Skip to main content

Physiological responses to food intake throughout the day

  • Jonathan D. Johnston (a1)

Circadian rhythms act to optimise many aspects of our biology and thereby ensure that physiological processes are occurring at the most appropriate time. The importance of this temporal control is demonstrated by the strong associations between circadian disruption, morbidity and disease pathology. There is now a wealth of evidence linking the circadian timing system to metabolic physiology and nutrition. Relationships between these processes are often reciprocal, such that the circadian system drives temporal changes in metabolic pathways and changes in metabolic/nutritional status alter core molecular components of circadian rhythms. Examples of metabolic rhythms include daily changes in glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity and postprandial response. Time of day alters lipid and glucose profiles following individual meals whereas, over a longer time scale, meal timing regulates adiposity and body weight; these changes may occur via the ability of timed feeding to synchronise local circadian rhythms in metabolically active tissues. Much of the work in this research field has utilised animal and cellular model systems. Although these studies are highly informative and persuasive, there is a largely unmet need to translate basic biological data to humans. The results of such translational studies may open up possibilities for using timed dietary manipulations to help restore circadian synchrony and downstream physiology. Given the large number of individuals with disrupted rhythms due to, for example, shift work, jet-lag, sleep disorders and blindness, such dietary manipulations could provide widespread improvements in health and also economic performance.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Physiological responses to food intake throughout the day
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Physiological responses to food intake throughout the day
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Physiological responses to food intake throughout the day
      Available formats
The online version of this article is published within an Open Access environment subject to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution licence
Corresponding author
* Corresponding author: Dr Jonathan D. Johnston, fax +44 1483 686401, email
Hide All
1 Pittendrigh CS (1993) Temporal organization: reflections of a Darwinian clock-watcher. Annu Rev Physiol 55, 1654.
2 Ouyang Y, Andersson CR, Kondo T, et al. (1998) Resonating circadian clocks enhance fitness in cyanobacteria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95, 86608664.
3 Moore RY & Eichler VB (1972) Loss of a circadian adrenal corticosterone rhythm following suprachiasmatic lesions in the rat. Brain Res 42, 201206.
4 Stephan FK & Zucker I (1972) Circadian rhythms in drinking behavior and locomotor activity of rats are eliminated by hypothalamic lesions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 69, 15831586.
5 Inouye ST & Kawamura H (1979) Persistence of circadian rhythmicity in a mammalian hypothalamic “island” containing the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 76, 59625966.
6 Shibata S, Oomura Y, Kita H, et al. (1982) Circadian rhythmic changes of neuronal activity in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the rat hypothalamic slice. Brain Res 247, 154158.
7 Groos G & Hendriks J (1982) Circadian rhythms in electrical discharge of rat suprachiasmatic neurones recorded in vitro . Neurosci Lett 34, 283288.
8 Ralph MR, Foster RG, Davis FC, et al. (1990) Transplanted suprachiasmatic nucleus determines circadian period. Science 247, 975978.
9 Tosini G & Menaker M (1996) Circadian rhythms in cultured mammalian retina. Science 272, 419421.
10 Sakamoto K, Nagase T, Fukui H, et al. (1998) Multitissue circadian expression of rat period homolog (rPer2) mRNA is governed by the mammalian circadian clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the brain. J Biol Chem 273, 2703927042.
11 Zylka MJ, Shearman LP, Weaver DR, et al. (1998) Three period homologs in mammals: differential light responses in the suprachiasmatic circadian clock and oscillating transcripts outside of brain. Neuron 20, 11031110.
12 Yamazaki S, Numano R, Abe M, et al. (2000) Resetting central and peripheral circadian oscillators in transgenic rats. Science 288, 682685.
13 Yoo SH, Yamazaki S, Lowrey PL, et al. (2004) PERIOD2:LUCIFERASE real-time reporting of circadian dynamics reveals persistent circadian oscillations in mouse peripheral tissues. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101, 53395346.
14 Balsalobre A, Damiola F & Schibler U (1998) A serum shock induces circadian gene expression in mammalian tissue culture cells. Cell 93, 929937.
15 Nagoshi E, Saini C, Bauer C, et al. (2004) Circadian gene expression in individual fibroblasts: cell-autonomous and self-sustained oscillators pass time to daughter cells. Cell 119, 693705.
