Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The potential of genetically enhanced plants to address food insecurity

  • Paul Christou (a1) and Richard M. Twyman (a2)

Abstract

Food insecurity is one of the most important social issues faced today, with 840 million individuals enduring chronic hunger and three billion individuals suffering from nutrient deficiencies. Most of these individuals are poverty stricken and live in developing countries. Strategies to address food insecurity must aim to increase agricultural productivity in the developing world in order to tackle poverty, and must provide long-term improvements in crop yields to keep up with demand as the world's population grows. Genetically enhanced plants provide one route to sustainable higher yields, either by increasing the intrinsic yield capability of crop plants or by protecting them from biotic and abiotic constraints. The present paper discusses a range of transgenic approaches that could increase agricultural productivity if applied on a large scale, including the introduction of genes that confer resistance to pests and diseases, or tolerance of harsh environments, and genes that help to lift the intrinsic yield capacity by increasing metabolic flux towards storage carbohydrates, proteins and oils. The paper also explores how the nutritional value of plants can be improved by genetic engineering. Transgenic plants, as a component of integrated strategies to relieve poverty and deliver sustainable agriculture to subsistence farmers in developing countries, could have a significant impact on food security now and in the future.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The potential of genetically enhanced plants to address food insecurity
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The potential of genetically enhanced plants to address food insecurity
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The potential of genetically enhanced plants to address food insecurity
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Professor P. Christou, fax +49 2972 302328, email cristou@ime.fraunhofer.de

References

Hide All
Alam, MF, Datta, K, Abrigo, E, Vasquez, A, Senadhira, D & Datta, SK (1998) Production of transgenic deep water indica rice plants expressing a synthetic Bacillus thuringiensis CryIA(b) gene with enhanced resistance to yellow stem borer. Plant Science 35, 2530.
Amsellum, Z, Cohen, BA & Gressel, J (2002) Engineering hypervirulence in a mycoherbicidal fungus for efficient weed control. Nature Biotechnology 20, 10351039.
Apse, MP, Aharon, GS, Snedden, WA & Blumwald, E (1999) Salt tolerance conferred by overexpression of a vacuolar Na+/H+ antiport in Arabidopsis. Science 285, 12561258.
Ashikari, M & Matsuoka, M (2002) Application of rice genomics to plant biology and breeding. Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica 43, 111.
Bano-Maqbool, S, Husnain, T, Riazuddin, S, Masson, L & Christou, P (1998) Effective control of yellow stem borer and rice leaf folder in transgenic rice indica varieties Basmati-370 and M7 using the novel δ-endotoxin Cry2A Bacillus thuringiensis gene. Molecular Breeding 4, 501507.
Bano-Maqbool, S, Riazuddin, S, Loc, NT, Gatehouse, AMR, Gatehouse, JA & Christou, P (2001) Expression of multiple insecticidal genes confers broad resistance against a range of different rice pests. Molecular Breeding 7, 8593.
Barry, GF, Cheikh, N & Kishore, G (1998) Expression of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase in transgenic plants. Patent application WO 98/58 069.
Bent, AF (1996) Plant disease resistance genes: function meets structure. Plant Cell 8, 17571771.
Berner, DK, Kling, JG & Singh, BB (1995) Striga research and control: a perspective from Africa. Plant Disease 79, 652660.
Beyer, P, Al-Babili, S, Ye, X, Lucca, P, Schaub, P, Welsch, R & Potrykus, I (2002) Golden Rice: introducing the β-carotene biosynthesis pathway into rice endosperm by genetic engineering to defeat vitamin A deficiency. Journal of Nutrition 132, 506S510S.
Bohorova, N, Frutos, R, Royer, M, Estanol, P, Pacheco, M, Rascon, Q, McLean, S & Hoisington, D (2001) Novel synthetic Bacillus thuringiensis cry1B gene and the cry1B-cry1Ab translational fusion confer resistance to southwestern corn borer, sugarcane borer and fall armyworm in transgenic tropical maize. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 103, 817826.
Bowles, DJ (1990) Defense-related proteins in higher plants. Annual Review of Biochemistry 9, 873907.
Bray, EA, Bailey-Serres, J & Weretilnyk, E (2000) Responses to abiotic stress. In Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Plants, pp. 11581203 [Buchanan, BB, Gruissem, W and Jones, RL editors]. Rockville MD: American Society of Plant Pathologists.
Burkhardt, PK, Beyer, P, Wunn, J, Kloti, A, Armstrong, GA, Schledz, M, vonLintig, J & Potrykus, I (1997) Transgenic rice (Oryza sativa) endosperm expressing daffodil (Narcissus pseudonarcissus) phytoene synthase accumulates phytoene, a key intermediate of provitamin A biosynthesis. The Plant Journal 11, 10711078.
Burrows, PR, Barker, ADP, Newell, CA & Hamilton, WDO (1998) Plant-derived enzyme inhibitors and lectins for resistance against plant-parasitic nematodes in transgenic crops. Pesticide Science 52, 176183.
Burrows, PR & de Waele, D (1997) Engineering resistance against plant parasitic nematodes using anti-nematode genes. In Cellular and Molecular Aspects of Plant–Nematode Interactions, pp. 217236 [C, Fenoll, F, Grundler and s, Ohl, editors]. Dordrecht The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishing.
Byerlee, D, Heisey, P & Pingali, PL (2000) Realizing yield gains for food staples in developing countries in the early 21st century: prospects and challenges. In Food Needs of the Developing World in the Early 21st Century, pp. 207250 [Chang, TT, Colombo, BM and Sorondo, MS, editors]. Vatican City: Political Academy of Sciences.
Byrnes, BH & Bumb, BL (1998) Population growth, food production and nutrient requirements. In Journal of Crop Production, pp. 127 [Rengel, Z editor]. New York: Haworth Press.
Cacharrón, J, Saedler, H & Theissen, G (1999) Expression of MADS box genes ZMM8 and ZMM14 during inflorescence development of Zea mays discriminates between the upper and the lower floret of each spikelet. Development Genes and Evolution 209, 411420.
