2008) Differential rescue of light- and food-entrainable circadian rhythms. Science 320, 1074–1077.
66 J Mendoza , P Pevet , MP Felder-Schmittbuhl , et al. (2010) The cerebellum harbors a circadian oscillator involved in food anticipation. J Neurosci 30, 1894–1904.
RE Mistlberger , RM Buijs , E Challet , et al. (2009) Standards of evidence in chronobiology: critical review of a report that restoration of Bmal1 expression in the dorsomedial hypothalamus is sufficient to restore circadian food anticipatory rhythms in Bmal1-/- mice. J Circ Rhythms
GJ Landry , BA Kent , DF Patton , et al. (2011) Evidence for time-of-day dependent effect of neurotoxic dorsomedial hypothalamic lesions on food anticipatory circadian rhythms in rats. PloS ONE
F Damiola , N Le Minh , N Preitner , et al. (2000) Restricted feeding uncouples circadian oscillators in peripheral tissues from the central pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Genes Dev
73 C Yoshida , N Shikata , S Seki , et al. (2012) Early nocturnal meal skipping alters the peripheral clock and increases lipogenesis in mice. Nutr Metab 9, 78.
74 J Mendoza , C Graff , H Dardente , et al. (2005) Feeding cues alter clock gene oscillations and photic responses in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of mice exposed to a light/dark cycle. J Neurosci 25, 1514–1522.
75 J Mendoza , S Gourmelen , S Dumont , et al. (2012) Setting the main circadian clock of a diurnal mammal by hypocaloric feeding. J Physiol 590, 3155–3168.
J Mendoza , K Drevet , P Pevet , et al. (2008) Daily meal timing is not necessary for resetting the main circadian clock by calorie restriction. J Neuroendocrinol
77 H Kuroda , Y Tahara , K Saito , et al. (2012) Meal frequency patterns determine the phase of mouse peripheral circadian clocks. Sci Rep 2, 711.
78 T Wu , L Sun , F ZhuGe , et al. (2011) Differential roles of breakfast and supper in rats of a daily three-meal schedule upon circadian regulation and physiology. Chronobiol Int 28, 890–903.
81 DA Schoeller , LK Cella , MK Sinha , et al. (1997) Entrainment of the diurnal rhythm of plasma leptin to meal timing. J Clin Invest 100, 1882–1887.
82 M Itokawa , A Hirao , H Nagahama , et al. (2013) Time-restricted feeding of rapidly digested starches causes stronger entrainment of the liver clock in PER2:LUCIFERASE knock-in mice. Nutr Res 33, 109–119.
83 A Hirao , Y Tahara , I Kimura , et al. (2009) A balanced diet is necessary for proper entrainment signals of the mouse liver clock. PloS ONE 4, e6909.
N Le Minh , F Damiola , F Tronche , et al. (2001) Glucocorticoid hormones inhibit food-induced phase-shifting of peripheral circadian oscillators. EMBO J
85 A Balsalobre , SA Brown , L Marcacci , et al. (2000) Resetting of circadian time in peripheral tissues by glucocorticoid signaling. Science 289, 2344–2347.
C Vollmers , S Gill , L DiTacchio , et al. (2009) Time of feeding and the intrinsic circadian clock drive rhythms in hepatic gene expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
L Zhang , D Abraham , ST Lin , et al. (2012) PKCγ participates in food entrainment by regulating BMAL1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
90 MJ Sopowski , SM Hampton , DC Ribeiro , et al. (2001) Postprandial triacylglycerol responses in simulated night and day shift: gender differences. J Biol Rhythms 16, 272–276.
GC Burdge , AE Jones , SM Frye , et al. (2003) Effect of meal sequence on postprandial lipid, glucose and insulin responses in young men. Eur J Clin Nutr
92 ME Trujillo & PE Scherer (2006) Adipose tissue-derived factors: impact on health and disease. Endocr Rev 27, 762–778.
94 MK Sinha , JP Ohannesian , ML Heiman , et al. (1996) Nocturnal rise of leptin in lean, obese, and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus subjects. J Clin Invest 97, 1344–1347.