16 Welsh DK, Yoo SH, Liu AC, et al. (2004) Bioluminescence imaging of individual fibroblasts reveals persistent, independently phased circadian rhythms of clock gene expression. Curr Biol 14, 22892295.
17 Albrecht U (2012) Timing to perfection: the biology of central and peripheral circadian clocks. Neuron 74, 246260.
18 Cagampang FR & Bruce KD (2012) The role of the circadian clock system in nutrition and metabolism. Br J Nutr 108, 381392.
19 Johnston JD (2012) Adipose circadian rhythms: translating cellular and animal studies to human physiology. Mol Cell Endocrinol 349, 4550.
20 Boivin DB, James FO, Wu A, et al. (2003) Circadian clock genes oscillate in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Blood 102, 41434145.
21 Archer SN, Viola AU, Kyriakopoulou V, et al. (2008) Inter-individual differences in habitual sleep timing and entrained phase of endogenous circadian rhythms of BMAL1, PER2 and PER3 mRNA in human leukocytes. Sleep 31, 608617.
22 Brown SA, Fleury-Olela F, Nagoshi E, et al. (2005) The period length of fibroblast circadian gene expression varies widely among human individuals. PLoS Biol 3, e338.
23 Hasan S, Santhi N, Lazar AS, et al. (2012) Assessment of circadian rhythms in humans: comparison of real-time fibroblast reporter imaging with plasma melatonin. FASEB J 26, 24142423.
24 Gomez-Santos C, Gomez-Abellan P, Madrid JA, et al. (2009) Circadian rhythm of clock genes in human adipose explants. Obesity 17, 14811485.
25 Otway DT, Mantele S, Bretschneider S, et al. (2011) Rhythmic diurnal gene expression in human adipose tissue from individuals who are lean, overweight, and type 2 diabetic. Diabetes 60, 15771581.
26 Stamenkovic JA, Olsson AH, Nagorny CL, et al. (2012) Regulation of core clock genes in human islets. Metabolism 61, 978985.
27 Schmidt TM, Do MT, Dacey D, et al. (2011) Melanopsin-positive intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells: from form to function. J Neurosci 31, 1609416101.
28 Dibner C & Schibler U (2010) Albrecht U The mammalian circadian timing system: organization and coordination of central and peripheral clocks. Annu Rev Physiol 72, 517549.
29 Akhtar RA, Reddy AB, Maywood ES, et al. (2002) Circadian cycling of the mouse liver transcriptome, as revealed by cDNA microarray, is driven by the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Curr Biol 12, 540550.
30 Duffield GE, Best JD, Meurers BH, et al. (2002) Circadian programs of transcriptional activation, signaling, and protein turnover revealed by microarray analysis of mammalian cells. Curr Biol 12, 551557.
31 Panda S, Antoch MP, Miller BH, et al. (2002) Coordinated transcription of key pathways in the mouse by the circadian clock. Cell 109, 307320.
32 Storch KF, Lipan O, Leykin I, et al. (2002) Extensive and divergent circadian gene expression in liver and heart. Nature 417, 7883.
33 Zvonic S, Ptitsyn AA, Conrad SA, et al. (2006) Characterization of peripheral circadian clocks in adipose tissues. Diabetes 55, 962970.
34 Reddy AB, Karp NA, Maywood ES, et al. (2006) Circadian orchestration of the hepatic proteome. Curr Biol 16, 11071115.
35 Minami Y, Kasukawa T, Kakazu Y, et al. (2009) Measurement of internal body time by blood metabolomics. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106, 98909895.
36 Eckel-Mahan KL, Patel VR, Mohney RP, et al. (2012) Coordination of the transcriptome and metabolome by the circadian clock. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109, 55415546.
37 Fustin JM, Doi M, Yamada H, et al. (2012) Rhythmic nucleotide synthesis in the liver: temporal segregation of metabolites. Cell Rep 1, 341349.
38 Dallmann R, Viola AU, Tarokh L, et al. (2012) The human circadian metabolome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109, 26252629.
39 Ang JE, Revell V, Mann A, et al. (2012) Identification of human plasma metabolites exhibiting time-of-day variation using an untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolomic approach. Chronobiol Int 29, 868881.
40 Kasukawa T, Sugimoto M, Hida A, et al. (2012) Human blood metabolite timetable indicates internal body time. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109, 1503615041.