Cakmak, I (2002) Plant nutrition research: priorities to meet human needs for food in sustainable ways. Plant and Soil 247, 324.
Carpenter, JE & Gianessi, LP (2001) Agricultural Biotechnology: Updated Benefit Estimates, pp. 146. Washington DC: National Center for Food and Agricultural Policy.
Cary, JW, Rajasekaran, K, Jaynes, JM & Cleveland, TE (2000) Transgenic expression of a gene encoding a synthetic antimicrobial peptide results in inhibition of fungal growth in vitro and in planta. Plant Science 154, 171181.
Chakraborty, S, Chakraborty, N & Datta, A (2000) Increased nutritive value of transgenic potato by expressing a nonallergenic seed albumin gene from Amaranthus hypochondriacus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 97, 37243729.
Chang, M-M, Chiang, CC, Martin, MW & Hadwiger, LA (1993) Expression of a pea disease resistance response gene in the potato cultivar Shepody. American Potato Journal 70, 635647.
Chen, THH & Murata, N (2002) Enhancement of tolerance of abiotic stress by metabolic engineering of betaines and other compatible solutes. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 5, 250257.
Chen, WP, Chen, PD, Liu, DJ, Kynast, R, Friebe, B, Velazhahan, R, Muthukrishnan, S & Gill, BS (1999) Development of wheat scab symptoms is delayed in transgenic wheat plants that constitutively express a rice thaumatin-like protein gene. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 99, 755760.
Cheng, X, Sardana, R, Kaplan, H & Altosaar, I (1998) Agrobacterium transformed rice plants expressing synthetic Cry IA (b) and Cry IA (c) genes are highly toxic to stripe and stem borer and yellow stem borer. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 95, 27672772.
Cheng, Z, Targolli, J, Huang, X & Wu, R (2002) Wheat LEA genes, PMA80 and PMA1959, enhance dehydration tolerance of transgenic rice ( Oryza sativa L.). Molecular Breeding 10, 7182.
Cheng, ZQ, Targolli, J, Su, J, He, CK, Li, F & Wu, R (2001) Transgenic approaches for generating rice tolerant of dehydration stress. In Rice Genetics IV, pp. 433438 [Khush, GS, Brar, DS and Hardy, B, editors]. New Delhi India: Science Publishers.
Chrispeels, MJ, de Sa Grossi, M & Higgins, TJV (1998) Genetic engineering with α-amylase inhibitors makes seeds resistant to bruchids. Seed Science Research 8, 257263.
Chrispeels, MJ & Sadava, DE (2003) Plants, Genes, and Crop Biotechnology, 2nd ed. Boston MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Chung, Y-Y, Kim, S-R, Finkel, D, Yanofsky, MF & An, G (1994) Early flowering and reduced apical dominance result from ectopic expression of a rice MADS box gene. Plant Molecular Biology 26, 657665.
Clouse, SD & Sasse, JM (1998) Brassinosteroids: essential regulations of plant growth and development. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 49, 427451.
Datta, K, Vasquez, A, Tu, J, Torrizo, L, Alam, MF, Oliva, N, Abrigo, E, Khush, GS & Datta, SK (1998) Constitutive and tissue-specific differential expression of the CryIA(b) gene in transgenic rice plants conferring resistance to rice insect pest. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 97, 2030.
Datta, K, Velazhahan, R, Oliva, N, Ona, I, Mew, T, Khush, GS, Muthukrishnan, S & Datta, SK (1999) Overexpression of cloned rice thaumatin-like protein (PR-5) in transgenic rice plants enhances environmental-friendly resistance to Rhizoctonia solani causing sheath blight disease. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 98, 11381145.
Davies, JP, Yildiz, FH & Grossman, AR (1999) Sac3, an Snf1-like serine/threonine kinase that positively and negatively regulates the responses of Chlamydomonas to sulfur limitation. Plant Cell 11, 11791190.
De Feyter, R, Young, M, Schroeder, K, Dennis, E & Gerlach, W (1996) A ribozyme gene and an antisense gene are equally effective in conferring resistance to tobacco mosaic virus on transgenic tobacco. Molecular and General Genetics 250, 329338.
de la Fuenete, JM & Herrera-Estrella, L (1999) Advances in the understanding of aluminum toxicity and the development of aluminum-tolerant transgenic plants. Advances in Agronomy 66, 103120.
De Maagd, RA, Bosch, D & Stiekema, W (1999) Bacillus thuringiensis toxin-mediated insect resistance in plants. Trends in Plant Science 4, 913.
Den Boer, BGW, Murray, JAH (2000) Control of plant growth and development through manipulation of cell-cycle genes. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 11, 138145.
Department for International Development (2002) Eliminating Hunger: Strategy for Achieving the Millennium Development Goal on Hunger. London UK: DFID.
Doerner, P, Jorgensen, J-O, You, R, Steppuhn, J & Lamb, C (1996) Control of root growth and development by cyclin expression. Nature 380, 520523.
Drakakaki, G, Christou, P & Stoger, E (2000) Constitutive expression of soybean ferritin cDNA in transgenic wheat and rice results in increased iron levels in vegetative tissues but not in seeds. Transgenic Research 9, 445452.
Duke, SO, Scheffler, BE, Dayan, FE & Dyer, WE (2002) Genetic engineering crops for improved weed management traits. Crop Biotechnology ACS Symposium Series 829, 5266.
Ehrhardt, TS, Nigel, M, Geigenberger, PL, Loef, I, Zrenner, R & Schroeder, M (2001) Increasing the polysaccharide content in plants. Patent application WO 01/14569.
English, PJ, Lycett, GW, Roberts, JA & Jackson, MB (1995) Increased 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase activity in shoots of flooded tomato plants raises ethylene production to physiologically active levels. Plant Physiology 109, 14351440.
Estruch, JJ, Carozzi, NB, Desai, N, Duck, NB, Warren, GW & Koziel, MG (1997) Transgenic plants: an emerging approach to pest control. Nature Biotechnology 15, 137141.