96 SD Parlee , MC Ernst , S Muruganandan , et al. (2010) Serum chemerin levels vary with time of day and are modified by obesity and tumor necrosis factor-α. Endocrinology 151, 2590–2602.
100 DT Otway , G Frost & JD Johnston (2009) Circadian rhythmicity in murine pre-adipocyte and adipocyte cells. Chronobiol Int 26, 1340–1354.
101 JF Duffy & DJ Dijk (2002) Getting through to circadian oscillators: why use constant routines? J Biol Rhythms 17, 4–13.
102 K Blatter & C Cajochen (2007) Circadian rhythms in cognitive performance: methodological constraints, protocols, theoretical underpinnings. Physiol Behav 90, 196–208.
L Morgan , J Arendt , D Owens , et al. (1998) Effects of the endogenous clock and sleep time on melatonin, insulin, glucose and lipid metabolism. J Endocrinol
FA Scheer , MF Hilton , CS Mantzoros , et al. (2009) Adverse metabolic and cardiovascular consequences of circadian misalignment. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
HK Gonnissen , F Rutters , C Mazuy , et al. (2012) Effect of a phase advance and phase delay of the 24-h cycle on energy metabolism, appetite, and related hormones. Am J Clin Nutr
109 BO Yildiz , MA Suchard , ML Wong , et al. (2004) Alterations in the dynamics of circulating ghrelin, adiponectin, and leptin in human obesity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101, 10434–10439.
110 S Mantele , DT Otway , B Middleton , et al. (2012) Daily rhythms of plasma melatonin, but not plasma leptin or leptin mRNA, vary between lean, obese and type 2 diabetic men. PLOS ONE 7, e37123.
111 J Arendt , S Hampton , J English , et al. (1982) 24-Hour profiles of melatonin, cortisol, insulin, C-peptide and GIP following a meal and subsequent fasting. Clin Endocrinol 16, 89–95.
D Corbalan-Tutau , JA Madrid , F Nicolas , et al. (2014) Daily profile in two circadian markers “melatonin and cortisol” and associations with metabolic syndrome components. Physiol Behav
N Bouatia-Naji , A Bonnefond , C Cavalcanti-Proenca , et al. (2009) A variant near MTNR1B is associated with increased fasting plasma glucose levels and type 2 diabetes risk. Nat Genet
114 V Lyssenko , CL Nagorny , MR Erdos , et al. (2009) Common variant in MTNR1B associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and impaired early insulin secretion. Nat Genet 41, 82–88.
T Ronn , J Wen , Z Yang , et al. (2009) A common variant in MTNR1B, encoding melatonin receptor 1B, is associated with type 2 diabetes and fasting plasma glucose in Han Chinese individuals. Diabetologia
118 H Mulder , CL Nagorny , V Lyssenko , et al. (2009) Melatonin receptors in pancreatic islets: good morning to a novel type 2 diabetes gene. Diabetologia 52, 1240–1249.
119 S Contreras-Alcantara , K Baba & G Tosini (2010) Removal of melatonin receptor type 1 induces insulin resistance in the mouse. Obesity 18, 1861–1863.
TC Nogueira , C Lellis-Santos , DS Jesus , et al. (2011) Absence of melatonin induces night-time hepatic insulin resistance and increased gluconeogenesis due to stimulation of nocturnal unfolded protein response. Endocrinology
CJ McMullan , ES Schernhammer , EB Rimm , et al. (2013) Melatonin secretion and the incidence of type 2 diabetes. JAMA
CJ McMullan , GC Curhan , ES Schernhammer , et al. (2013) Association of nocturnal melatonin secretion with insulin resistance in nondiabetic young women. Am J Epidemiol
123 H Ando , H Yanagihara , Y Hayashi , et al. (2005) Rhythmic messenger ribonucleic acid expression of clock genes and adipocytokines in mouse visceral adipose tissue. Endocrinology 146, 5631–5636.