41 Johnston JD, Frost G & Otway DT (2009) Adipose tissue, adipocytes and the circadian timing system. Obes Rev 10, Suppl. 2, 5260.
42 Raspe E, Duez H, Mansen A, et al. (2002) Identification of Rev-erbα as a physiological repressor of apoC-III gene transcription. J Lipid Res 43, 21722179.
43 Rudic RD, McNamara P, Curtis AM, et al. (2004) BMAL1 and CLOCK, two essential components of the circadian clock, are involved in glucose homeostasis. PLoS Biol 2, e377.
44 Turek FW, Joshu C, Kohsaka A, et al. (2005) Obesity and metabolic syndrome in circadian Clock mutant mice. Science 308, 10431045.
45 Yang S, Liu A, Weidenhammer A, et al. (2009) The role of mPer2 clock gene in glucocorticoid and feeding rhythms. Endocrinology 150, 21532160.
46 Costa MJ, So AY, Kaasik K, et al. (2011) Circadian rhythm gene period 3 is an inhibitor of the adipocyte cell fate. J Biol Chem 286, 90639070.
47 Cho H, Zhao X, Hatori M, et al. (2012) Regulation of circadian behaviour and metabolism by REV-ERB-α and REV-ERB-β. Nature 485, 123127.
48 Woon PY, Kaisaki PJ, Braganca J, et al. (2007) Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like (BMAL1) is associated with susceptibility to hypertension and type 2 diabetes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104, 1441214417.
49 Scott EM, Carter AM & Grant PJ (2008) Association between polymorphisms in the Clock gene, obesity and the metabolic syndrome in man. Int J Obes 32, 658662.
50 Sookoian S, Gemma C, Gianotti TF, et al. (2008) Genetic variants of Clock transcription factor are associated with individual susceptibility to obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 16061615.
51 Tsuzaki K, Kotani K, Sano Y, et al. (2010) The association of the Clock 3111 T/C SNP with lipids and lipoproteins including small dense low-density lipoprotein: results from the Mima study. BMC Med Genet 11, 150.
52 Garaulet M, Corbalan-Tutau MD, Madrid JA, et al. (2010) PERIOD2 variants are associated with abdominal obesity, psycho-behavioral factors, and attrition in the dietary treatment of obesity. JAMA 110, 917921.
53 Garaulet M, Esteban Tardido A, et al. (2012) Lee YC. SIRT1 and CLOCK 3111T>C combined genotype is associated with evening preference and weight loss resistance in a behavioral therapy treatment for obesity. Int J Obes 36, 14361441.
54 Lamia KA, Storch KF & Weitz CJ (2008) Physiological significance of a peripheral tissue circadian clock. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105, 1517215177.
55 Marcheva B, Ramsey KM, Buhr ED, et al. (2010) Disruption of the clock components CLOCK and BMAL1 leads to hypoinsulinaemia and diabetes. Nature 466, 627631.
56 Sadacca LA, Lamia KA, deLemos AS, et al. (2011) An intrinsic circadian clock of the pancreas is required for normal insulin release and glucose homeostasis in mice. Diabetologia 54, 120124.
57 Paschos GK, Ibrahim S, Song WL, et al. (2012) Obesity in mice with adipocyte-specific deletion of clock component Arntl. Nat Med 18, 17681777.
58 Stephan FK (2002) The “other” circadian system: food as a Zeitgeber. J Biol Rhythms 17, 284292.
59 Mistlberger RE (2009) Food-anticipatory circadian rhythms: concepts and methods. Eur J Neurosci 30, 17181729.
60 Challet E, Mendoza J, Dardente H, et al. (2009) Neurogenetics of food anticipation. Eur J Neurosci 30, 16761687.
61 Storch KF & Weitz CJ (2009) Daily rhythms of food-anticipatory behavioral activity do not require the known circadian clock. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106, 68086813.
62 Krieger DT, Hauser H & Krey LC (1977) Suprachiasmatic nuclear lesions do not abolish food-shifted circadian adrenal and temperature rhythmicity. Science 197, 398399.
63 Stephan FK (1981) Limits of entrainment to periodic feeding in rats with suprachiasmatic lesions. J Comp Physiol 143, 401410.
64 Mieda M, Williams SC, Richardson JA, et al. (2006) The dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus as a putative food-entrainable circadian pacemaker. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103, 1215012155.
65 Fuller PM, Lu J & Saper CB (2008) Differential rescue of light- and food-entrainable circadian rhythms. Science 320, 10741077.