Falco, SC (1998) Chimeric genes and methods for increasing the lysine and threonine content of the seeds of plants. US Patent 5 773 691.
Falco, SC, Guida, T, Locke, M, Mauvis, J, Sanders, C, Ward, RT & Webber, PO (1995) Transgenic canola and soybean seeds with increased lysine. Bio/Technology 13, 577582.
Fettig, S & Hess, D (1999) Expression of a chimeric stilbene synthase gene in transgenic wheat lines. Transgenic Research 8, 179189.
Flor, HH (1971) Current status of the gene-for-gene concept. Annual Review of Phytopathology 9, 275296.
Food and Agriculture Organization (2000) Fertilizer Requirements in 2015 and 2030. Rome: FAO.
Food and Agriculture Organization (2001) The State of Food Insecurity in the World. Rome: FAO.
Fraisier, V, Gojon, A, Tillard, P & Daniel-Vedele, F (2000) Constitutive expression of a putative high-affinity nitrate transporter in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia : evidence for post-transcriptional regulation by a reduced nitrogen source. The Plant Journal 23, 489496.
Fry, WE & Goodwin, SB (1997) Re-emergence of potato and tomato late blight in the United States. Plant Disease 81, 13491357.
Fu, XD, Sudhakar, D, Peng, JR, Richards, DE, Christou, P & Harberd, NP (2001) Expression of Arabidopsis GAI in transgenic rice represses multiple gibberellin responses. Plant Cell 13, 17911802.
Fujimoto, H, Itoh, K, Yamamoto, M, Kyozuka, J & Shimamoto, K (1993) Insect resistant rice generated by introduction of a modified δ-endotoxin gene of Bacillus thuringiensis. Bio/Technology 11, 11511155.
Gao, A-G, Hakimi, SM, Mittanck, CA, Wu, Y, Woerner, BM, Stark, DM, Shah, DM, Liang, JH & Rommens, CMT (2000) Fungal pathogen protection in potato by expression of a plant defensin peptide. Nature Biotechnology 18, 13071310.
Gatehouse, AMR & Gatehouse, JR (1998) Identifying proteins with insecticidal activity: use of encoding genes to produce insect-resistant transgenic crops. Pesticide Science 52, 165175.
Gatehouse, AMR, Shi, Y, Powell, KS, Brough, C, Hilder, VA, Hamilton, WDO, Newell, CA, Merryweather, A, Boulter, D & Gatehouse, JA (1993) Approaches to insect resistance using transgenic plants. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 342, 279286.
Ghareyazie, B, Alinia, F, Menguito, CA, Rubia, LG, De Palmam, JM, Liwanag, EA, Cohen, MB, Khush, GS & Bennett, J (1997) Enhanced resistance to two stem borers in an aromatic rice containing a synthetic CryIA(b) gene. Molecular Breeding 3, 401414.
Goto, F, Yoshihara, T, Shigemoto, N, Toki, S & Takaiwa, F (1999) Iron fortification of rice seeds by the soybean ferritin gene. Nature Biotechnology 17, 282286.
Graham, RD, Welch, RM & Bouis, HE (2001) Addressing micronutrient malnutrition through enhancing the nutritional quality of staple foods: principles, perspectives and knowledge gaps. Advances in Agronomy 70, 77142.
Gressel, J (2002) Transgenic herbicide-resistant crops – advantages, drawbacks and failsafes. In Plant Biotechnology and Transgenic Plants, 597633. [Oksman-Caldentey, K-M and Barz, WH editors]. New York: Marcel Dekker.
Grichko, VP & Glick, BR (2001 a) Amelioration of flooding stress by ACC deaminase-containing plant growth-promoting bacteria. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 39, 1117.
Grichko, VP & Glick, BR (2001 b) Ethylene and flooding stress in plants. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 39, 19.
Guo, W, Qun, SX, Xing, DQ, Bolin, L & Yuxiang, J (1998) Transgenic rice plants with parasponia haemoglobin gene and its expression. In Nitrogen Fixation with Non-Legumes. Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Nitrogen Fixation with Non-Legumes, pp. 125131 [Mallik, KA, Mizza, MS and Ladha, JK editors]. Dordrecht The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishing.
Hain, R, Reif, H-J, Krause, E, Langebartels, R, Kindl, H, Vornam, B, Wiese, W, Schmeltzer, E, Schreier, PH, Stöker, RH & Stenzel, K (1993) Disease resistance results from foreign phytoalexin expression in a novel plant. Nature 361, 153156.
Harrison, J, Brugiere, N, Phillipson, B, Ferrario-Mery, S, Becker, T, Limami, A & Hirel, B (2000) Manipulating the pathway of ammonia assimilation through genetic engineering and breeding: consequences to plant physiology and plant development. Plant and Soil 221, 8293.
Hasegawa, PM, Bressan, RA, Zhu, JK & Bohnert, HJ (2000) Plant cellular and molecular responses to high salinity. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 51, 1204312048.
Hayes, JE, Richardson, AE & Simpson, RJ (1999) Phytase and acid phosphatase activities in extracts from roots of temperate pasture grass and legume seedlings. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 26, 801809.
Herrera-Estrella, L & Simpson, J (1995) Genetically-engineered resistance to bacterial and fungal pathogens. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 11, 383392.
Hilder, VA & Boulter, D (1999) Genetic engineering of crop plants for insect resistance – a critical review. Crop Protection 18, 177191.
Hill, R & Hillebrand, H (2001) Plant concepts for mineral acquisition and allocation. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 12, 161168.
Holmberg, N & Bulow, L (1998) Improving stress tolerance in plants by gene transfer. Trends in Plant Science 3, 6166.
Hossain, M & Singh, VP (2000) Fertilizer use in Asian agriculture: implications for sustaining food security and the environment. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 52, 213223.