H Ando , Y Oshima , H Yanagihara , et al. (2006) Profile of rhythmic gene expression in the livers of obese diabetic KK-A(y) mice. Biochem Biophys Res Comm
129 MC Hsieh , SC Yang , HL Tseng , et al. (2010) Abnormal expressions of circadian-clock and circadian clock-controlled genes in the livers and kidneys of long-term, high-fat-diet-treated mice. Int J Obes 34, 227–239.
H Yanagihara , H Ando , Y Hayashi , et al. (2006) High-fat feeding exerts minimal effects on rhythmic mRNA expression of clock genes in mouse peripheral tissues. Chronobiol Int
131 JF Duffy , SW Cain , AM Chang , et al. (2011) Sex difference in the near-24-hour intrinsic period of the human circadian timing system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108, Suppl. 3, 15602–15608.
132 A Tchernof & JP Després (2013) Pathophysiology of human visceral obesity: an update. Physiol Rev 93, 359–404.
133 DM Arble , J Bass , AD Laposky , et al. (2009) Circadian timing of food intake contributes to weight gain. Obesity 17, 2100–2102.
134 H Sherman , Y Genzer , R Cohen , et al. (2012) Timed high-fat diet resets circadian metabolism and prevents obesity. FASEB J 26, 3493–3502.
136 K Casazza , KR Fontaine , A Astrup , et al. (2013) Myths, presumptions, and facts about obesity. New Eng J Med 368, 446–454.
AR Gallant , J Lundgren & V Drapeau (2012) The night-eating syndrome and obesity. Obes Rev
KG Baron , KJ Reid , AS Kern , et al. (2011) Role of sleep timing in caloric intake and BMI. Obesity
141 M Garaulet , P Gomez-Abellan , JJ Alburquerque-Bejar , et al. (2013) Timing of food intake predicts weight loss effectiveness. Int J Obes 37, 604–611.
D Jakubowicz , M Barnea , J Wainstein , et al. (2013) High caloric intake at breakfast vs. dinner differentially influences weight loss of overweight and obese women. Obesity
G Costa (2003) Shift work and occupational medicine: an overview. Occup Med
145 T Roenneberg , KV Allebrandt , M Merrow , et al. (2012) Social jetlag and obesity. Curr Biol 22, 939–943.
P Tucker , JC Marquie , S Folkard , et al. (2012) Shiftwork and metabolic dysfunction. Chronobiol Int
Y Esquirol , V Bongard , L Mabile , et al. (2009) Shift work and metabolic syndrome: respective impacts of job strain, physical activity, and dietary rhythms. Chronobiol Int
A Lowden , C Moreno , U Holmback , et al. (2010) Eating and shift work - effects on habits, metabolism and performance. Scan J Work Environ Health
149 S Folkard (2008) Do permanent night workers show circadian adjustment? A review based on the endogenous melatonin rhythm. Chronobiol Int 25, 215–224.
DC Ribeiro , SM Hampton , L Morgan , et al. (1998) Altered postprandial hormone and metabolic responses in a simulated shift work environment. J Endocrinol
152 J Lund , J Arendt , SM Hampton , et al. (2001) Postprandial hormone and metabolic responses amongst shift workers in Antarctica. J Endocrinol 171, 557–564.
153 G Vandewalle , P Maquet & DJ Dijk (2009) Light as a modulator of cognitive brain function. Trends Cog Sci 13, 429–438.
154 AM Chang , N Santhi , M St Hilaire , et al. (2012) Human responses to bright light of different durations. J Physiol 590, 3103–3112.
155 JL Barclay , J Husse , B Bode , et al. (2012) Circadian desynchrony promotes metabolic disruption in a mouse model of shiftwork. PLOS ONE 7, e37150.
156 R Salgado-Delgado , M Angeles-Castellanos , N Saderi , et al. (2010) Food intake during the normal activity phase prevents obesity and circadian desynchrony in a rat model of night work. Endocrinology 151, 1019–1029.