66 Mendoza J, Pevet P, Felder-Schmittbuhl MP, et al. (2010) The cerebellum harbors a circadian oscillator involved in food anticipation. J Neurosci 30, 18941904.
67 Mistlberger RE, Buijs RM, Challet E, et al. (2009) Standards of evidence in chronobiology: critical review of a report that restoration of Bmal1 expression in the dorsomedial hypothalamus is sufficient to restore circadian food anticipatory rhythms in Bmal1-/- mice. J Circ Rhythms 7, 3.
68 Moriya T, Aida R, Kudo T, et al. (2009) The dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus is not necessary for food-anticipatory circadian rhythms of behavior, temperature or clock gene expression in mice. Eur J Neurosci 29, 14471460.
69 Landry GJ, Kent BA, Patton DF, et al. (2011) Evidence for time-of-day dependent effect of neurotoxic dorsomedial hypothalamic lesions on food anticipatory circadian rhythms in rats. PloS ONE 6, e24187.
70 Damiola F, Le Minh N, Preitner N, et al. (2000) Restricted feeding uncouples circadian oscillators in peripheral tissues from the central pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Genes Dev 14, 29502961.
71 Stokkan KA, Yamazaki S, Tei H, et al. (2001) Entrainment of the circadian clock in the liver by feeding. Science 291, 490493.
72 Hoogerwerf WA, Hellmich HL, Cornelissen G, et al. (2007) Clock gene expression in the murine gastrointestinal tract: endogenous rhythmicity and effects of a feeding regimen. Gastroenterology 133, 12501260.
73 Yoshida C, Shikata N, Seki S, et al. (2012) Early nocturnal meal skipping alters the peripheral clock and increases lipogenesis in mice. Nutr Metab 9, 78.
74 Mendoza J, Graff C, Dardente H, et al. (2005) Feeding cues alter clock gene oscillations and photic responses in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of mice exposed to a light/dark cycle. J Neurosci 25, 15141522.
75 Mendoza J, Gourmelen S, Dumont S, et al. (2012) Setting the main circadian clock of a diurnal mammal by hypocaloric feeding. J Physiol 590, 31553168.
76 Mendoza J, Drevet K, Pevet P, et al. (2008) Daily meal timing is not necessary for resetting the main circadian clock by calorie restriction. J Neuroendocrinol 20, 251260.
77 Kuroda H, Tahara Y, Saito K, et al. (2012) Meal frequency patterns determine the phase of mouse peripheral circadian clocks. Sci Rep 2, 711.
78 Wu T, Sun L, ZhuGe F, et al. (2011) Differential roles of breakfast and supper in rats of a daily three-meal schedule upon circadian regulation and physiology. Chronobiol Int 28, 890903.
79 Hirao A, Nagahama H, Tsuboi T, et al. (2010) Combination of starvation interval and food volume determines the phase of liver circadian rhythm in Per2:Luc knock-in mice under two meals per day feeding. Am J Physiol 299, G1045G1053.
80 Krauchi K, Cajochen C, Werth E, et al. (2002) Alteration of internal circadian phase relationships after morning versus evening carbohydrate-rich meals in humans. J Biol Rhythms 17, 364376.
81 Schoeller DA, Cella LK, Sinha MK, et al. (1997) Entrainment of the diurnal rhythm of plasma leptin to meal timing. J Clin Invest 100, 18821887.
82 Itokawa M, Hirao A, Nagahama H, et al. (2013) Time-restricted feeding of rapidly digested starches causes stronger entrainment of the liver clock in PER2:LUCIFERASE knock-in mice. Nutr Res 33, 109119.
83 Hirao A, Tahara Y, Kimura I, et al. (2009) A balanced diet is necessary for proper entrainment signals of the mouse liver clock. PloS ONE 4, e6909.
84 Le Minh N, Damiola F, Tronche F, et al. (2001) Glucocorticoid hormones inhibit food-induced phase-shifting of peripheral circadian oscillators. EMBO J 20, 71287136.
85 Balsalobre A, Brown SA, Marcacci L, et al. (2000) Resetting of circadian time in peripheral tissues by glucocorticoid signaling. Science 289, 23442347.
86 Vollmers C, Gill S, DiTacchio L, et al. (2009) Time of feeding and the intrinsic circadian clock drive rhythms in hepatic gene expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106, 2145321458.