Huang, C, Barker, SJ, Langridge, P, Smith, FW & Graham, RD (2000) Zinc deficiency up-regulates expression of high-affinity phosphate transporter genes in both phosphate-sufficient and -deficient barley roots. Plant Physiology 124, 415422.
Huang, J, Pray, C & Rozelle, S (2002 a) Enhancing the crops to feed the poor. Nature 418, 678683.
Huang, J, Rozelle, SD, Pray, CE & Wang, Q (2002 b) Plant biotechnology in China. Science 295, 674677.
Huang, N-C, Liu, K-H, Lo, H-J & Tsay, Y-F (1999) Cloning and functional characterization of an Arabidopsis nitrate transporter gene that encodes a constitutive component of low-affinity uptake. Plant Cell 11, 13811392.
Hunter, KJ (2001) Method for increasing vitamin C content of plants. Patent application WO 01/07634.
Hwang, CF, Bhakta, AV, Truesdell, GM, Pudlo, WM & Williamson, VM (2000) Evidence for a role of the N terminus and leucine-rich repeat region of the Mi gene product in regulation of localized cell death. Plant Cell 12, 13191329.
Ishimaru, K, Okhawa, Y, Ishige, T, Tobias, DJ & Ohsugi, R (1998) Elevated pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK) activity alters carbon metabolism in C 3 transgenic potatoes with a C 4 maize PPDK gene. Physiologia Plantarum 103, 340346.
Itoh, H, Ueguchi-Tanaka, M, Sentoku, N, Kitano, H, Matsuoka, M & Kobayashi, M (2001) Cloning and functional analysis of two gibberellin 3β-hydroxylase genes that are differently expressed during the growth of rice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 98, 89098914.
James, C (2002) Global Status of Commercialized Transgenic Crops: 2002. ISAAA Briefs no. 27. Ithaca NY: ISAAA.
Jeon, J-S, Lee, S, Jung, K-H, Yang, W-S, Yi, G-H, Oh, B-G & An, G (2000) Production of transgenic rice plants showing reduced heading date and plant height by ectopic expression of rice MADS-box genes. Molecular Breeding 6, 581592.
Joel, DM, Kleifeld, Y, Losner-Goshen, D, Herzlinger, G & Gressel, J (1995) Transgenic crops against parasites. Nature 374, 220221.
John, P (1997) Ethylene biosynthesis: the role of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase, and its possible evolutionary origin. Physiologia Plantarum 100, 583592.
Jongedijk, E, Tigelaar, H, Van Roekel, JSC, Bres-Vloemans, SA, Dekker, I, Van den Elzen, PJM, Cornelissen, BJC & Melchers, LS (1995) Synergistic activity of chitinases and β-1,3-glucanases enhances fungal resistance in transgenic tomato plants. Euphytica 85, 173180.
Jung, C, Cai, D & Kleine, M (1998) Engineering nematode resistance in crop species. Trends in Plant Science 3, 266271.
Kanampiu, FK, Ransom, JK & Gressel, J (2001) Imazapyr seed dressings for Striga control on acetolactate synthase target-site resistant maize. Crop Protection 20, 885895.
Kanampiu, FK, Ranson, JK, Gressel, J, Jewell, D, Friesen, D, Grimanelli, D & Hoisington, D (2002) Appropriateness of biotechnology to African agriculture: Striga and maize as paradigms. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 69, 105110.
Kang, H-G & An, G (1997) Isolation and characterization of a rice MADS box gene belonging to the AGL2 gene family. Molecules and Cells 7, 4551.
Kang, H-G, Jang, S, Chung, J-E, Cho, Y-G & An, G (1997) Characterization of two rice MADS box genes that control flowering time. Molecules and Cells 7, 559566.
Kesarwani, M, Azam, M, Natarajan, K, Mehta, A & Datta, A (2000) Oxalate decarboxylase from Collybia velutipes. Molecular cloning and its overexpression to confer resistance to fungal infection in transgenic tobacco and tomato. Journal of Biological Chemistry 275, 72307238.
Khanna, HK & Raina, SK (2002) Elite indica transgenic plants expressing modified Cry1Ac endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis show enhanced resistance to yellow stem borer ( Scirpophaga incertulas ). Transgenic Research 11, 411423.
Khush, GS, Bacalangco, E & Ogawa, T (1990) A new gene for resistance to bacterial blight from O longistaminata. Rice Genetics Newsletter 7, 121122.
Kloti, A, Futterer, J, Terada, R, Bieri, S, Wunn, J, Burkhardt, PK, Chen, G, Hohn, TH, Biswas, GC & Potrykus, I (1996) Towards genetically engineered resistance to tungro virus. In Rice Genetics III, Proceedings of the Third International Rice Genetics Symposium, pp. 763767 [Khush, GS, editor]. Manila, The Philippines: IRRI Los Banos.
Koyama, H, Kawamura, A, Kihara, T, Hara, T, Takita, E & Shibata, D (2000) Overexpression of mitrochondrial citrate synthase in Arabidopsis thaliana improved growth on phosphorus-limited soil. Plant and Cell Physiology 9, 10301037.
Ku, MSB, Agarie, S, Nomura, M, Fukayama, H, Tsuchida, H, Ono, K, Hirose, S, Toki, S, Miyao, M & Matsuoka, M (1999) High level expression of maize phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase in transgenic rice plants. Nature Biotechnology 17, 7680.
Kuc, J (1995) Phytoallexins: stress metabolism and disease resistance in plants. Annual Review of Phytopathology 33, 275297.
Kwon, C, Chung, W & Paek, K (1997) Ribozyme mediated targeting of cucumber mosaic virus RNA 1 and 2 in transgenic tobacco plants. Molecules and Cells 7, 326334.
Lamb, C & Dixon, RA (1997) The oxidative burst in plant disease resistance. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 48, 251275.
Lawrence, PK & Koundal, KR (2002) Plant protease inhibitors in control of phytophagous insects. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology 5, 19.
Leckband, G & Lörz, H (1998) Transformation and expression of a stilbene synthase gene of Vitis vinifera L. in barley and wheat for increased fungal resistance. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 96, 10041012.
Lee, OS, Lee, B, Park, N, Koo, JC, Kim, YH, Prasad, T, Karigar, C, Chun, HJ, Jeong, BR, Kim, DH, Nam, J, Yun, JG, Kwak, SS, Cho, MJ & Yun, DJ (2003) Pn-AMPs, the hevein-like proteins from Pharbitis nil, confer disease resistance against phytopathogenic fungi in tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum. Phytochemistry 62, 10731079.
Lentini, Z, Calvert, L, Tabares, E, Lozano, I, Ramirez, BC & Roca, W (1996) Genetic transformation of rice with viral genes for novel resistance to rice hoja blanca virus. In Rice Genetics III, Proceedings of the Third International Rice Genetics Symposium, pp. 780783. [Khush, GS editor]. Manila, The Philippines: IRRI Los Banos.
Li, Q, Lawrence, CB, Xing, H-Y, Babbitt, RA, Bass, WT, Maiti, IB & Everett, NP (2001) Enhanced disease resistance conferred by expression of an antimicrobial magainin analog in transgenic tobacco. Planta 212, 635639.
Lightfoot, DA, Bernhardt, K, Ameziane, R, Bates, R & Long, LM (1998) Expression of the Escherichia coli glutamate dehydrogenase gene in Nicotiana tabacum and Zea mays i creases yield. US patent 5 998 700
Lipton, M, (1999) Reviving Global Poverty Reduction: What Role for Genetically Modified Crops? 1999 Sir John Crawford Memorial Lecture. CGIAR International Centers Week October 28, 1999. Washington, DC: CGIAR.
Liu, D, Raghothama, KG, Hasegawa, PM & Bressan, R (1994) Osmotin overexpression in potato delays development of disease symptoms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 91, 18881892.
Llewellyn, DJ & Higgins, TJV (2002) Transgenic crop plants with increased tolerance to insect pests. In Plant Biotechnology and Transgenic Plants, pp. 571595 [Oksman-Caldentey, K-M and Barz, WH, editors]. New York: Marcel Dekker.
Loneragen, JP (1997) Plant nutrition in the 20th and perspectives for the 21st century. Plant and Soil 196, 163174.
Lopez-Bucio, J, Martınez de la Vega, O, Guevara-Garcıa, A & Herrera-Estrella, L (2000 a) Enhanced phosphorus uptake in transgenic tobacco plants that overproduce citrate. Nature Biotechnology 18, 450453.
Lopez-Bucio, J, Nieto-Jacobo, MF, Ramırez-Rodrıguez, V & Herrera-Estrella, L (2000 b) Organic acid metabolism in plants: from adaptive physiology to transgenic varieties for cultivation in extreme soils. Plant Science 160, 113.
Lucca, P, Hurrell, R & Potrykus, I (2001 a) Genetic engineering approaches to improve the bioavailability and the level of iron in rice grains. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 102, 392397.
Lucca, P, Ye, X & Potrykus, I (2001 b) Effective selection and regeneration of transgenic rice plants with mannose as selective agent. Molecular Breeding 7, 4349.
McKibbin, RS, Halford, NG & Francis, D (1998) Expression of fission yeast cdc25 alters the frequency of lateral root formation in transgenic tobacco. Plant Molecular Biology 36, 601612.
Mandel, MA & Yanofsky, MF (1995) A gene triggering flower formation in Arabidopsis. Nature 377, 522524.
Marshner, H (1995) Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants. London: Academic Press.
Matsuoka, M, Nomura, M, Agarie, S, Tokutomi, M & Ku, MSB (1998) Evolution of C 4 photosynthetic genes and overexpression of maize C 4 genes in rice. Journal of Plant Research 111, 333337.
Mitsukawa, N, Okumura, S, Shirano, Y, Sato, S, Kato, T, Harashima, S & Shibata, D (1997) Overexpression of an Arabidopsis thaliana high affinity phosphate transporter gene in tobacco cultured cells enhances cell growth under phosphate-limited conditions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 94, 70787120.
Miyagawa, Y, Tamoi, M & Shigeoka, S (2001) Overexpression of a cyanobacterial fructose-1,6-sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase in tobacco enhances photosynthesis and growth. Nature Biotechnology 19, 965969.
Mizukami, Y & Ma, H (1997) Determination of Arabidopsis floral meristem identity by AGAMOUS. Plant Cell 9, 393408.
Moon, Y, Song, S, Choi, K & Lee, J (1997) Expression of a cDNA encoding Phytolacca insularis antiviral protein confers virus resistance on transgenic potato plants. Molecules and Cells 7, 807815.
Mourgues, F, Brisset, M-N & Chevreau, E (1998) Strategies to improve plant resistance to bacterial diseases through genetic engineering. Trends in Biotechnology 16, 203210.
Nayak, P, Basu, D, Das, S, Basu, A, Ghosh, D, Ramakrishna, NA, Ghosh, M & Sen, SK (1997) Transgenic elite indica rice plants expressing CryIAc δ-endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis are resistant against yellow stem borer ( Scirpophaga incertulas ). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 94, 21112116.
Ogawa, T, Hori, T & Ishida, I (1996) Virus-induced cell death in plants expressing the mammalian 2′,5′ oligoadenylate system. Nature Biotechnology 14, 15661569.
Osusky, M, Zhou, G, Osuska, L, Hancock, RE, Kay, WW & Misra, S (2000) Transgenic plants expressing cationic peptide chimeras exhibit broad-spectrum resistance to phytopathogens. Nature Biotechnology 18, 11621166.
Pachico, D, Hertford, R & de Janvry, A (2000) Assessing the impact of agricultural research on poverty alleviation. Food Policy 25, 379388.
Paul, M, Pellny, T & Goddijn, O (2001) Enhancing photosynthesis with sugar signals. Trends in Plant Science 6, 197200.
Peferoen, M (1997) Progress and prospects for field use of Bt genes in crops. Trends in Biotechnology 15, 173177.