87 Asher G, Reinke H, Altmeyer M, et al. (2010) Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 participates in the phase entrainment of circadian clocks to feeding. Cell 142, 943953.
88 Zhang L, Abraham D, Lin ST, et al. (2012) PKCγ participates in food entrainment by regulating BMAL1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109, 2067920684.
89 Van Cauter E, Polonsky KS & Scheen AJ (1997) Roles of circadian rhythmicity and sleep in human glucose regulation. Endocr Rev 18, 716738.
90 Sopowski MJ, Hampton SM, Ribeiro DC, et al. (2001) Postprandial triacylglycerol responses in simulated night and day shift: gender differences. J Biol Rhythms 16, 272276.
91 Burdge GC, Jones AE, Frye SM, et al. (2003) Effect of meal sequence on postprandial lipid, glucose and insulin responses in young men. Eur J Clin Nutr 57, 15361544.
92 Trujillo ME & Scherer PE (2006) Adipose tissue-derived factors: impact on health and disease. Endocr Rev 27, 762778.
93 Galic S, Oakhill JS & Steinberg GR (2010) Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ. Mol Cell Endocrinol 316, 129139.
94 Sinha MK, Ohannesian JP, Heiman ML, et al. (1996) Nocturnal rise of leptin in lean, obese, and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus subjects. J Clin Invest 97, 13441347.
95 Gavrila A, Peng CK, Chan JL, et al. (2003) Diurnal and ultradian dynamics of serum adiponectin in healthy men: comparison with leptin, circulating soluble leptin receptor, and cortisol patterns. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88, 28382843.
96 Parlee SD, Ernst MC, Muruganandan S, et al. (2010) Serum chemerin levels vary with time of day and are modified by obesity and tumor necrosis factor-α. Endocrinology 151, 25902602.
97 Scheer FA, Chan JL, Fargnoli J, et al. (2010) Day/night variations of high-molecular-weight adiponectin and lipocalin-2 in healthy men studied under fed and fasted conditions. Diabetologia 53, 24012405.
98 Benedict C, Shostak A, Lange T, et al. (2012) Diurnal rhythm of circulating nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt/visfatin/PBEF): impact of sleep loss and relation to glucose metabolism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 97, E218E222.
99 Shea SA, Hilton MF, Orlova C, et al. (2005) Independent circadian and sleep/wake regulation of adipokines and glucose in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90, 25372544.
100 Otway DT, Frost G & Johnston JD (2009) Circadian rhythmicity in murine pre-adipocyte and adipocyte cells. Chronobiol Int 26, 13401354.
101 Duffy JF & Dijk DJ (2002) Getting through to circadian oscillators: why use constant routines? J Biol Rhythms 17, 413.
102 Blatter K & Cajochen C (2007) Circadian rhythms in cognitive performance: methodological constraints, protocols, theoretical underpinnings. Physiol Behav 90, 196208.
103 Holmback U, Forslund A, Forslund J, et al. (2002) Metabolic responses to nocturnal eating in men are affected by sources of dietary energy. J Nutr 132, 18921899.
104 Morgan L, Arendt J, Owens D, et al. (1998) Effects of the endogenous clock and sleep time on melatonin, insulin, glucose and lipid metabolism. J Endocrinol 157, 443451.
105 Scheer FA, Hilton MF, Mantzoros CS, et al. (2009) Adverse metabolic and cardiovascular consequences of circadian misalignment. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106, 44534458.
106 Gonnissen HK, Rutters F, Mazuy C, et al. (2012) Effect of a phase advance and phase delay of the 24-h cycle on energy metabolism, appetite, and related hormones. Am J Clin Nutr 96, 689697.
107 Matkovic V, Ilich JZ, Badenhop NE, et al. (1997) Gain in body fat is inversely related to the nocturnal rise in serum leptin level in young females. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82, 13681372.
108 Saad MF, Riad-Gabriel MG, Khan A, et al. (1998) Diurnal and ultradian rhythmicity of plasma leptin: effects of gender and adiposity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83, 453459.
109 Yildiz BO, Suchard MA, Wong ML, et al. (2004) Alterations in the dynamics of circulating ghrelin, adiponectin, and leptin in human obesity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101, 1043410439.
110 Mantele S, Otway DT, Middleton B, et al. (2012) Daily rhythms of plasma melatonin, but not plasma leptin or leptin mRNA, vary between lean, obese and type 2 diabetic men. PLOS ONE 7, e37123.