Peng, JR, Richards, DE, Hartley, NM, Murphy, GP, Devos, KM, Flintham, JE, Beales, J, Fish, LJ, Worland, AJ, Pelica, F, Sudhakar, D, Christou, P, Snape, JW, Gale, MD & Harberd, NP (1999) ‘Green revolution’ genes encode mutant gibberellin response modulators. Nature 400, 256261.
Persley, G (2000) Agricultural biotechnology and the poor: Promethean science. In Agricultural Biotechnology and the Poor: Proceedings of an International Conference Washington, DC, 21–22 October 1999, pp. 136 [Persley, GJ and Lantin, MM editors]. Washington DC: Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research.
Pinstrup-Andersen, P, Pandra-Lorch, R & Rosegrant, MW (1999) World Food Prospects: Critical Issues for the Early Twenty-First Century. Food Policy Report. Washington DC: International Food Policy Research Institute.
Pinto, YM, Kok, RA & Baulcombe, DC (1999) Resistance to rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) in cultivated African rice varieties containing RYMV transgene. Nature Biotechnology 17, 702707.
Potrykus, I (2001) Golden rice and beyond. Plant Physiology 125, 11571161.
Powell, ALT, Van Kan, J, ten Have, A, Visser, J, Greve, LC, Bennett, AB & Labavitch, JM (2000) Transgenic expression of pear PGIP in tomato limits fungal colonization. Molecular Plant–Microbe Interactions 13, 942950.
Pray, C, Huang, J, Hu, R & Rozelle, S (2002) Five years of Bt cotton in China – the benefits continue. The Plant Journal 31, 423430.
Punja, ZK (2001) Genetic engineering of plants to enhance resistance to fungal pathogens – a review of progress and future prospects. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 23, 216235.
Regierer, B, Fernie, AR, Springer, F, Perez-Melis, A, Leissel, A, Koehl, K, Willmitzer, L, Geigenberger, P & Kossmann, J (2002) Starch content and yield increase as a result of altering adenylate pools in transgenic plants. Nature Biotechnology 12, 12561260.
Romer, S, Fraser, PD, Kiano, JW, Shipton, CA, Misawa, N, Schuch, W & Bramley, PM (2000) Elevation of the provitamin A content of transgenic tomato plants. Nature Biotechnology 18, 666669.
Rosche, E, Blackmore, D, Tegeder, M, Richardson, T, Schroeder, H, Higgins, TJV, Frommer, WB, Offler, CE & Patrick, JW (2002) Seed-specific overexpression of the potato sucrose transporter increases sucrose uptake and growth rates of developing pea cotyledons. The Plant Journal 30, 165175.
Rosegrant, MW, Paisner, MS, Meijer, S & Witcover, J (2001) 2020 Global Food Outlook: Trends, Alternatives and Choices. A 2020 Vision for Food, Agriculture and the Environment Initiative. Washington DC: IFPRI.
Royal Society of London, US National Academy of Sciences, Brazilian Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Indian National Academy of Sciences, Mexican Academy of Sciences, & Third World Academy of Sciences (2000) Transgenic Plants and World Agriculture. Washington DC: National Academy Press.
Sakamoto, A & Murata, N (2000) Genetic engineering of glycinebetaine synthesis in plants: current status and implications for enhancement of stress tolerance. Journal of Experimental Botany 51, 8188.
Sakamoto, A & Murata, N (2001) The use of bacterial choline oxidase, a glycine betaine-synthesizing enzyme, to create stress-resistant transgenic plants. Plant Physiology 125, 180188.
Sakamoto, A, Murata, A & Murata, N (1998) Metabolic engineering of rice leading to biosynthesis of glycinebetaine and tolerance to salt and cold. Plant Molecular Biology 38, 10111019.
Sakamoto, T, Kobayashi, M, Itoh, H, Tagiri, A, Kayano, T, Tanaka, H, Iwahori, S & Matsuoka, M (2001) Expression of a gibberellin 2-oxidase gene around the shoot apex is related to phase transition in rice. Plant Physiology 125, 15081516.
Salmeron, JM & Vernooij, B (1998) Transgenic approaches to microbial disease resistance in crop plants. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 1, 347352.
Schillberg, S, Zimmermann, S, Zhang, M-Y & Fischer, R (2001) Antibody-based resistance to plant pathogens. Transgenic Research 10, 112.
Scholthof, K-BG (2003) One foot in the furrow: linkages between agriculture, plant pathology and public health. Annual Review of Public Health 24, 153174.
Schuler, TH, Poppy, GM, Kerry, BR & Denholm, I (1998) Insect resistant transgenic plants. Trends in Biotechnology 16, 168175.
Serraj, R & Sinclair, TR (2002) Osmolyte accumulation: can it really help increase crop yield under drought conditions? Plant Cell and Environment 25, 333341.
Shintani, D & DellaPenna, D (1998) Elevating the vitamin E content of plants through metabolic engineering. Science 282, 20982100.
Sindhu, AS, Sheng, Z & Murai, N (1997) The pea seed storage protein legumin was synthesized, processed and accumulated stably in transgenic rice endosperm. Plant Science 130, 189196.
Sivamani, E, Huet, H, Shen, P, Ong, CA, de Kochko, A, Fauquet, C & Beachy, RN (1999) Rice plant (Oryza sativa L.) containing rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV) coat protein transgenes are resistant to virus infection. Molecular Breeding 5, 177185.
Smidansky, ED, Clancy, M, Meyer, FD, Lanning, SP, Blake, NK, Talbert, LE & Giroux, MJ (2002) Enhanced ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase activity in wheat endosperm increases seed yield. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 99, 17241729.
Smidansky, ED, Martin, JM, Hannah, LC, Fischer, AM & Giroux, MJ (2003) Seed yield and plant biomass increases in rice are conferred by deregulation of endosperm ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. Planta 216, 656664.
Smith, LC, El Obeid, AE & Jensen, HH (2000) The geography and causes of food insecurity in developing countries. Agricultural Economics 22, 199215.
Song, WY, Wang, G, Chen, L, Kim, H, Pi, LY, Holsten, T, Gardner, J, Wang, B, Zha, W, Zhu, L, Fauquet, C & Ronald, P (1995) A receptor kinase-like protein encoded by the rice disease resistance gene, Xa-21. Science 270, 18041806.
Sonnewald, U, Hajirezaei, MR, Kossmann, J, Heyer, A, Trethewey, RN & Willmitzer, L (1997) Increased potato tuber size resulting from apoplastic expression of a yeast invertase. Nature Biotechnology 15, 794797.
Stanilaus, MA & Cheng, C-L (2002) Genetically engineered self-destruction: an alternative to herbicides for cover crop systems. Weed Science 50, 794801.
Stark, DM, Timmerman, KP, Barry, GF, Preiss, J & Kishore, GM (1992) Regulation of the amount of starch in plant tissue by ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase. Science 258, 287292.
Stark-Lorenzen, P, Nelke, B, Hänbler, G, Mühlbach, HP & Thomzik, JE (1997) Transfer of a grapevine stillbene synthase gene to rice ( Oryza sativa L.). Plant Cell Reports 16, 668673.
Stearns, JC & Glick, BR (2003) Transgenic plants with altered ethylene biosynthesis or perception. Biotechnology Advances 21, 193210.
Sticher, L, Mauch-Mani, B & Metraux, JP (1997) Systemic acquired resistance. Annual Review of Phytopathology 35, 235270.
Stitt, M (1999) Nitrate regulation of metabolism and growth. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 2, 178186.
Stoger, E, Parker, M, Christou, P & Casey, R (2001) Pea legumin overexpressed in wheat endosperm assembles into an ordered paracrystalline matrix. Plant Physiology 125, 17321742.
Stuiver, MH & Custers, JHHV (2001) Engineering disease resistant plants. Nature 411, 865868.
Sung, S-K, Yu, G-H & An, G (1999) Characterization of MdMADS2, a member of the SQUAMOSA subfamily of genes, in apple. Plant Physiology 120, 969978.
Szymanski, DB, Lloyd, AM & Marks, MD (2000) Progress in the molecular genetic analysis of trichome initiation and morphogenesis in Arabidopsis. Trends in Plant Science 5, 214219.
Tang, KX, Sun, XF, Hu, QN, Wu, AZ, Lin, CH, Lin, HJ, Twyman, RM, Christou, P & Feng, TY (2001) Transgenic rice plants expressing the ferredoxin-like protein (API) from sweet pepper show enhanced resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Plant Science 160, 10351042.
Tavladoraki, P, Benvenuto, E, Trinca, S, De Martinis, D, Cattaneo, A & Galeffi, P (1993) Transgenic plants expressing a functional single-chain Fv antibody are specifically protected from virus attack. Nature 366, 469472.
Thiele, A, Herold, M, Lenk, I, Quail, H & Gatz, C (1999) Heterologous expression of Arabidopsis phytochrome B in transgenic potato influences photosynthetic performance and tuber development. Plant Physiology 120, 7381.
Thomzik, JE, Stenzel, K, Stöcker, R, Schreier, PH, Hain, R & Stahl, DJ (1997) Synthesis of a grapevine phytoalexin in transgenic tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) conditions resistance against Phytophthora infestans. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 51, 265278.
Tjaden, J, Mohlmann, T, Kampfenkel, K, Henrichs, G & Neuhaus, HE (1998) Altered plastidic ATP/ADP-transporter activity influences potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber morphology, yield and composition of tuber starch. The Plant Journal 16, 531540.
Toenniessen, GH, O'Toole, JC & DeVries, J (2003) Advances in plant biotechnology and its adoption in developing countries. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 6, 191198.
Traxler, GS, Godoy-Avila, S, Falck-Zepeda, J & Espinoza-Arellano, J (2003) Transgenic cotton in Mexico: a case study of the comarca lagunera. In Economic and Environmental Impacts of Agbiotech: A Global Perspective, pp. 183203 [Kalaitzandonakes, N editor]. New York: Kluwer-Plenum Academic Publishers.
Trethewey, RN, Geigenberger, P, Riedel, K, Hajirezaei, MR, Sonnewald, U, Stitt, M, Riesmeier, JW & Willmitzer, L (1998) Combined expression of glucokinase and invertase in potato tubers leads to a dramatic reduction in starch accumulation and a stimulation of glycolysis. The Plant Journal 15, 109118.
Tu, J, Ona, I, Zhang, Q, Mew, TW, Khush, GS & Datta, SK (1998) Transgenic rice variety ‘IR72’ with Xa21 is resistant to bacterial blight. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 97, 3136.
Tu, J, Zhang, G, Datta, K, Xu, C, He, Y, Zhang, Q, Khush, GS & Datta, SK (2000) Field performance of transgenic elite commercial hybrid rice expressing Bacillus thuringiensis δ-endotoxin. Nature Biotechnology 18, 11011104.
Tumer, N, Hwang, D & Bonness, M (1997) C-terminal deletion mutant of pokeweed antiviral protein inhibits viral infection but does not depurinate host ribosomes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 94, 38663871.
Urwin, PE, Lilley, CJ, McPherson, MJ & Atkinson, HJ (1997) Resistance to both cyst and root-knot nematodes conferred by transgenic Arabidopsis expressing a modified plant cystatin. The Plant Journal 12, 455461.
Urwin, PE, Troth, KM, Zubko, EI & Atkinson, HJ (2001) Effective transgenic resistance to Globodera pallida in potato field trials. Molecular Breeding 8, 95101.
Vain, P, Worland, B, Clarke, MC, Richard, G, Beavis, M, Liu, H, Kohli, A, Leech, M, Snape, J, Christou, P & Atkinson, HJ (1998) Expression of an engineered cysteine proteinase inhibitor (Oryzacystatin-I Delta D86) for nematode resistance in transgenic rice plants. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 96, 266271.