111 Arendt J, Hampton S, English J, et al. (1982) 24-Hour profiles of melatonin, cortisol, insulin, C-peptide and GIP following a meal and subsequent fasting. Clin Endocrinol 16, 8995.
112 Corbalan-Tutau D, Madrid JA, Nicolas F, et al. (2014) Daily profile in two circadian markers “melatonin and cortisol” and associations with metabolic syndrome components. Physiol Behav 123, 231235.
113 Bouatia-Naji N, Bonnefond A, Cavalcanti-Proenca C, et al. (2009) A variant near MTNR1B is associated with increased fasting plasma glucose levels and type 2 diabetes risk. Nat Genet 41, 8994.
114 Lyssenko V, Nagorny CL, Erdos MR, et al. (2009) Common variant in MTNR1B associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and impaired early insulin secretion. Nat Genet 41, 8288.
115 Prokopenko I, Langenberg C, Florez JC, et al. (2009) Variants in MTNR1B influence fasting glucose levels. Nat Genet 41, 7781.
116 Ronn T, Wen J, Yang Z, et al. (2009) A common variant in MTNR1B, encoding melatonin receptor 1B, is associated with type 2 diabetes and fasting plasma glucose in Han Chinese individuals. Diabetologia 52, 830833.
117 Bonnefond A, Clement N, Fawcett K, et al. (2012) Rare MTNR1B variants impairing melatonin receptor 1B function contribute to type 2 diabetes. Nat Genet 44, 297301.
118 Mulder H, Nagorny CL, Lyssenko V, et al. (2009) Melatonin receptors in pancreatic islets: good morning to a novel type 2 diabetes gene. Diabetologia 52, 12401249.
119 Contreras-Alcantara S, Baba K & Tosini G (2010) Removal of melatonin receptor type 1 induces insulin resistance in the mouse. Obesity 18, 18611863.
120 Nogueira TC, Lellis-Santos C, Jesus DS, et al. (2011) Absence of melatonin induces night-time hepatic insulin resistance and increased gluconeogenesis due to stimulation of nocturnal unfolded protein response. Endocrinology 152, 12531263.
121 McMullan CJ, Schernhammer ES, Rimm EB, et al. (2013) Melatonin secretion and the incidence of type 2 diabetes. JAMA 309, 13881396.
122 McMullan CJ, Curhan GC, Schernhammer ES, et al. (2013) Association of nocturnal melatonin secretion with insulin resistance in nondiabetic young women. Am J Epidemiol 178, 231238.
123 Ando H, Yanagihara H, Hayashi Y, et al. (2005) Rhythmic messenger ribonucleic acid expression of clock genes and adipocytokines in mouse visceral adipose tissue. Endocrinology 146, 56315636.
124 Ando H, Kumazaki M, Motosugi Y, et al. (2011) Impairment of peripheral circadian clocks precedes metabolic abnormalities in ob/ob mice. Endocrinology 152, 13471354.
125 Ando H, Oshima Y, Yanagihara H, et al. (2006) Profile of rhythmic gene expression in the livers of obese diabetic KK-A(y) mice. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 346, 12971302.
126 Kaneko K, Yamada T, Tsukita S, et al. (2009) Obesity alters circadian expressions of molecular clock genes in the brainstem. Brain Res 1263, 5868.
127 Kohsaka A, Laposky AD, Ramsey KM, et al. (2007) High-fat diet disrupts behavioral and molecular circadian rhythms in mice. Cell Metab 6, 414421.
128 Barnea M, Madar Z & Froy O (2009) High-fat diet delays and fasting advances the circadian expression of adiponectin signaling components in mouse liver. Endocrinology 150, 161168.
129 Hsieh MC, Yang SC, Tseng HL, et al. (2010) Abnormal expressions of circadian-clock and circadian clock-controlled genes in the livers and kidneys of long-term, high-fat-diet-treated mice. Int J Obes 34, 227239.
130 Yanagihara H, Ando H, Hayashi Y, et al. (2006) High-fat feeding exerts minimal effects on rhythmic mRNA expression of clock genes in mouse peripheral tissues. Chronobiol Int 23, 905914.
131 Duffy JF, Cain SW, Chang AM, et al. (2011) Sex difference in the near-24-hour intrinsic period of the human circadian timing system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108, Suppl. 3, 1560215608.
132 Tchernof A & Després JP (2013) Pathophysiology of human visceral obesity: an update. Physiol Rev 93, 359404.
133 Arble DM, Bass J, Laposky AD, et al. (2009) Circadian timing of food intake contributes to weight gain. Obesity 17, 21002102.
134 Sherman H, Genzer Y, Cohen R, et al. (2012) Timed high-fat diet resets circadian metabolism and prevents obesity. FASEB J 26, 34933502.
135 de la Hunty A & Gibson S (2013) Ashwell M Does regular breakfast cereal consumption help children and adolescents stay slimmer? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Facts 6, 7085.
136 Casazza K, Fontaine KR, Astrup A, et al. (2013) Myths, presumptions, and facts about obesity. New Eng J Med 368, 446454.
137 Berner LA & Allison KC (2013) Behavioral management of night eating disorders. Psychol Res Behav Manag 6, 18.
138 Gallant AR, Lundgren J & Drapeau V (2012) The night-eating syndrome and obesity. Obes Rev 13, 528536.
139 Baron KG, Reid KJ, Kern AS, et al. (2011) Role of sleep timing in caloric intake and BMI. Obesity 19, 13741381.
140 Baron KG, Reid KJ, Horn LV, et al. (2013) Contribution of evening macronutrient intake to total caloric intake and body mass index. Appetite 60, 246251.
141 Garaulet M, Gomez-Abellan P, Alburquerque-Bejar JJ, et al. (2013) Timing of food intake predicts weight loss effectiveness. Int J Obes 37, 604611.
142 Jakubowicz D, Barnea M, Wainstein J, et al. (2013) High caloric intake at breakfast vs. dinner differentially influences weight loss of overweight and obese women. Obesity 21, 25042512.
143 Costa G (2003) Shift work and occupational medicine: an overview. Occup Med 53, 8388.
144 Wittmann M, Dinich J, Merrow M, et al. (2006) Social jetlag: misalignment of biological and social time. Chronobiol Int 23, 497509.
145 Roenneberg T, Allebrandt KV, Merrow M, et al. (2012) Social jetlag and obesity. Curr Biol 22, 939943.
146 Tucker P, Marquie JC, Folkard S, et al. (2012) Shiftwork and metabolic dysfunction. Chronobiol Int 29, 549555.
147 Esquirol Y, Bongard V, Mabile L, et al. (2009) Shift work and metabolic syndrome: respective impacts of job strain, physical activity, and dietary rhythms. Chronobiol Int 26, 544559.
148 Lowden A, Moreno C, Holmback U, et al. (2010) Eating and shift work - effects on habits, metabolism and performance. Scan J Work Environ Health 36, 150162.
149 Folkard S (2008) Do permanent night workers show circadian adjustment? A review based on the endogenous melatonin rhythm. Chronobiol Int 25, 215224.
150 Ribeiro DC, Hampton SM, Morgan L, et al. (1998) Altered postprandial hormone and metabolic responses in a simulated shift work environment. J Endocrinol 158, 305310.
151 Hampton SM, Morgan LM, Lawrence N, et al. (1996) Postprandial hormone and metabolic responses in simulated shift work. J Endocrinol 151, 259267.
152 Lund J, Arendt J, Hampton SM, et al. (2001) Postprandial hormone and metabolic responses amongst shift workers in Antarctica. J Endocrinol 171, 557564.
153 Vandewalle G, Maquet P & Dijk DJ (2009) Light as a modulator of cognitive brain function. Trends Cog Sci 13, 429438.
154 Chang AM, Santhi N, St Hilaire M, et al. (2012) Human responses to bright light of different durations. J Physiol 590, 31033112.
155 Barclay JL, Husse J, Bode B, et al. (2012) Circadian desynchrony promotes metabolic disruption in a mouse model of shiftwork. PLOS ONE 7, e37150.
156 Salgado-Delgado R, Angeles-Castellanos M, Saderi N, et al. (2010) Food intake during the normal activity phase prevents obesity and circadian desynchrony in a rat model of night work. Endocrinology 151, 10191029.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Nutrition Research Reviews
  • ISSN: 0954-4224
  • EISSN: 1475-2700
  • URL: /core/journals/nutrition-research-reviews
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 114
Total number of PDF views: 624 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 1498 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 20th January 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.