Van den Elzen, PJM, Jongedijk, E, Melchers, LS & Cornelissen, BJC (1993) Virus and fungal resistance: from laboratory to field. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 342, 271278.
Van Frankenhuyzen, K & Nystrom, C (2002) The Bacillus thuringiensis txin specificity database. www.glfc.cfs.nrcan. gc.ca/bacillus.
Van Wijk, J (2002) Food insecurity: prevalence, causes and the potential of transgenic ‘Golden Rice’. Phytochemistry Reviews 1, 141151.
Wallace, JC, Galili, G, Kawata, EE, Cuellar, RE, Shotwell, MA & Larkins, BA (1988) Aggregation of lysine-containing zeins into protein bodies in Xenopus oocytes. Science 240, 662664.
Wang, GL, Song, WY, Ruan, DL, Sideris, S & Ronald, PC (1996) The cloned gene, Xa-21, confers resistance to multiple Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae isolates in transgenic plants. Molecular Plant–Microbe Interactions 9, 850855.
Wang, Y, Nowak, G, Culley, D, Hadwiger, LA & Fristensky, B (1999) Constitutive expression of a pea defense gene DRR206 confers resistance to blackleg ( Leptosphaeria maculans ) disease in transgenic canola ( Brassica napus ). Molecular Plant–Microbe Interactions 12, 410418.
Watanabe, Y, Ogawa, T, Takahashi, H, Ishida, I, Takeuchi, Y, Yamamoto, M & Okada, Y (1995) Resistance against multiple plant viruses in plants mediated by a double stranded-RNA specific ribonuclease. FEBS Letters 372, 165168.
Whitney, SM & Andrews, TJ (2001) Plastome-encoded bacterial ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) supports photosynthesis and growth of tobacco. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 98, 1473814743.
World Bank (2000) Attacking Poverty. World Development Report 2000/2001. Washington DC: The World Bank.
World Health Organization (2001) Combating vitamin A deficiency. www.who.int/nut/vad.htm.
Wu, C, Fan, Y, Zhang, C, Oliva, N & Datta, SK (1997) Transgenic fertile japonica rice plants expressing a modified CryIA(b) gene resistant to yellow stem borer. Plant Cell Reports 17, 129132.
Wunn, J, Kloti, A, Burkhardt, PK, Ghosh Biswas, GC, Launis, K, Iglesias, VA & Potrykus, I (1996) Transgenic indica rice breeding line IR-58 expressing a synthetic Cry IA (b) gene from Bacillus thuringiensis provides effective insect pest control. Bio/Technology 14, 171176.
Xu, DP, Duan, XL, Wang, BY, Hong, BM, Ho, THD & Wu, R (1996) Expression of a late embryogenesis abundant protein gene, HVA1, from barley confers tolerance to water deficit and salt stress in transgenic rice. Plant Physiology 110, 249257.
Yamamuro, C, Ihara, Y, Wu, X, Noguchi, T, Fujioka, S, Takatsuto, S, Ashikari, M, Kitano, H & Matsuoka, M (2000) Loss of function of a rice brassinosteroid insensitive1 homolog prevents internode elongation and bending of the lamina joint. Plant Cell 12, 15911606.
Yancey, PH, Clark, ME, Hand, SC, Bowlus, RD & Somero, GN (1982) Living with water stress: evolution of osmolyte systems. Science 217, 12141222.
Ye, GY, Shu, QY, Yao, HW, Cui, HR, Cheng, XY, Hu, C, Xia, YW, Gao, MW & Altosaar, I (2001 a) Field evaluation of resistance of transgenic rice containing a synthetic cry1Ab gene from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner to two stem borers. Journal of Economic Entomology 94, 271276.
Ye, GY, Tu, J, Hu, C, Datta, K & Datta, SK (2001 b) Transgenic IR72 with fused Bt gene cry1Ab/cry1Ac from Bacillus thuringiensis is resistant against four Lepidopteran species under field conditions. Plant Biotechnology 18, 125133.
Ye, XD, Al-Babili, S, Kloti, A, Zhang, J, Lucca, P, Beyer, P & Potrykus, I (2000) Engineering the provitamin A (beta-carotene) biosynthetic pathway into (carotenoid-free) rice endosperm. Science 287, 303305.
Yeo, ET, Kwon, HB, Han, SE, Lee, JT, Ryu, JC & Byun, MO (2000) Genetic engineering of drought-resistant potato plants by introduction of the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase ( TPS1 ) gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Molecules and Cells 10, 263268.
Zhang, HX & Blumwald, E (2001) Transgenic salt-tolerant tomato plants accumulate salt in foliage but not in fruit. Nature Biotechnology 19, 765768.
Zhang, HX, Hodson, JN, Williams, JP & Blumwald, E (2001) Engineering salt-tolerant Brassica plants: characterization of yield and seed oil quality in transgenic plants with increased vacuolar sodium accumulation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 98, 1283212836.
Zhang, J, Kueva, NY, Wang, Z, Wu, R, Ho, T-H & Nguyen, HT (2000) Genetic engineering for abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology – Plant 36, 108114.
Zhang, S, Song, WY, Chen, L, Ruan, D, Taylor, N, Ronald, P, Beachy, R & Fauquet, C (1998) Transgenic elite indica rice varieties, resistant to Xanthomonas pv. oryzae. Molecular Breeding 4, 551558.
Zhu, B, Chen, THH & Li, PH (1996) Analysis of late-blight disease resistance and freezing tolerance in transgenic potato plants expressing sense and antisense genes for an osmotin-like protein. Planta 198, 7077.
Zhu, JK (2001) Cell signaling under salt, water and cold stress. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 4, 401406.
Zhu, Q, Maher, EA, Masoud, S, Dixon, RA & Lamb, CJ (1994) Enhanced protection against fungal attack by constitutive co-expression of chitinase and glucanase genes in transgenic tobacco. Bio/Technology 12, 807812.

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

The potential of genetically enhanced plants to address food insecurity

  • Paul Christou (a1) and Richard M. Twyman (a2)

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.